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THE 



ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA 



ELEVENTH EDITION 



FIRST 


edition, 


published in 


three 


volumes, 


1768—1771. 


SECOND 


»> 


»» 


ten 




1777— 1784. 


THIRD 


»> 


»? 


eighteen 




1788— 1797. 


FOURTH 


*» 


»» 


twenty 




1801 — 1810. 


FIFTH 


»> 


»> 


twenty 




1815— 1817. 


SIXTH 


»i 


>> 


twenty 




1823 — 1824. 


SEVENTH 


it 


»> 


twenty-one 




1830 — 1842. 


EIGHTH 


ji 


j> 


twenty-two 




1853-1860. 


NINTH 


99 


>> 


twenty-five 




1875—1889. 


TENTH 


J> 


ninth edition and eleven 










supplementary volumes, 


1902 — 1903. 


ELEVENTH 


)» 


published in 


twenty-nine volumes, 


1910 — 1911. 



COPYRIGHT 

in all countries subscribing to the 

Bern Convention 

by 

THE CHANCELLOR, MASTERS AND SCHOLARS 

of the 
UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE 



All rights reserved 



THE 

ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA 

A 

DICTIONARY 

OF 

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL 

INFORMATION 



ELEVENTH EDITION 



VOLUME XXII 

POLL to REEVES 



New York 

Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. 

342 Madison Avenue 



Copyright, in the United States of America, 191 1, 

by 

The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company. 



INITIALS USED IN VOLUME XXII. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL 

CONTRIBUTORS,! WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE 

ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED. 



A. 


Bo.* 


A. 


C. G. 


A. 


C. McG. 


A. 


D. 


A. 


de W. F 


A. 


E. G.* 



of J] 



Auguste Boudinhon, D.D., D.C.L. 

Professor of Canon Law at the Catholic University of Paris. Honorary Canon of J. Pope. 
Paris. Editor of the Canoniste Contemporain. 

Albert Charles Lewis Gotthilf Guenther, M.A., M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Keeper of Zoological Department, British Museum, 1875-1895. Gold Medallist, . 
Royal Society, 1878. Author of Catalogues of Colubrine Snakes, Batrachia, 
Salientia and Fishes in the British Museum ; &c. 

Rev. Arthur Cushman McGiffert, M.A., Ph.D., D.D. 

Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York. Author of ) p rnn u * r:„ j, nr A 
History of Christianity in the. Ahnstolir. Aop.\ &r F.ditor of the Histnria Er.desia) rr0 P nel \ m fan). 
of Eusebius. 



History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age; &c. Editor of the Historia Ecclesia 1 




Austin Dobson, LL.D., D.C.L. -f Prior Matthew 

See the biographical article: Dobson, Henry Austin. ^rnor, mannew. 

Arthur de Wint Foote. J Power Transmission: 

Superintendent of North Star Mining Company, California. (_ Pneumatic. 

Rev. Alfred Ernest Garvie, M.A., D.D. f 

Principal of New College, Hampstead. Member of the Board of Theology and J _ j ac i-_ a i- _ 
the Board of Philosophy, London University. Author of Studies in the Inner Life | Weaesunaiion. 
of Jesus ; &c. I 

A. E. H. A. E. Houghton. f 

Formerly Correspondent of the Standard in Spain. Author of Restoration of the A Quesada y MatheUS. 

Bourbons in Spain. L 

A. E. S. Arthur Everett Shipley, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. f 

Master of Christ's College, Cambridge. Reader in Zoology, Cambridge University. <, Priapuloidea. 
Joint-editor of the Cambridge Natural History. I 

A. G. Major Arthur George Frederick Griffiths (d. 1908). f 

H.M. Inspector of Prisons, 1878-1896. Author of The Chronicles of Newgate ;\ Prison. 
Secrets of the Prison House ; &c. L 

A. Ha. Adolf Harnack, Ph.D. f „,,„„ w /• *„„,\ 

See the biographical article: Harnack, Adolf. \ «°P nel U» part). 

A. J. G. Rev. Alexander James Grieve, M. A., B.D. rprfiaphinff' 

Professor of New Testament and Church History, Yorkshire United Independent rreacning, 
College, Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University, and Member ofj Primitive MetnodlSt Church; 
Mysore Educational Service. [ PriSCillian. 

A. L. Andrew Lang. J" Poltergeist; Prometheus; 

See the biographical article: Lang, Andrew. \ Psychical Research. 

A. McA. Alexander McAulay, M.A. f" 

Professor of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania. Author of Utility -j Quaternions {in part), 
of Quaternions in Physics; &c. {_ 

A. M. CI. Agnes Muriel Clay (Mrs Edward Wilde). f 

Formerly Resident Tutor of Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. Joint-author of Sources < Publieam. 
of Roman History, 133-70 B.C. \ 



A. N. Alfred Newton, F.R.S. 

See the biographical article: Newton, Alfred. 



Pratincole; Quail; Quezalj 
Rail {in part); 
Raven; Razorbill; 
Redshank; Redstart; 
Redwing. 

1 A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume. 

V 



VI 






A. 


SI. 




A. 


S. 


P.-P 


A. 


S. 


Wo. 


A. 


T. 


H. 


A. 


Wi.* 



A. W. Po. 



A. W. R. 



B. 


B. 


A. 


C. 


B. 


H 


C. 


E. 


w. 


C. 


F. 


A. 


C. 


G. 


Cr. 


C. 


Hi 


• 


C. 


H. 


Ha. 


C. 


H. 


T.* 


C 


R. 


B. 



C. 


T. 


J. 


D. 


B. 


Ma 


D. 


C. 


B. 


D 


D 


A. 



D. P. T. 



D. G. H. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 

Arthur Shadwell, M.A., M.D., LL.D. | 

Member of Council of Epidemiological Society. Author of The London Water- "i Prostitution, 
Supply; Industrial Efficiency; Drink, Temperance and Legislation. I 

Andrew Seth Pringle-Pattison, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L. f 

Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Edinburgh. Gifford J 
Lecturer in the University of Aberdeen, 191 1. Fellow of the British Academy. 1 
Author of Man's Place in the Cosmos; The Philosophical Radicals; &c. I 

Arthur Smith Woodward, LL.D., F.R.S. [ 

Keeper of Geology, Natural History Museum, South Kensington. Secretary of i PterodactyleS. 
the Geological Society of London. I 

Arthur Twining Hadley, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Hadley, Arthur Twining. 



Pythagoras (in part). 



Railways: Economics. 



Editor of Encyclopaedia of the i Proclamation. 



i Railways: Accident Statistics. 
\ Quieherat. 



Railways: 

part). 



Aneurin Williams, M.A. _ f 

Barrister-at-Law of the Inner Temple. Chairman of Executive, International J _ „. , . 
Co-operative Alliance. M.P. for Plymouth, 1910. Author of Twenty-eight Years 1 rront-Snaring. 
of Co-partnership at Guise; &c. I 

Alfred William Pollard, M.A. 

Assistant Keeper of Printed Books, British Museum. Fellow of King's College, 

London. Hon. Secretary, Bibliographical Society. Editor of Books about Books -\ Polyglott. 

and Bibliographica. Joint-editor of the Library. Chief Editor of the " Globe " 

Chaucer. 

Alexander Wood Renton, M.A., LL.B. 

Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. 
Laws of England. 

B RAMAN BLANCHARD ADAMS. 

Associate Editor of the Railway Age Gazette, New York. 

Charles Bemont, D.Litt. 

See the biographical article : Bemont, C. 

C. E. Webber, C.B., M.Inst.CE., M.I.E.E. (1838-1905). 

Major-General, Royal Engineers. Served in Indian Mutiny, 1857-1860; Egyptian 
Expedition, 1882; &c. Founder (with late Sir Francis Bolton) and Past President 
of the Institute of Electrical Engineers. 

Charles Francis Atkinson. _ f 

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (Royal \ Ravenna: 
Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour. {. 

Charles George Crump, M.A. 

Balliol College, Oxford. Clerk in H.M. Public Record Office, London. Editor of -| Record. 
Landor's Works; &c. 

Charles Hiatt. 

Author of Picture Posters; &c. 

Carlton Huntley Hayes, A.M., Ph.D. 

Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City, 
of the American Historical Association. 

Crawford Howell Toy, A.M., LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Toy, Crawford Howell. 

Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.Litt., F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.S. 

Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow 
of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. 
Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of 
Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c. 



Light Railways {in 



Battle of ijia. 



J. Poster. 
Member -I Purgatory. 



Proverbs, Book of. 

Polo, Marco (in part); 
Ptolemy (in part); 
Pytheas (in part). 



Printing. 



Charles T. Jacobi. 

Managing Partner of the Chiswick Press, London. Author of Printing; &c. 

Duncan Black Macdonald, M.A., D.D. r 

Professor of Semitic Languages, Hartford Theological Seminary, Hartford, Conn. I n ,_ 
Author of Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence and Constitutional i Kamauan. 
Theory; Selections from Ibn Khaldun; Religious Attitude and Life in Islam; &c. I 



Demetrius Charles Boulger. 

Author of England and Russia in Central Asia; History of China; 
India in the iQth Century ; History of Belgium ; &c. 



Life of Gordon ; J Raffles, Sir Thomas. 



Protestant Episcopal Church. 



Rev. Daniel Dulany Addison, D.D. 

Rector of All Saints' Church, Brookline, Mass. Examining Chaplain to Bishop of 
Massachusetts. Secretary, Cathedral Chapter of Diocese of Massachusetts. Author 
of The Episcopalians ; &c. I 

Donald Francis Tovey. f 

Author of Essays in Musical Analysis: comprising The Classical Concerto, The -j Programme Music. 
Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical works. (. 



David George Hogarth, M.A. 

Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford 
Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis, 1899 an d ' 
1903; Ephesus, 1 904-1905; Assiut, 1906-1907. Director, British School at 
Athens, 1897-1900. Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899. 



Priene; 
Pteria. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



Vll 



D, H. 
D. H. S. 

D. W. T. 

E. A. J. 

E. A. M. 
E. Ba. 
E. Br. 
E. B. E. 
E. C. B. 



David Hannay. 

Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. 
Naiy; Life of Emilio Castelar; &c. 



&*i. f cl . it- , t ,1 d J Quiberon, Battle of; 
Author of Short Hrstory of the Royal j Raleigh> Slr Walter# 



E. 


G. 


E. 


Ga. 


E. 


Gr. 


E. 


G. C 



E. H. B. 
E. J. J. 

E. O'N. 
E. Pr. 

E. Ru. 
E. R. B. 
P. C. C. 



Duktnfield Henry Scott, M.A., Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 

President of the Linnean Society. Professor of Botany, Royal College of Science, 
London, 1 885-1 892. Author of Structural Botany; Studies in Fossil Botany; &c. 

D'Akcy Wentworth Thompson, C.B., M.A. 
Professor of Natural History, University 
Bering Sea Fisheries and other Conferences. 
&c. 



College, Dundee. British Delegate, 
Author of A Glossary of Greek Birds ; 



Pringsheim, Nathanael. 



Ray, John. 



E. Alfred Jones. 

Author of Old English Gold Plate; Old Church Plate of the Isle of Man; Old Silver 
Sacramental Vessels of Foreign Protestant Churches in England ; Illustrated Catalogue "j Quaich. 
of Leopold de Rothschild' s Collection of Old Plate ; A Private Catalogue of the Royal 
Plate at Windsor Cqstle; &c. 

Edward Alfred Minchin, M.A., F.Z.S. f Polyp; 

Professor of Protozoology in the University of London. Formerly Fellow of J Protoplasm" 
Merton College, Oxford, and Jodrell Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, I _ . ' 

University College, London. I Protozoa. 

Edwin Bale, R.I. f 

Art Director, Cassell & Company, Ltd. Member of the Royal Institute of Painters ■<, Process. 
in Water Colours. Hon. Sec, Artists' Copyright Committee. L 



Ernest Barker, M.A. 

Fellow and Lecturer in Modern History, St John's College, Oxford. Formerly 
Fellow and Tutor of Merton College. Craven Scholar, 1895. 



Raymund of Antioch; 
Raymund of Toulouse; 
Raymund of Tripoli; 
Raynald of Chatillon. 



F 1 



Edward B. Ellington. 

Founder and Chief Engineer of the General Hydraulic Power Co., Ltd. Author of J Power Transmission: 
Contributions to Proceedings of Institutions of Civil Engineers and of Mechanical 1 Hydraulic. 
Engineers. I 



Right Rev. Edward Cuthbert Butler, M.A., O.S.B., Litt.D. 

Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of " The Lausiac History of Palladius ' 
in Cambridge Texts and Studies. 



Author of Manual of 



Edmund Gosse, LL.D., D.C.L. 

See the biographical article : Gosse, Edmund. 

Emile Garcke, M.Inst.E.E. 

Managing Director of British Electric Traction Co., Ltd. 
Electrical Undertakings; &c. 

Ernest Arthur Gardner, M.A. 

See the biographical article: Gardner, Percy. 

Ernest George Coker, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. (Edin.), M.Sc, M.I.Mech.E. 



Premonstratensians; 
Ranee, Armand de. 

Prologue; Prose. 



f Railways : Light Railways (in 
I part). 



I 



Propylaea. 



Professor of Mechanical Engineering in the City and Guilds of London Technical J p-.ii.,, 
College. Author of various papers in Transactions of the Royal Societies of London, | " u * le "' 
Edinburgh and Canada ; &c. I 



Sir Edward Herbert Bunbury, Bart., M.A., F.R.G.S. (d. 1895). 

M.P. for Bury St Edmunds, 1 847-1 852. Author of A History of Ancient Geography; 
&c. 

Edmund Janes James, A.M., Ph.D., LL.D. 

President of the University of Illinois; President of American Economic Associa- 
tion. Author of History of American Tariff Legislation, and Essays and Mono- 
graphs on Economic, Financial, Political and Educational subjects. 

Elizabeth O'Neill, M.A. (Mrs H. 0. O'Neill). 

Formerly University Fellow and Jones Fellow of the University of Manchester. 

Edgar Prestage. 

. Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. 
Examiner in Portuguese in the Universities of London, Manchester, &c. 
Commendador, Portuguese Order of S Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon " 
Royal Academy of Sciences, Lisbon Geographical Society ; &c. Editor of Letters of 
a Portuguese Nun; Azurara's Chronicle of Guinea; &c. 

Ernest Rutherford, F.R.S., D.Sc, LL.D., Ph.D. C 

Langworthy Professor of Physics, University of Manchester. Nobel Prize for < Radio-activity. 
Chemistry, 1908. Author of Radio-activity; Radio-active Transformations; &c. [ 

Edwyn Robert Bevan, M.A. f 

New College, Oxford. Author of The House of Seleucus; Jerusalem under the High< Ptolemies. 
Priests. [ 

Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare, M.A., D.Th. r 

Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. J Purification 
Editor of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle. Author of Myth, Magic and~\ 
Morals; &c. I 



Pompeii (in part); 
Ptolemy (in part); 
Pytheas (in fart). 



Protection. 

Prebendary; Prelate; 
Prior; Procurator. 



Portugal: Literature. 



Vlll 

F. C. S. S. 

F. Dr. 
F. D. A. 

F. E. W. 

F. G. P.* 
F. H. D.* 

F. J. H. M. 

F. K.* 
F. LI. G. 

F. M. L.* 

F. P. 

F. R. C. 
F. Wa. 
F. W. R.* 

F. Y. E. 

G. A. Gr. 

G. C. W. 

G. E.* 
G. G. S. 
G. J. A 
G. J. T. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 

Ferdinand Canning Scott Schiller, M.A., D.Sc. 

Fellow and Tutor of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. 
Sphinx ; Studies in Humanism ; &c. 

Francis M. D. Drummond. 



Author of Riddles of the i Pragmatism, 



■I Precedence (in part). 



Frank Dawson Adams, Ph.D., D.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.S. 

Dean of the Faculty of Applied Science and Logan Professor of Geology, McGill 
University, Montreal; President of Canadian Mining Institute. Author of Papers - 
dealing with problems of Metamorphism, &c, also Researches on Experimental 
Geology; &c. 

Rev. Frederick Edward Warren, M.A., F.S.A. 

Rector of Bardwell, Bury St Edmunds, and Honorary Canon of Ely. Fellow of 
St John's College, Oxford, 1 865-1 882. Author of The Old Catholic Ritual done into ' 
English and compared with the Corresponding Offices in the Roman and Old German 
Manuals ; The Liturgy and Ritual of the Celtic Church ; &c. 

Frank George Pope. 



Quebec (in part); 
Queen Charlotte Islands. 



Prayer, Book of Common. 



Lecturer on Chemistry, East London College (University of London). 



{ 



Purin. 



Frank Haigh Dixon, Ph.D., A.M. f „.,.„„„„. , • D ■, 

Professor of Economics, Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H. Member of the 4 R a"ways. American Railway 
National Waterways Commission. Author of State Railroad Control. [ Legislation. 

Hon. Frederick James Hamilton Merrill, Ph.D., F.G.S. (America), M 
American Inst.M.E., &c. 

Consulting Geologist and Mining Engineer. State Geologist of New York, "j Quarrying. 

1899-1904. Author of Reports of New Jersey and New York Geological Surveys; 

&c. 



Fernand Khnopff. 

See the biographical article: Khnopff, F. E. J. M. 

Francis Llewellyn Griffith, M.A., Ph.D., F.S.A. 

Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Editor of the Archaeological Survey and 
Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial 
German Archaeological Institute. Author of Stories of the High Priests of Memphis ; 
&c. 

Francis Manley Lowe. 

Major R.A. (retired). Member of the Staff of Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth 
& Co., Ltd., Elswick Works. Assistant-Superintendent of Experiments, Shoebury- 
ness, 1898-1903. Author of articles in the Proceedings of the Royal Artillery 
Institution; &c. 

Frank Podmore, M.A. (d. 1910). r 

Pembroke College, Oxford. Author of Studies in Psychical Research; Modern 4 Premonition 

Spiritualism; &c. |_ 

Frank R. Cana. 

Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union. 

Francis Watt, M.A. 

Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. 



Portaels, J. F. 



Psammetichus; 
Rameses (in part). 



Range-finder. 



Author of Law's Lumber Room. 



f Portuguese East Africa; 
LRabah Zobeir. 

< Pound (in part). 

f Pyrites; 
Y Pyrope. 



: 1 

v 



Probability. 



Frederick William Rudler, I.S.O., F.G.S. 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902. 
President of the Geologists' Association, 1 887-1 889. 

Francis Ysidro Edgeworth, M.A., D.C.L. 

Professor of Political Economy in the University of Oxford. Fellow of All Souls' 
College, Oxford, and of King's College, London. Editor of the Economic Journal. 
Author of Mathematical Psychics, and numerous papers on the Calculus of Proba 
bilities in the Philosophical Magazine ; &c. 

George Abraham Grierson, CLE., Ph.D., D.Litt, 

Indian Civil Service, 1873-1903. In charge of Linguistic Survey of India, 1898- 
1902. Gold Medallist, Royal Asiatic Society, 1909. Vice-President of the Royal 
Asiatic Society. Formerly Fellow of Calcutta University. Author of The Languages 
of India ; &c. 

George Charles Williamson, Litt.D. r 

Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Portrait Miniatures ; Life of Richard J _ . p . 

Cosway, R.A.; George Engleheart; Portrait Drawings; &c. Editor of New Edition | *T" ieur > rierre. 
of Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engravers. [ 

Robert Geoffrey Ellis. f 

Peterhouse, Cambridge. Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Joint-editor of English < Privy Council. 
Reports. Author of Peerage Law and History. [ 

George Gregory Smith, M.A. r 

Professor of English Literature, Queen's University, Belfast. Author of The J Ramsay Allan. 
Days of James IV.; The Transition Period; Specimens of Middle Scots; &c. . 1 



Prakrit; 
Rajasthani. 



George Johnston Allman, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. , D.Sc (1824-1905). 

Professor of Mathematics in Queen's College, Galway, and in Queen's University of 
Ireland, 1853-1893. Author of Greek Geometry from Thales to Euclid; &c. 



Ptolemy (in part); 
Pythagoras: Geometry. 



George James Turner. 

Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln's Inn. 
Society. 



[ Provision; 
Editor of Select Pleas of the Forests for the Selden A Tj aD o 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



IX 



G. 


Re 




G. 


Sa. 




G. 


W. 


T. 


H. 


A. 


Y. 


H. 


D. 


W. 


H. 


Fr 




H. 


F. 


G. 


H 


F. 


P. 


H 


M 


R. 


H 


N. 


D. 



H. 0. 
H. R. L. 

H. Ti. 
H. T. A. 

H. W. C. L. 
H. Y. 
I. A. 

J. A. B. 



J. 


A. 


Bl. 


J. 


A. 


H. 


J. 


A. 


S. 


J. 


E. 


S.* 



Portraiture. 

Quinet; Rabelais; 
Racine. 

Rawendis. 



Sir George Reid, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Reid, Sir George. 

George Saintsburv, LL.D., D.C.L. 

See the biographical article : Saintsbury, George E. B. 

Rev. Griffithes Wheeler Thatcher, M.A., B.D. 

Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old 
Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford. 

TTor atio Arthur V orkf C B i 

Lieut.-Colonel, R.E. (retired). Chief Inspecting Officer of Railways, Board of \ X*Uvi&ys: British Railway 
Trade. Served in Afghan War, 1879-1880; Nile Expedition, 1884-1885. I Legislation. 

Sir Henry Drummond Wolfe, G.C.B., G.C.M.G. (1830-1908). f 

Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary at Madrid, 1892-1900. M.P. for^ 
Christchurch, 1874-1880; for Portsmouth, 1880-1885. Author of A Life of 
Napoleon at Elba ; &c. 

Henri Frantz. 

Art Critic, Gazette des beaux arts, Paris. 



Primrose League. 



Puvis de Chavannes. 



Hans Friedrich Gadow, F.R.S., Ph.D. f Python; 

Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge. Author -I Ratitae; 
of " Amphibia and Reptiles " in the' Cambridge Natural History; &c. Rattlesnake (in Part) 

Henry Francis Pelham, LL.D., D.C.L. 

See the biographical article: Pelham, H. F. 



i Polybius {in part). 



Hugh Munro Ross. [" 

Formerly Exhibitioner of Lincoln College, Oxford. Editor of The Times Engineering -i 
Supplement. Author of British Railways. { 



Railways: Introduction, Con- 
struction, Rolling Stock. 



Red Sea. 



Henry Newton Dickson, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S.(Edm.), F.R.G.S. 

Professor of Geography at University College, Reading. Formerly Vice-President, . 
Royal Meteorological Society. Lecturer in Physical Geography, Oxford University. 
Author of Meteorology ; Elements of Weather and Climate ; &c. 

Hermann Oelsner, M.A., Ph.D. r 

Taylorian Professor of the Romance Languages in the University of Oxford. Mem- J Provencal Literature: 
ber of Council of the Philological Society. Author of A History of Provencal Litera- 1 Modem. 



ture; &c. 



Ji). 



Porson (in part). 



The Rev. Henry Richards Luard, M.A., D.D. (1825-1 

Registrary of the University of Cambridge, 1862-1891. Formerly Fellow, Bursar 
and Lecturer at Trinity College. Honorary Fellow of King's College, London. - 
Editor of the Annates Monastici; the Historia of Matthew Paris and other works 
for the " Rolls " Series. 

Henry Tiedemann. f 

London Editor of the Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant. Author of a Dutch biography, < Potgieter. 
and various pamphlets and travel works, including Via Flushing. |_ 

Rev. Herbert Thomas Andrews. r 

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, New College, London. Author of "The J Polycarp; 

Commentary on Acts" in the Westminster New Testament; Handbook on the") Presbyter. 
Apocryphal Books in the " Century " Bible. [ 

Henry William Carless Davis, M.A. [ 

Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, J Ralph Of Coggeshall. 
1895-1902. Author of England under the Normans and Angevins; Charlemagne. | 

Sir Henry Yule, K.C.S.I., C.B. 

See the biographical article: Yule, Sir Henry. 



J Polo, Marco (in part); 
\Prester John; Ramusio. 



Israel Abrahams, M.A. 

Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature in the University of Cambridge. 
Formerly President, Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short 
History of Jewish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages; Judaism; &c. 

Sir Jervoise Athelstane Baines, C.S.I. 

President, Royal Statistical Society, 1909-1910. Census Commissioner under 
the Government of India, 1889-1893. Secretary to Royal Commission on Opium, 
1894-1895. Author of Official Reports on Provincial Administration of Indian 
Census Operations; &c. 

John A. Black. 

Press reader of the New Volumes of the Encyclopaedia Britannica (10th ed.). 

John Allen Howe, B.Sc. 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. 
The Geology of Building Stones. 

John Addington Symonds, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Symonds, John A. 

John Edwin Sandys, M.A., Litt.D., LL.D. 

Public Orator in the University of Cambridge. Fellow of St John's College, 
Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of A History of Classical ' 
Scholarship; &c. 



Proselyte; Qaraites; Qaro; 
Raba Ben Joseph Ben Hama 
Rabbah Bar Nahmani; 
Rapoport, Samuel; 
Rashbam; Rashi. 



Population. 



Proof-reading (in part). 



f 



Author of J Pre-Cambrian. 



1 

A Pontanus, Jovianus. 



Porson (in pari). 



X 

J. F.-K. 

J. G. C. A. 
J. G. F. 

J. G. Fr. 

J. G. K. 

J. G. Sc. 
J. Hn. 

J. H. M. 
I. Ja. 
J. L.* 

J. M. 

J. M. M. 
J. P. B. 

J. P. P. 

J. R.* 
J. S. F. 

J. S. R. 
J. T. Be. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



James Fitzmaurice-Kelly, Litt.D., F.R.Hist.S. 

Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and Literature, Liverpool University. 
Norman McColl Lecturer, Cambridge University. Fellow of the {British Academy. 
Member of the Royal Spanish Academy. Knight Commander of the Order of 
Alphonso XII. Author of A History of Spanish Literature; &c. 

John George Clark Anderson, M.A. 

Student, Censor and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford. Formerly Fellow of Lincoln 
College. Craven Fellow, Oxford, 1896. Conington Prizeman, 1893. 

Sir Joshua Girling Fitch, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Fitch, Sir Joshua Girling. 

James George Frazer, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., Litt.D. 

Professor of Social Anthropology, Liverpool University. Fellow of Trinity College, 
Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of The Golden Bough ; &c. 



John Graham Kerr, M.A., F.R.S. 

Regius Professor of Zoology in the University of Glasgow. Formerly Demon- 
strator in Animal Morphology in the University of Cambridge. Fellow of Christ's 
College, Cambridge, 1898-1904. Walsingham Medallist, 1898. Neill Prizeman, 
Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1904. 



Quevedo y Villegas. 



Pontus. 



Polytechnic (in part). 

Praefect (in part); 
Praeneste (in part); 
Praetor (in part); 
Proserpine (in part); 
Province (in 



Ray (in part). 



Author of Burma ; ■{ Rangoon. 



University of Bonn. Author of < Puttkammer, 



Sir James George Scott, K.C.I.E. 

Superintendent and Political Officer, Southern Shan States. 
The Upper Burma Gazetteer. 

Justus Hashagen, Ph.D. 

Privatdozent in Medieval and Modern History, 
Das Rheinland unter der Franzosische Herrschaft. 

John Henry Middleton, M.A., Litt.D., F.S.A., D.C.L. (1846-1896). 

Slade Professor of Fine Art in the University of Cambridge, 1886-1895. Director 
of the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, 1889-1892. Art Director of the South J Raphael. 
Kensington Museum, 1892-1896. Author of The Engraved Gems of Classical Times; 
Illuminated Manuscripts in Classical and Mediaeval Times. 

Joseph Jacobs, Litt.D. . r 

Professor of English Literature in the Jewish Theological Seminary, New York. 
Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England. Corresponding J Purim. 
Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid. Author of Jews of Angevin 
England; Studies in Biblical Archaeology; &c. I 

Sir Joseph Larmor, M.A., D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. r 

Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge, and Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in _ j ioti -_ rr,T,.„„„ .«. 
the University. Secretary of the Royal Society. Professor of Natural Philosophy, \ KMUMKm, ineory 01, 
Queen's College, Galway, 1880-1885. Author of Ether and Matter, and various Radiometer. 
memoirs on Mathematics and Physics. I 



Sir John Macdonell, C.B., LL.D. 

Master of the Supreme Court. Counsel to the Board of Trade and London Chamber 
of Commerce. Formerly Quain Professor of Comparative Law, University College, 
London. Editor of State Trials; Civil Judicial Statistics; &c. Author of Survey 
of Political Economy; The Land Question; &c. 

John Malcolm Mitchell. 

Sometime Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London < 
College (University of London). Joint-editor of Grote's History of Greece. 

Jean Paul Hippolyte Emmanuel Adhemar Esmein. 

Professor of Law in the University of Paris. Officer of the Legion of Honour. 
Member of the Institute of France. Author of Cours elementdire d'histoire du droit ' 
francais; &c. 

John Percival Postgate, M.A., Litt.D. 

Professor of Latin in the University of Liverpool. Fellow of Trinity College, 
Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Editor of the Classical Quarterly. " 
Editor-in-chief of the Corpus Poetarum Latinorum ; &c. 

John Randall. 

Formerly Secretary of the London Association of Correctors of the Press. Sub- . 
editor of the Athenaeum and Notes and Queries. 

John Smith Flett, D.Sc, F.G.S. 

Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in Edin- 
burgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby " 
Medallist of the Geological Society of London. 

James Smith Reid, M.A., LL.D., Litt.D. 

Professor of Ancient History and Fellow and Tutor of Gonville and Caius College, 
Cambridge. Browne's and Chancellor's Medals. Editor of editions of Cicero's " 
Academia, De Amicitia • &c. 

John Thomas Bealby. 

Joint-author of Stanford's Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical . 
Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin's Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c. 



Protectorate. 



Pomponazzi, Pietro; 
Price, Richard. 

Prefect; 

Provost (in France). 



Propertius, Sextus. 



Proof-reading (in part). 

Porphyry; Pumice; 

Pyroxenite; 

Quartzite; Quartz-Porphyry 

Quintilian. 



Poltava (in part); 
Pskov (in part); 
Radom (in part). 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



XI 



J. T. Cr. 

J. W. 

J. W.* 
J. W. G. 

K. G. J. 
K. S. 



L. Bl. 



L. J. So 



L. 


Wr 




L. 


W. 


V.-H 


M. 


Br 




M. 


Ha 




M. 


M. 


Bh. 


M. 


N. 


T, 


M 


0. 


B.C. 


N. 


M. 




N. 


W 


T. 



0. c. w. 



0. H. 



P. A. K. 



James Troubridge Critchell. 

London Correspondent of the Australasian P astoralists' Review, North Queensland. 
Herald; &c. Fellow of the Royal Colonial Institute. Author of Polynesian 
Labour in Queensland ; Guide to Queensland ; &c. 



Queensland: History. 



James Williams, D.C.L., LL.D. 

All Souls' Reader in Roman Law in the University of Oxford. 
College. Author of Wills and Succession ; &c. 

James Ward, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Ward, James. 



„ „ , . . , j Possession (law); 
Fellow of Lincoln | prescriDtion ^ ^ 

\ Psychology. 



John Walter Gregory, D.Sc, F.R.S. r 

Professor of Geology at the University of Glasgow. Professor of Geology and J _ . , r , 

Mineralogy at the University of Melbourne, 1900-1904. Author of The Bead Heart | tjueensiana. Lreology 
of Australia; &c. L r 



Kingsley Garland Jayne. f 

Sometime Scholar of Wadham College, Oxford. Matthew Arnold Prizeman, 1903. -\ 

An + Vinr nf Vnsrn Jn Clnwin /rn/1 hi'; ^ijrrpwnr? 



Author of Vasco da Gama and his Successors. 



Kathleen Schlesinger. 

Editor of the Portfolio of Musical Archaeology. Author of The Instruments of the 
Orchestra. 



Portugal: Geography and 
History. 

Pommer; Portative Organ; 
Positive Organ; Psaltery; 
Raekett; Ravanastron; 
Rebab; Rebec; 
Recorder (music); 
Reed Instruments. 



Count Lutzow, Litt.D. (Oxon.), D.Ph. (Prague), F.R.G.S. f 

Chamberlain of H.M. the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia. Hon. Member 
of the Royal Society of Literature. Member of the Bohemian Academy, &c. 
Author of Bohemia: a Historical Sketch; The Historians of Bohemia (Ilchester , 
Lecture, Oxford, 1904) ; The Life and Times of John Hus; &c. I 

Louis Bell, Ph.D. f 

Consulting Engineer, Boston, U.S.A. Chief Engineer, Electric Power Trans- J 
mission Department, General Electric Co., Boston. Formerly Editor of Electrical } 
World, New York. Author of Electric Power Transmission ; &c. , I 

Leonard James Spencer, M.A. 

Assistant in Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar of 
Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Mineral- 
ogical Magazine. I 

Lewis Wright. 

Author of The Practical Poultry Keeper; The New Book of Poultry; &c. 

L. W. Vernon-Harcourt (d. 1909). 

Barrister-at-Law. Author of His Grace the Steward and the Trial of Peers. 

Margaret Bryant. 



Prague. 



Formerly Fellow of the Royal 
in Cambridge Natural History; 



Marcus Hartog, M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S. 

Professor of Zoology, University College, Cork. 
University of Ireland. Author of " Protozoa ' 
and papers for various scientific journals. 

Sir Mancherjee Merwanjee Bhownaggree, K.C.I.E. 

Fellow of Bombay University. M.P. for N.E. Bethnal Green, 1895-1906. Author 
of History of the Constitution of the East India Company ; &c. 

Marcus Niebuhr Tod, M.A. 

Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Epigraphy. 
Joint-author of Catalogue of the Sparta Museum. 



Power Transmission: 

Electrical. 

Proustite; Pyrargyrite; 
Pyrolusite; Pyromorphite; 
Pyrrhotite; Quartz; Realgar. 

Poultry and Poultry-farming, 

Reclamation of Land. 

Pope, Alexander (in part). 

Proteomyxa; 
Radiolaria. 

Readymoney, 
Sir Cowasji Jehangir. 

Pylos. 

J Polycrates; 



Maximilian Otto Bismarck Caspari, M.A. 

Reader in Ancient History at London University. Lecturer in Greek at Birmingham -» n . ... 
University, 1 905- 1908. [Funic wars, 

Norman M'Lean, M.A. f 

Lecturer in Aramaic, Cambridge University. Fellow and Hebrew Lecturer, Christ's ■< Rabbula. 
College, Cambridge. Joint-editor of the larger Cambridge Septuagint. [_ 

Northcote Whitridge Thomas, M.A. f 

Government Anthropologist to Southern. Nigeria. Corresponding Member of the J p„ c . M .s AT1 f p M ,,j.i«., P '> 
Societe d'Anthropologie de Paris. Author of Thought Transference; Kinship and] rossesslon \rsycnoiogy,„ 
Marriage in Australia; &c: I 

Rev. Owen Charles Whitehouse, M.A., D.D. f 

Senior Theological Tutor and Lecturer in Hebrew, Cheshunt College, Cambridge. J Priest (in part) ; 
Formerly Principal and Professor of Biblical Exegesis and Theology in the Countess j Prophet (in part). 
of Huntingdon's College, Cheshunt. Author of Primer of Hebrew Antiquities; &c. L 

Olaus Magnus Friedrich Henrici, Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S. f 

Professor of Mechanics and Mathematics in the Central Technical College of the J p_ n i p(> « nn 
City and Guilds of London Institute. Author of Vectors and Rotors; Congruent j iTOjecuon. 
Figures; &c. I. 



Prince Peter Alexeivitch Kropotkin. 

See the biographical article: Kropotkin, Prince P. A. 



[ Poltava (in part); 
■i Pskov (in part); 
[Radom (in part). 



Xll 
P. C. Y. 
P. G. 
P. Gi. 

P. G. K. 

P. G. T. 
P.M. 
P. McC. 

R. H. K. 

R. I. P. 
R. J. M. 

R. L.* 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



R. 


Mo 


. 


R. 


M. 


L. 


R. 


M. 


W 


R. 


N. 


B. 



R. Po, 



R. P. S. 



R. R. 


M. 


R, S. 


C. 


stc. 




S. F. 


H. 


StG. 


M. 


S. R 


G. 



Philip Chesney Yorke, M.A. 

Magdalen College, Oxford. Editor of Letters of Princess Elizabeth of England. 

Percy Gardner, Litt.D., LL.D., F.S.A. 

See the biographical article: Gardner, Percy. 

Peter Giles, M.A., LL.D., Litt.D. 

Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University 
Reader in Comparative Philology. Formerly Secretary of the Cambridge Philological 
Society. 

Paul George Konody. 

Art Critic of the Observer and the Daily Mail. Formerly Editor of the Artist. - 
Author of The Art of Walter Crane; Velasquez, Life and Work; &c. 

Peter Guthrie Tait, LL.D. 

^ee the biographical article: Tait, Peter Guthrie. 

Paul Meyer. 

See the biographical article: Meyer, Paul Hotacinthe. 

Primrose McConnell, F.G.S. f 

Member of the Royal Agricultural Society. Author of Diary of a Working Farmer; \ Reaping, 
&c. I 

Rev. Robert Hatch Kennett, M.A., D.D. f 

Regius Professor of Hebrew, Cambridge, and Canon of Ely. Formerly Fellow and 
Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, Queens' College, and University Lecturer in 
Aramaic. Author of A Short Account of the Hebrew Tenses; In our Tongues; &c. 

Reginald Innes Pocock, F.Z.S. 

Superintendent of the Zoological Gardens, London. 

Ronald John McNeill, M.A. 

Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Formerly Editor of the St James's 
Gazette, London. 



J" Prynne, William {in part); 
IPym, John. 

f Polyclitus; Polygnotus; 
1 Praxiteles. 

Q; R. 



Potter, Paul. 

-j Quaternions {in part). 

("Provencal Language; 

I Provencal Literature {in part). 



Psalms, Book of {in part). 



{ Pyenogonida. 



Racquets. 



Porcupine {in part); 
Porpoise; Primates; 
Proboscidea; Prongbuck; 
Rabbit {in part); 
Rat; Ratel. 

I Railways: General Statistics 
1 and Financial Organization. 

j Pygmy. 



{ 



Richard Lydekker, F.R.S., F.Z.S. , F.G.S. 

Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874-1882. Author of 
Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in the British Museum ; The Deer 
of all Lands ; &c. 

Ray Morris, M.A. 

Formerly Managing Editor, Railway Age Gazette, New York. Author of Railroad 
A dministration. 

Robert Murray Leslie, M.A., M.D., M.R.C.P. 

Senior Physician, Prince of Wales's General Hospital, London. Lecturer on 
Medicine, London Post-Graduate College. ' Author of Clinical Types of Pneu- 
monia; &c. 

R. Mortimer Wheeler. 

Robert Nisbet Bain (d. 1909). 

Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883-1909. Author of Scandinavia: the 
Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 15 13-1900; The First Romanovs, " 
1613-1725 ; Slavonic Europe: the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1460 
to 1706; &c. 

Rene Poupardin, D.-es-L. 

Secretary of the Ecole des Chartes. Honorary Librarian at the Bibliotheque 
Nationale, Paris. Author of Le Royaume de Provence sous les Carolingiens ; Recueil ' 
des chartes de Saint-Germain ; &c. 

R. Phene Spiers, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. 

Formerly Master of the Architectural School, Royal Academy, London. Past 
President of Architectural Association. Associate and Fellow of King's College, 
London. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Editor of Fergusson's 
History of Architecture. Author of Architecture: East and West; &c. 

Robert Ranulf Marett, M.A. 

Reader in Social Anthropology, Oxford University, and Fellow and Tutor of Exeter -i Prayer. 
College. Author of The Threshold of Religion. 

Robert Seymour Conway, M.A., D.Litt. f Pompeii: Oscan Inscriptions; 

Professor of Latin and Indo-European Philology in the University of Manchester. J pjaeneste (in part) - 
Formerly Professor of Latin in University College, Cardiff ; and Fellow of Gonville | „ . .... * ' 



Punch. 

Poniatowski, Joseph A.; 
Potemkin, Prince; 
Potocki, Ignaty; 
Potocki, Stanislaw F.; 
Prokopovich; Pugachev; 
Rak6czy; Razin. 

Provence; 

Quierzy, Capitulary of. 



- Porch. 



and Caius College, Cambridge. Author of The Italic Dialects. 

Viscount St Cyres. 

See the biographical article: Iddesleigh, ist Earl of. 

Sidney Frederic Harmer, D.Sc, F.R.S., F.Z.S. 

Keeper of Zoology, Natural History Departments, British Museum. Fellow, 
formerly Tutor and Lecturer, King's College, Cambridge. Joint-editor of The ' 
Cambridge Natural History. 

St George Jackson Mivart, M.D., F.R.S. 

See the biographical article: Mivart, St George Jackson. 

Samuel Rawson Gardiner, LL.D., D.C.L. 

See the biographical article: Gardiner, S. R. 



Quesnel, Pasquier; 
Quietism. 

Polyzoa; 
Pterobranchia. 

\ Rattlesnake {in part). 

J Prynne, William {in part). 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



Xlll 



To As. 



T. A. C. 

T. A. I. 
T. Ba. 

T. F. D. 

T. H. 

T. H. H.* 

T. L. H. 

T. Se. 

T. Wo. 
W. A. B. C. 

W. A L. 
W. A. P. 
W. Ba. 
W. B. P. 
W. E. D. 

W. F. C. 
W. G. 

W. H. F. 
W. H. L. 



Thomas Ashby, M.A., D.Litt. 

Director of British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formerly Scholar of Christ 
Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1897. Conington Prizeman, 1906. Member of 
the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of The Classical Topo- 
graphy of the Roman Campagna. 



Timothy Augustine Coghlan, I.S.O. 

Agent-General for New South Wales. Government Statistician, New South Wales, 
1886-1905. Honorary Fellow of the Royal Statistical Society. Author of Wealth 
and Progress of New South Wales; Statistical Account of Australia and New Zealand; 
&c. 



Pompeii (in part); 
Pomposa; Pomptine Marshes; 
Popilia, Via; Portus; 
Postumia, Via; 
Praeneste (in pari); 
Praenestina, Via; 
Puteoli; Pyrgi; 
.Ravenna (in part). 

Queensland: Geography and 
Statistics. 



rPost and Postal Service; 
i Pound (in part); 
<- Praemunire. 



Thomas Allan Ingram, M.A., LL.D. 
Trinity College, Dublin. 

Sir Thomas Barclay. f Privateer 

Member of the Institute of International Law. Officer of the Legion of Honour. J _ . ' 

Author of Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy; &c. M.P. for ] rnze - war, 
Blackburn, 1910. I R aio; Rebellion. 

Thomas F. Dale, M.A. f 

Queen's College, Oxford. Steward and Member of the Council of the Polo and -l Polo. 
Riding Pony Society. Author of Polo, Past and Present; &c. [ 



Ravenna (in part). 



Quetta. 



Porism. 



Thomas Hodgkin, D.C.L., Litt.D. 

See the biographical article: Hodgkin, Thomas. 

Sir Thomas Hungerford Holdich, K.C.M.G., K.C.I.E., D.Sc. 

Superintendent, Frontier Surveys, India, 1892-1898. Gold Medallist, R.G.S., 
London, 1887. Author of The Indian Borderland; The Countries of the King's 
Award; India; Tibet. 

Sir Thomas Little Heath, K.C.B., Sc.D. 

Assistant-Secretary to the Treasury, London. Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. . 
Author of Apollonius of Perga; Treatise on Conic Sections; The Thirteen Books of 
Euclid's Elements ; &c. l 

Thomas Seccombe, M.A. [ 

Balliol College, Oxford. Lecturer in History, East London and Birkbeck Colleges, J p„ ev „ rrenrv 
University of London. Stanhope Prizeman, Oxford, 1887. Assistant Editor of] Jteevc ' "«"»• 
Dictionary of National Biography, 1891-1901. Author of The Age of Johnson; &c. I 

Thomas Woodhouse. J* 

Head of the Weaving and Textile Designing Department, Technical College, Dundee. I. ' 

Rev. William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge, M.A., F.R.G.S., Ph.D. 

Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David's 
College, Lampeter, 1 880-1 881. Author of Guide du Haul Dauphine; The Range of 
the Todi; Guide to Grindelwald; Guide to Switzerland: The Alps in Nature and 
in History; &c. Editor of the Alpine Journal, 1880-1881 ; &c. 

William Alexander Lindsay, K.C., M.A., J. P., D.L., F.S.A. 

Windsor Herald. Bencher of the Middle Temple. Peerage Counsel 
Royal Household, 1837-1897; &c. 

Walter Alison Phillips, M.A. 



Ramie. 



Ragatz; Rambert. 



Author of The \ Precedence (in part). 



Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John's College, -i " rince > 



Knight of the Iron Crown. \ Rabbi. 



Oxford. Author of Modern Europe; &c 

Wilhelm Bacher, Ph.D. 

Professor at the Rabbinical Seminary, Budapest. 
Author of Die Agada der Tannaiten; &c. 

William Barclay Parsons, C.E., LL.D. 

Formerly Chief Engineer, Rapid Transit Commission, New York. Advisory - 
Engineer, Royal Commission on London Traffic. Author of Track; Turnouts; &c. 

William Ernest Dalby, M.A., M.Inst.CE. 

Professor of Civil and Mechanical Engineering at the City and Guilds of London 
Institute Central Technical College, South Kensington. Formerly University - 
Demonstrator in the Engineering Department, Cambridge. Author of The 
Balancing of Engines; Valves and Valve-Gear Mechanism; &c. 

William Feilden Craies, M.A. 

Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Lecturer on Criminal Law, King's College, 
London. Editor of Archbold's Criminal Pleading (23rd edition). 

William Garnett, M.A., D.C.L. 

Educational Adviser to the London County Council. Formerly Fellow and 
Lecturer of St John's College, Cambridge. Principal and Professor of Mathematics, 
Durham College of Science, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Author of Elementary Dynamics; 
&c. 

Sir William Henry Flower, F.R.S. 

See the biographical article: Flower, Sir W. H. 

William H. Lang, M.B., D.Sc. 

Barker Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, University of Manchester. 



\ Provost (in part). 



Railways: Inlra-Urban Rail- 
ways. 

Power Transmission: Intro- 
ductory and Mechanical; 
Railways: Locomotive Power. 

Quarter Sessions, Court of; 
Recognizance. 



Polytechnic (in part). 



f Porcupine (in part) ; 
1 Rabbit (in part). 



{ 



Pteridophyta. 



XIV 






w. 


L. 


G. 




w. 


M. 






w. 


M 


F. 


P 


w. 


0. 


B. 




w. 


R. 


M. 





INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 

William Lawson Grant, M.A. f Prince Edward Island; 

Professor at Queen's University, Kingston, Canada. Formerly Beit Lecturer in J q„-i,m>" p rim ;„ rp f,„ *„wV 
Colonial History at Oxford University. Editor ;of Acts of the Privy Council (Colonial 1 q " . province {in part). 
Series) ; Canadian Constitutional Development (in collaboration). L «*uebec: Lily. 



William Minto, M.A., LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Minto, William. 

William Matthew Flinders Petrie, F.R.S., D.C.L., Litt.D. 
See the biographical article: Petrie, W. M. F. 

Ven. Winfrid Oldfield Burrows, M.A. 

Archdeacon of Birmingham. Student and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford, l88< 
1891. Principal of Leeds Clergy School, 1891-1900. Author of The Mystery of the' 
Cross. 



Pope, Alexander (in part). 



Pyramid. 



Prayers for the Dead. 



William Richard Morfill, M.A. (d. 1910). f 

Formerly Professor of Russian and the other Slavonic Languages in the University J Pushkin. 
of Oxford. Curator of the Taylorian Institution, Oxford. Author of Russia;"] 
Slavonic Literature; &c. 



W. R. S. 



W. W. FV 



W. Y. 



William Robertson Smith, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Smith, William Robertson. 



William Warde Fowler, M.A. 

Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford. Sub-Rector, 1881-1904. Gifford Lecturer, 
Edinburgh University, 1908. Author of The City-State of the Greeks and Romans; 
The Roman Festivals of the Republican Period ; &c. 



(Priest (in pari); 
Prophet (in part); 
Psalms, Book of (in part); 
Rameses (in part). 

Pontifex. 



Rev. William Young. 

Minister, Higher Broughton Presbyterian Church, Manchester, 1877-1901, 
Association Secretary for the Religious Tract Society in the North of England. 



and J. Presbyterianism. 



PRINCIPAL UNSIGNED ARTICLES 



Pollination. 


Potentiometer. 


Prussic Acid. 


Polygon. 


Prerogative. 


Public Health 


Polyhedron. 


Press Laws. 


Publishing. 


Polynesia. 


Primrose. 


Puffin. 


Pomegranate. 


Primulaceae. 


Pugilism. 


Pomerania. 


Princeton University. 


Pump. 


Pontoon. 


Principal and Agent. 


Punjab. 


Poor Law. 


Probate. 


Pyrazoles. 


Poplar. 


Procession. 


Pyrenees. 


Porto Rico. 


Proctor. 


Pyridine. 


Portuguese Guinea. 


Prohibition. 


Pyrones. 


Potassium. 


Protestant. 


Quarantine. 


Potato. 


Prussia. 





Quinine. 

Quinoline. 

Quinones. 

Radium. 

Rainbow. 

Ranunculaceae. 

Rare Earths. 

Raspberry. 

Rationalism. 

Ravenna, Exarchate ot 

Real Property. 

Red River. 



ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA 



ELEVENTH EDITION 



VOLUME XXII 



POLL, strictly the head, in men or animals. Skeat connects 
the word with O. Swed. kolle (initial p and k being interchange- 
able) and considers a Celtic origin probable; cf. Irish coll, Welsh 
col, peak, summit. " Poll " is chiefly used in various senses 
derived from that of a unit in an enumeration of persons or 
things, e.g. poll-tax (q.v.), or "challenge to the polls " in the case 
of a jury (q.v.). The most familiar derivative uses are those 
connected with voting at parliamentary or other elections; 
thus " to poll " is to vote or to secure a number of votes, and 
" the poll," the voting, the number of votes cast, or the time 
during which voting takes place. The verb " to poll " also 
means to clip or shear the top of anything, hence " polled " of 
hornless cattle, or " deed-poll " (i.e. a deed with smooth or 
unindented edges, as distinguished from an "indenture"). 
A tree which has been "polled," or cut back close in order to 
induce it to make short bushy growth, is called a " pollard." 

At the university of Cambridge, a " pass " degree is known as 
a " poll-degree." This is generally explained as from the Greek 
oi iroXXoi, the many, the common people. 

POLLACK (Gadus pollachius), a fish of the family Gadidae, 
abundant on rocky coasts of northern Europe, and extending as 
far south as the western parts of the Mediterranean, where, 
however, it is much scarcer and does not attain to the same size 
as in its real northern home. In Scotland and some parts of 
Ireland it is called lythe. It is distinguished from other species 
of the genus Gadus by its long pointed snout, which is twice 
as long as the eye, with projecting lower jaw, and without a 
barbel at the chin. The vent is below the anterior half of the 
first dorsal fin. A black spot above the base of the pectoral 
fin is another distinguishing mark. Although pollack are well- 
flavoured fish, and smaller individuals (from 12 to 16 in.) 
excellent eating, they do not form any considerable article of 
trade, and are not preserved, the majority being consumed by 
the captors. Specimens of 12 lb are common, but the species 
is said to attain occasionally as much as 24 lb in weight, (See 
also Coalfish.) 

POLLAIUOLO, the popular name of the brothers Antonio and 
Piero di Jacobo Benci, Florentines who contributed much to 
Italian art in the 15th century. They were called Pollaiuolo 
because their father was a poulterer. The nickname was also 
extended to Simone, the nephew of Antonio. 

Antonio (1429-1498) distinguished himself as a sculptor, 
jeweller, painter and engraver, and did valuable service in 
perfecting the art of enamelling. His painting exhibits an excess 



of brutality, of which the characteristics can be studied in the 
" Saint Sebastian," painted in 1475, and now in the National 
Gallery, London. A " St Christopher and the Infant Christ " 
is in the Metropolitan Museum, New York. But it was as a 
sculptor and metal-worker that he achieved his greatest suc- 
cesses. The exact ascription of his works is doubtful, as his 
brother Piero did much in collaboration with him. The museum 
of Florence contains the bronze group " Hercules strangling 
Cacus " and the terra-cotta bust " The Young Warrior "; and 
in the South Kensington Museum, London, is a bas-relief 
representing a contest between naked men. In 1489 Antonio 
took up his residence in Rome, where he executed the tomb of 
Sixtus IV. (1493), a composition in which he again manifested the 
quality of exaggeration in the anatomical features of the figures. 
In 1496 he went to Florence in order to put the finishing touches 
to the work already begun in the sacristy of Santo Spirito. He 
died in 1498, having just finished his mausoleum of Inno- 
cent VIII., and was buried in the church of San Pietro in 
Vincula, where a monument was raised to him near that of 
his brother. 

Piero (1443-1496) was a painter, and his principal works 
were his " Coronation of the Virgin," an altar-piece painted 
in 1483, in the choir of the cathedral at San Gimignano; his 
" Three Saints," an altar-piece, and " Prudence " are both at 
the Uffizi Gallery. 

Simone (1457-1508), nephew of Antonio Pollaiuolo, a cele- 
brated architect, was born in Florence and went to Rome in 
1484; there he entered his uncle's studio and studied architecture. 
On his return to Florence he was entrusted with the completion 
of the Strozzi palace begun by Benedetto de Maiano, and the 
cornice on the facade has earned him lasting fame. His highly 
coloured accounts of Rome earned for him the nickname of il 
Cronaca (chronicler). About 1498 he built .the church of San 
Francesco at Monte and the vestibule of the sacristy of Santo 
Spirito. In collaboration with Guiliano da Sangallo he designed 
the great hall in the Palazzo Vecchio. He was a close friend 
and adherent of Savonarola. 

See also Maud Cruttwell, Antonio Pollaiuolo (1907). 

POLLAN (Coregonus pollan), the name given to a species of 
the Salmonoid genus Coregonus (whitefish) which has been found 
in the large and deep loughs of Ireland only. A full ?,ccount of 
the fish by its first describer, W. Thompson, may be found in his 
Natural History of Ireland, iv. 168. 

11 



POLLARD— POLLINATION 



POLLARD, EDWARD ALBERT (1828-1872), American 
journalist, was born in Nelson county, Virginia, on the 27th of 
February 1828. He graduated at the university of Virginia in 
1849, studied law at the College of William and Mary, and in 
Baltimore (where he was admitted to the bar), and was engaged 
in newspaper work in California until 1855. In 1857-1861 he 
was clerk of the judiciary committee of the National House of 
Representatives. By 1859 he had become an outspoken 
Secessionist, and during the Civil War he was one of the principal 
editors- of the Richmond Examiner, which supported the Con- 
federacy but was hostile to President Jefferson Davis. In 1864 
Pollard sailed for England, but the vessel on which he sailed 
was captured as a blockade runner, and he was confined in Fort 
Warren in Boston Harbour from the 29th of May until the 12th 
of August, when he was paroled. In December he was placed 
in close confinement at Fort Monroe by order of Secretary 
Stanton, but was soon again paroled by General B. F. Butler, 
and in January proceeded to Richmond to be exchanged there 
for Albert D. Richardson (1 833-1 869), a well-known corre- 
spondent of the New York Tribune, who, however, had escaped 
before Pollard arrived. In 1867-1869 Pollard edited a weekly 
paper at Richmond, and he conducted the Political Pamphlet 
there during the presidential campaign of 1868. 

His publications include Black Diamonds Gathered in the Darkey 
Homes of the South (1859), in which he advocated a reopening of 
the slave trade ; The Southern History of the War (3 vols. : First 
Year of the War, with B. M. DeWitt, 1862; Second Year of the War, 
1864; Third Year of the War, 1864); Observations in the North: 
Eight Months in Prison and on Parole (1865) ; The Lost Cause (1866) ; 
Lee and His Lieutenants (1867); The Lost Cause Regained (1868), 
a southern view of reconstruction urging the necessity of white 
supremacy; The Life of Jefferson Davis (1869), an arraignment of 
the Confederate president; and The Virginia Tourist (1870). 

POLLENTIA (mod. Pollenzo), an ancient town of Liguria, 
Italy, 10 m. to the north of Augusta Bagiennorum, on the left 
bank of the Tanarus (mod. Tanaro). Its position on the road 
from Augusta Taurinorum to the coast at Vada Sabatia, at the 
point of divergence of a road to Hasta (Asti) gave it military 
importance. Decimus Brutus managed to occupy it an hour 
before Mark Antony in 43 B.C.; and it was here that Stilicho 
on the 29th of March 403 fought the battle with Alaric 
which though undecided led the Goths to evacuate Italy. 
The place was famous for its brown wool, and for its pottery. 
Considerable remains of ancient buildings, an amphitheatre, a 
theatre and a temple still exist. The so-called temple of Diana 
is more probably a tomb. 

See G. Franchi-Pont in Atti dell' accademia di Tornio (1805- 
1808), p. 321 sqq. 

POLLINATION, in botany, the transference of the pollen from 
the stamen to the receptive surface, or stigma, of the pistil of a 
flower. The great variety in the form, colour and scent of 
flowers (see Flower) is intimately associated with pollination 
which is effected by aid of wind, insects and other agencies. 
Pollen may be transferred to the stigma of the same flower — 
self-pollination (or autogamy) , or to the stigma of another flower 
on the same plant or another plant of the same species— cross- 
pollination (or allogamy). Effective pollination may also occur 
between flowers of different species, or occasionally, as in the 
case of several orchids, of different genera — this is known as 
hybridization. 

The method of pollination is to some extent governed by the 
distribution of the stamens and pistil. In the case of unisexual 
flowers, whether monoecious, that is, with staminate and pistillate 
flowers on one and the same plant, such as many of our native 
trees — oak, beech, birch, alder, &c, or dioecious with staminate 
and pistillate flowers on different plants, as in willows and pop- 
lars, cross pollination only is possible. In bisexual or herma- 
phrodite flowers, that is, those in which both stamens and pistil 
are present, though self-pollination might seem the obvious 
course, this is often prevented or hindered by various arrange- 
ments which favour cross-pollination. Thus the anthers and 
stigmas in any given flower are often mature at different times; 
this condition, which is known as dichogamy and was first 



pointed out by Sprengel, may be so well marked that the stigma 
has ceased to be receptive before the anthers open, or the anthers 
have withered before the stigma becomes receptive, when cross- 
pollination only is possible, or the stages of maturity in the two 
organs are not so distinct, when self-pollination becomes possible 
later on. The flower is termed proterandrous or proterogynous 
according as anthers or stigmas mature first. The term 
homogamy is applied to the simultaneous maturity of stigma and 
anthers. Spontaneous self-pollination is rendered impossible 
in some homogamous flowers in consequence of the relative 
position of the anthers and stigma — this condition has been 
termed herkogamy. Flowers in which the relative position of 
the organs allows of spontaneous self-pollination may be all 
alike as regards length of style and stamens (homomorphy or 
homostyly), or differ in this respect (heteromorphy) the styles 





(From Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Botanik, by permission of Gustav Fischer.) 

Fig. 1. — Long-styled, L, and short-styled, K, flowers of Primula 
sinensis. 

G, Level of stigma; 5, level of anthers; P, N, pollen grains and 
stigmatic papillae of long-styled form ; p, n, ditto of short-styled form. 

and stamens being of different lengths in different flowers 
(heterostyly) or the stamens only are of different lengths (heter- 
anthery). Flowers which are closed at the time of maturity of 
anthers and stigmas are termed cleistogamous. 

Self-pollination is effected in very various ways. In the 
simplest case the anthers are close to the stigmas, covering these 
with pollen when they open; this occurs in a number of small 
annual plants, also in Narcissus, Crocus, &c. In snowdrop and 
other pendulous flowers the anthers form a cone around the style 
and the pollen falls on to the underlying stigmas, or in erect 
flowers the pollen may fall on to the stigmas which lie directly 
beneath the opening anthers (e.g. Narthecium). In very many 
cases the pollen is carried to the stigma by elongation, curvature 
or some other movement of the filament, the style or stigma, or 
corolla or some other part of the flower, or by correlated move- 
ments of two or more parts. For instance, in many flowers 
the filaments are at first directed outwards so that self-pollina- 
tion is not possible, but later incline towards the stigmas and 
pollinate them (e.g. numerous Saxifragaceae, Cruciferae and 
others), or the style, which first projects beyond the anthers, 
shortens later on so that the anthers come into contact with the 
stigmas (e.g. species of Cactaceae), or the style bends so that the 
stigma is brought within the range of the pollen (e.g. species of 
Oenothera, Epilobium, most Malvaceae, &c.) . In Mirabilis Jalapa 
and others the filaments and style finally become intertwined, 
so that pollen is brought in contact with the stigma. Self- 
pollination frequently becomes possible towards the end of the 
life of a flower which during its earlier stages has been capable 
only of cross-pollination. This is associated with the fact, so 
ably demonstrated by Darwin, that, at any rate in a 
large number of cases, cross-pollination yields better results, as 
measured by the number of seeds produced and the strength of 
the offspring, than self-pollination; the latter is, however, 
preferable to absence of pollination. In many cases pollen has 
no effect on the stigma of the same flower, the plants are self- 
sterile, in other cases external pollen is more effective (pre-potent) 
than pollen from the same flower; but in a very large number of 
cases experiment has shown that there is little or no difference 



POLLINATION 



between the effects of external pollen and that from the same 
flower. 

Cross-pollination may occur between two flowers on the same 
plant (geitonogamy) or between flowers on distinct plants 
[xenogamy). The former, which is a somewhat less favourable 
method than the latter, is effected by air-currents, insect 
agency, the actual contact between stigmas and anthers in 
neighbouring flowers, where, as in the family Compositae, 
flowers are closely crowded, or by the fall of the pollen from a 





Fig. 3. — Cleistogamous 



(From Darwin's Dijjerent Forms of Flowsrs by permission.) 

Fig. 2. — Diagram of the flowers of the three forms of Lythrum 
salicaria in their natural position, with the petals and calyx 
removed on the near side. (X 6 times.) 

The dotted lines with the arrow show the directions in which 
pollen must be carried to each stigma to ensure full fertility. 

higher on to the stigmas of a lower flower. Anton Kerner has 
shown that crowded inflorescences such as those of Compositae 
and Umbelliferae are especially adapted for geitonogamy. 
Xenogamy is of course the only possible method in diclinous 
plants; it is also the usual method in monoclinous plants, owing 
to the fact that stamens and carpels often mature at different 
times (dichogamy), the plants being proterandrous or protero- 
gynous. Even in homogamous flowers cross-pollination is in a 
large proportion of cases the effective method, at any rate at 
first . owing to the relative position of anther and stigma or the 
fact that the plant is self-sterile. 

The subject of heterostyly was investigated by Darwin (see 
his Forms of Flowers) and later by Hildebrand. In the case of a 
dimorphic flower, such as Primula, four modes of pollination 
are possible, two distinguished by Darwin as legitimate, between 
anthers and stigmas on corresponding levels, and two so-called 
illegitimate unions, between anthers and stigmas at different 
levels (cf. fig. 1). In a trimorphic flower such as Lythrum 
salicaria there are six possible legitimate unions and twelve 
illegitimate (see fig. 2). Experiment showed that legitimate 
unions yield a larger quantity of seed than illegitimate. 



Many plants produce, in addition to ordinary open flowers, 
so-called cleistogamous flowers, which remain permanently 
closed but which notwithstanding 
produce fruit; in these the corolla is 
inconspicuous or absent and the pollen 
grows from the anther on to the 
stigma of the same flower. Species of 
Viola (see fig. 3), Oxalis acelosella 
(wood sorrel) and Lamium amplexi- 
caule are commonly occurring in- 
stances. The cleistogamous flowers 
are developed before or after the 
normal open flowers at seasons less 
favourable for cross-pollination. In 
some cases flowers, which open under 
normal circumstances, remain closed 
owing to unfavourable circumstances, 
and self-pollination occurs as in a 
typical cleistogamous flower — these flower of Viola sylvatica. 

have been distinguished as pseudo- 1, nower X 4. 
, . . T "V .2, flower more highly 

cleistogamous. Instances occur in magn if le{ j an( j cut ope n. 

water plants, where flowers are un- a , anther; s, pistil; 
able to reach the surface (e.g. Alisma st, style; v, stigmatic. 
natans, water buttercup, &c.) or surface, 
where flowers remain closed in dull or cold weather. 

Systems of classification of flowers according to the agency by 
which pollination is effected have been proposed by Delpino, 
H. Muller and other workers on the subject. Knuth suggests 
the following, which is a modification of the systems proposed hy 
Delpino and Muller. 

A. Water-pollinated plants, Hydrophilae. A small group which is 
subdivided thus: — 

a. Pollinated under the water; e.g. Najas where the pollen grains 

are rather heavier than water, and sinking down are caught 
by the stigmas of the extremely simple female flowers. 

b. Pollination on the surface, a more frequent occurrence than 

(a). In these the pollen floats on the surface and reaches 
the stigmas of the female flowers as in Callitriche, Ruppia, 
Zostera, Elodea. In Vallisneria (fig. 4) the male flowers 
become detached and float on the surface of the water; 
the anthers are thus brought in contact with the stigmas 
of the female flowers. 
Wind-pollinated plants, Anemophilae. — In these the pollen 
grains are smooth and light so as to be easily blown about, 
and are produced in great quantity; the stigmas are brush' 
like or feathery, and usually long and protruding so as readily 
to catch the pollen. As no means of attraction are required 
the flowers are inconspicuous and without scent or _ nectar. 
The male inflorescence is often a pendulous catkin, as in hazel 
and many native English trees (fig. 5) ; or the anthers are 
loosely fixed on long thread-like filaments as in grasses (fig. 6). 



B 




^k- 



Fig. 4. — Vallisneria spiralis. 

A, female flower; J, stigmas. 

B, male flowers; 1 before; 2, after spreading of the petals. A 
male flower has floated alongside a female and one of its 
anthers, which have opened to set free the pollen, is in contact 
with a stigma, a, anther. 

C. Animal-pollinated plants, Zoidiophilae, are subdivided according 

to the kind of animal by agency of which pollination is 

effected, thus: — 

a. Bat-pollinated, Chiropterophilae. — A Freycinetia, native of 

Java, and a species of Bauhinia in Trinidad are visited by 

bats which transfer the pollen. 



POLLINATION 



b. Bird-pollinated, Ornithophilae. — Humming-birds and honey- 
suckers are agents of pollination in certain tropical plants; 
they visit the generally large and brightly-coloured flowers 
either for the honey which is secreted in considerable 
quantity or for the insects which have been attracted by 
the honey (fig. 7). 




Fig. 



Fig. 6. — Grass Flower show- 
5. — Catkin of Male ing pendulous anthers and pro- 

Flowers of Hazel. truding hairy stigmas. 

Snail or slug-pollinated flowers, Malacophilae. — In small 
flowers which are crowded at the same level or in flat 
flowers in which the stigmas and anthers project but little, 
slugs or snails creeping over their surface may transfer to 
the stigma the pollen which clings to the slimy foot. Such 
a transfer has been described in various Aroids, Rohdea 
japonica (Liliaceae), and other plants. 




{From a drawing in the Botanical Gallery at the British Museum.) 

Fig. 7. — Flower of Datura sanguinea visited by humming-bird 
Docimastes ensiferus. 

d. Insect-pollinated, Entomophilae, a very 
large class characterized by sticky 
pollen grains, the surface of which bears 
spines, warts or other projections (fig. 8) 
which facilitate adhesion to some part 
of the insect's body, and a relatively 
small stigma with a sticky surface. 
The flowers have an attractive floral 
envelope, are scented and often contain 
honey or a large amount of pollen; 
by these means the insect is enticed 
to visit it. The form, colour and 
scent of the flower vary widely, 
according to the class of insect whose 




-1, anther; 2, 
pollen grain of Hollyhock 
{Althaea rosea) enlarged. 
The pollen grain bears 
numerous spines, the 
dark spots indicate thin 
places in the outer wall. 



aid is sought, and there are also numerous devices for pro- 
tecting the pollen and nectar from rain and dew or 
from the visits of those insects which would not serve 
the purpose of pollen-transference (unbidden guests). 1 The 
following subdivisions have been suggested 

A. Pollen Flowers. — These offer only pollen to their visitors, 

as species of anemone, poppy, rose, tulip, &c. They 
are simple in structure and regular in form, and the 
generally abundant pollen is usually freely exposed. 

B. Nectar Flowers. — These contain nectar and include the 

following groups : — ■ 

1. Flowers with exposed nectar, readily visible and accessible 

to all visitors. These are very simple, open and gener- 
ally regular flowers, white, greenish-yellow or yellow 
in colour and are chiefly visited by insects with a 
short proboscis, such as short-tongued wasps and flies, 
also beetles and more rarely bees. Examples are 
Umbelliferae as a family, saxifrages, holly, Acer, 
Rhamnus, Euonymus, Euphorbia, &c. 

2. Flowers with nectar partly concealed and visible only in 

bright sunshine. The generally regular flowers are 
completely open only in bright sunshine, closing up 
into cups at other times. Such are most Cruciferae, 
buttercups, king-cup (Caltha), Potentilla. White and 
yellow colours predominate and insects with a pro- 
boscis of medium length are the common pollinating 
agents, such as short-tongued bees. 

3. Flowers with nectar concealed by pouches, hairs, &c. 

Regular flowers predominate, e.g. Geranium, Cardamine 
pratensis, mallows, Rubus, Oxalis, Epilobium, &c, but 
many species show more or less well-marked median 
symmetry (zygomorphism) as Euphrasia, Orchis, thyme, 
&c, and red, blue and violet are the usual colours. 
Long-tongued insects such as the honey-bee are the 
most frequent visitors. 

4. Social flowers, whose nectar is concealed as in (3), but the 

flowers are grouped in heads which render them 
strikingly conspicuous, and several flowers can be simul- 
taneously pollinated. Such are Compositae as a class, 
also Scabiosa, Armeria (sea-pink) and others. 

5. Hymenopterid flowers, which fall into the following groups: 

Bee-flowers proper, humble-bee flowers requiring a 
longer proboscis to reach the nectar, wasp-flowers such 
as fig-wort (Scrophularia nodosa) and ichneumon 
flowers such as tway-blade {Lister a ovata). 

The shapes and colours are extremely varied ; bilater- 
ally symmetrical forms are most frequent with red, 
blue or violet colours. Such are Papilionaceous 
flowers, Violaceae, many Labiatae, Scrophulariaceae 
and others. Many are highly specialized so that 
pollination can be effected by a few species only. 
Examples of more special mechanisms are illustrated 
by Salvia (fig. 9). The long connective of the single 
stamen is hinged to the short filament and has a shorter 
arm ending in a blunt process and a longer arm bearing 
a half-anther. A large bee in probing for honey comes 
in contact with the end of the short arm of the lever 
and causes the longer arm to descend and the pollen 
is deposited on the back of the insect (fig. 9, 1). In a 
later stage (fig. 9, 2) the style elongates and the forked 
stigma occupies the same position as the anther in 
fig- 9. I- 




(From Strasburger's Lehrbuchder Boianik, by 
Fig. 9. — Pollination 

1, Flower visited by a humble- 
bee, showing the projection of 
the curved connective bearing 
the anther from the helmet- 
shaped upper lip and the depo- 
sition of the pollen on the back 
of the humble-bee. 

2, Older flower.with connective 
drawn back, and elongated style. 



permission of Gustav Fischer.) 
of Salvia pratensis. 

4, The staminal apparatus at 
rest, with connective enclosed 
within the upper lip. 

3, The same, when disturbed 
by the entrance of the proboscis 
of the bee in the direction of the 
arrow;/, filament; c, connective; 
s, the obstructing half of the 
anther. 



1 See A. Kerner, Plants and their Unbidden Guests. 



POLLIO 



5 



In Broom there is an explosive machanism; the 
pressure of the insect visitor on the keel of the corolla 
causes a sudden release of the stamens and the scatter- 
ing of a cloud of pollen over its body. 
6. Lepidopterid flowers, visited chiefly by Lepidcptera, 
which are able to reach the nectar concealed in deep, 
narrow tubes or spurs by means 
of their long slender proboscis. 
Such are: (a) Butterfly-flowers, 
usually red in colour, as 
Dianthus carthusianorum; (b) 
Moth-flowers, white or whitish, 
as honeysuckle (Loniceta 
periclymenum) . 
7. Fly flowers, chiefly visited by 
Diptera, a.nd including very 
different types: — 

a. Nauseous flowers, dull and 
yellowish and dark purple in 
colour and often spotted, with 
a smell attractive to carrion 
flies and dung flies, e.g. species 
of Saxifraga. 

b. Pitfall flowers ^uch as Asarum, 
Aristolochia and Arum macu- 
latum, when the insect is 
caught and detained until 
pollination is effected (fig. 

c. Pinch-trap flowers, as in the 
family Asclepiadaceae, where 
the proboscis, claw or bristle 
of the insect is caught in the 
clip to which the pairs of 
pollinia are attached. Bees, 
wasps and larger insects serve 
as pollinating agents 




Fig. 10. — Spadix of Arum 
maculatum from which the 
greater part of the spathe has 
been cut away. 

p, Pistillate, s, staminate 
flowers; h, sterile flowers form- 
ing a circlet of stiff hairs closing 
the mouth of the chamber 
formed by the lower part of 
the spathe. 





(From Vines's Text Book of 
Botany, by permission. ) 

12. — Flower of 
Veronica. 
k, Calyx. 

u, u, u, The three lobes 
of the lower lip of 
the rotate corolla. 
o, The upper lip. 
s, s, The two stamens. 



Fig. 11. — Grass of Parnassus (Parnassia palustris). 

1, One of the scales which form the coronet in the flower, enlarged. 



d. Deceptive flowers such as Parnassia, where the conspicuous 

coronet of glistening yellow balls suggests a plentiful 
supply of nectar drops (fig. 11). 

e. Hoverfly flowers, small flowers which are beautifully coloured 

with radiating streaks pointing to a sharply-defined 
centre in which is the nectar, as in Veronica chamaedrys 
(fig. 12). 
Literature. — Joseph Gottlieb Kolreuter l (d. 1806) was the first 
to study the pollination of flowers and to draw attention to the 
necessity of insect visits in many cases; he 
gave a clear account of cross-pollination 
by insect aid. He was followed by Christian 
Konrad Sprengel, whose work Das enldeckte 
Geheimniss der Natur iw- Bau und in der 
Befruchtung der Blumen (Berlin, 1793), 
contains a description of floral adaptations 
to insect visits in nearly 500 species of 
plants. Sprengel came very near to 
appreciating the meaning of cross-pollina- 
tion in the lite of plants when he states 
that " it seems that Nature is unwilling 
that any flower should be fertilized by its 
own pollen." In 1799 an Englishman, 
Thomas Andrew Knight, after experiments 
on the cross-fertilization of cultivated Fig. 
plants, formulated the conclusion that no 
plant fertilizes itself through many genera- 
tions. Sprengel's work, which had been 
almost forgotten, was taken up again by 
Charles Darwin, who concluded that no 
organic being can fertilize itself through 
an unlimited number of generations; but 
a cross with other individuals is occasion- n, The stigma, 
ally— perhaps at very long intervals — indis- 
pensable. Darwin's works on dimorphic flowers and the fertiliza- 
tion of orchids gave powerful support to this statement. The 
study of the fertilization, or as it is now generally called " pollina- 
tion," of flowers, was continued by Darwin and taken up by other 
workers, notably Friedrich Hildebrand, Federico Delpino and the 
brothers Fritz and Hermann Miiller. Hermann Muller's work on 
The Fertilization of Flowers by Insects and their Reciprocal Adapta- 
tions (1873), followed by subsequent works on the same lines, brought 
together a great number of observations on floral mechanisms and 
their relation to insect-visits. Miiller also suggested a modification 
of the Knight-Darwin law, which had left unexplained the numer- 
ous instances of continued successful self-pollination, and restated 
it on these terms: " Whenever offspring resulting from crossing 
comes into serious conflict with offspring resulting from self- 
fertilization, the former is victorious. Only where there is no 
such struggle for existence does self-fertilization often prove satis- 
factory for many generations." An increasing number of workers 
in this field of plant biology in England, on the Continent and in 
America has produced a great mass of observations, which have 
recently been brought together in Dr Paul Knuth's classic work, 
Handbook of Flower Pollination, an English translation of which 
has been published (1908) by the Clarendon Press. 

POLLIO, GAIUS ASINIUS (76 b.c.-a.d. 5; according to some, 
75 b.c.-a.d. 4), Roman orator, poet and historian. In 54 he 
impeached unsuccessfully C. Porcius Cato, who in his tribunate 
(56) had acted as the tool of the triumvirs. In the civil war 
between Caesar and Pompey Pollio sided with Caesar, was 
present at the battle of Pharsalus (48) , and commanded against 
Sextus Pompeius in Spain, where he was at the time of Caesar's 
assassination. He subsequently threw in his lot with M. 
Antonius. In the division of the provinces, Gaul fell to Antony, 
who entrusted Pollio with the administration of Gallia Trans- 
padana. In superintending the distribution of the Mantuan 
territory amongst the veterans, he used his influence to save 
from confiscation the property of the poet Virgil. In 40 he 
helped to arrange the peace of Brundisium by which Octavian 
(Augustus) and Antonius were for a time reconciled. In the 
same year Pollio entered upon his consulship, which had been 
promised him in 43. It was at this time that Virgil addressed 
the famous fourth eclogue to him. Next year Pollio conducted 
a successful campaign against the Parthini, an Illyrian people 
who adhered to Brutus, and celebrated a triumph on the 25th 
of October. The eighth eclogue of Virgil was addressed to 
Pollio while engaged in this campaign. From the spoils of the 
war he constructed the first public library at Rome, in the 
Atrium Libertatis, also erected by him (Pliny, Nat. hist. xxxv. 
10), which he adorned with statues of the most celebrated 

1 Vorldufige Nachricht von einigen das Geschlecht der Pflanzen 
betreffenden Versuchen und Beobachtungen, 3, 4, 6 (Leipzig, 1761). 



POLLNITZ— POLL-TAX 



authors, both Greek and Roman. Thenceforward he withdrew 
from active life and devoted himself to literature. He seems to 
have maintained to a certain degree an attitude of independence, 
if not of opposition, towards Augustus. He died in his villa at 
Tusculum, regretted and esteemed by all. 

Pollio was a distinguished orator; his speeches showed ingenuity 
and care, but were marred by an affected archaism (Quintilian, 
Inst. x. I, 113; Seneca, Ep. 100). He wrote tragedies also, which 
Virgil (Eel. viii. 10) declared to be worthy of Sophocles, and a prose 
history' of the civil wars of his time from the first triumvirate (60) 
down to the death of Cicero (43) or later. This history, in the 
composition of which Pollio received assistance from the grammarian 
Ateius Praetextatus, was used as an authority by Plutarch and 
Appian (Horace, Odes, ii. 1 ; Tacitus, Annals, iv. 34). As a literary 
critic Pollio was very severe. He censured Sallust (Suetonius, 
Gram. 10) and Cicero (Quintilian, Inst. xii. 1, 22) and professed 
to detect in Livy's style certain provincialisms of his native Padua 
(Quintilian, i. 5, 56, viii. I, 3); he attacked the Commentaries of 
Julius Caesar, accusing their author of carelessness and credulity, 
if not of deliberate falsification (Suet. Caesar, 56). Pollio was the 
first Roman author who recited his writings to an audience of his 
friends, a practice which afterwards became common at Rome. 
The theory that Pollio was the author of the Bellum africanum, 
one of the supplements to Caesar's Commentarii, has met with little 
support. All his writings are lost except a few fragments of his 
speeches (H. Meyer, Orat. torn, frag., 1842), and three letters 
addressed to Cicero (Ad. Fam. x. 31-33). 

See Plutarch, Caesar, Pompey; Veil. Pat. ii. 36, 63, 73, 76; 
Florus iv. 12, 11; Dio Cassius xlv. 10, xlviii. 15; Appian, Bell, 
civ. ; V. Gardthausen, Augustus und seine Zeit (1891), i. ; P. Groebe, in 
Pau\y-\\'isso\va' s Realencyclopddie (1896), ii. pt. 2 ; Teuffel-Schwaben, 
Hist, of Roman Literature (Eng. trans.), § 221 ; M. Schanz, Geschichte 
der romischen Litter atur, pt. 2, p. 20 (2nd ed., 1899); Cicero, Letters, 
ed. Tyrrell and Purser, vi. introd. p. 80. 

POLLNITZ, KARL LUDWIG, Freiherr von (1692-1775), 
German adventurer and writer, was born at Issum on the 25th 
of February 1692. His father, Wilhelm Ludwig von Pollnitz 
(d. 1693), was in the military service of the elector of Branden- 
burg, and much of his son's youth was passed at the electoral 
court in Berlin. He was a man of restless and adventurous 
disposition, unscrupulous even for the age in which he lived, 
visited many of the European courts, and served as a soldier in 
Austria, Italy and Spain. Returning to Berlin in 1735 he 
obtained a position in the household of King Frederick William I. 
and afterwards in that of Frederick the Great, with whom he 
appears to have been a great favourite; and he died in Berlin on 
the 23rd of June 1775- - 

Pollnitz's Memoires (Liege, 1734), which were translated into 
German (Frankfort, 1735), give interesting glimpses of his life and 
the people whom he met, but they are very untrustworthy. He 
also wrote Nouveaux memoires (Amsterdam, 1737); Etat abrigS de 
la cour de Saxe sous le regne d'Auguste III. (Frankfort, 1734; Ger. 
trans., Breslau, 1736); and Mimoires pour servir & Vhistoire des 
quatres derniers souverains de la maison de Brandenbourg, published 
by F. L. Brunn (Berlin, 1791; Ger. trans., Berlin, 1791). Per- 
haps his most popular works are La Saxe galante (Amsterdam, 
1734), an account of the private life of Augustus the Strong, elector 
of Saxony and king of Poland; and Histoire secrete de la duchesse 
d'Hanovre, epouse de Georges I. (London, 1 732). There is an 
English translation of the Memoires (London, 1738-1739). See 
P. von Pollnitz, Stammtafeln der Familie von Pollnitz (Berlin, 
1894); and J. G. Droysen, Geschichte der preussischen Politih, pt. iv. 
(Leipzig, 1870). 

POLLOCK, the name of an English family which has con- 
tributed many important members to the legal and other profes- 
sions. David Pollock, who was the son of a Scotsman and built 
up a prosperous business in London as a saddler, had three distin- 
guished sons: Sir David Pollock (1780-1847), chief justice of 
Bombay; Sir Jonathan Frederick Pollock, Bart. (1783-1870), 
chief baron of the exchequer; and Sir George Pollock, Bart. 
(1786-1872), field-marshal. Of these the more famous were 
the two last. Field Marshal Sir George Pollock, who rendered 
valuable military service in India, and especially in Afghanistan 
in 1 841-1843, ended his days as constable of the Tower of London, 
and was buried in Westminster Abbey; his baronetcy, created in 
1872, descended to his son Frederick (d. 1874), who assumed 
the name of Montagu-Pollock, and so to his heirs. Chief Baron 
Sir J. Frederick Pollock, who had been senior wrangler at Cam- 
bridge, and became F.R.S. in 1816, was raised to the bench in 
1844, and created a baronet in 1866. He was twice married 



and had eight sons and ten daughters, his numerous descendants 
being prominent in many fields. The chief baton's eldest son, 
Sir William Frederick Pollock, 2nd Bart. (1815-1888), became a 
master of the Supreme Court (1846) and queen's remembrancer 
(1874); his eldest son, Sir Frederick Pollock, 3rd Bart. (b. 1845), 
being the well-known jurist and legal historian, fellow of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, and Corpus professor of jurisprudence at 
Oxford (1883-1903), and the second son, Walter Hemes Pollock 
(b. 1850), being a well-known author and editor of the Saturday 
Review from 1883 to 1894. The chief baron's third son, George 
Frederick Pollock (b. 1821), became a master of the Supreme 
Court in 1851, and succeeded his brother as queen's (king's) 
remembrancer in 1886; among his sons were Dr W. Rivers 
Pollock (1859-1909), Ernest Murry Pollock, K.C. (b. 1861), 
and the Rt. Rev. Bertram Pollock (b. 1863), bishop of Norwich, 
and previously head master of Wellington College from 1893 till 
1910. The chief baron's fourth son, Sir Charles Edward Pollock 
(1823-1897), had a successful career at the bar and in 1873 
became a judge, being the last survivor of the old barons of the 
exchequer; he was thrice married and had issue by each wife. 

POLLOK, ROBERT (1798-1827), Scottish poet, son of a small 
farmer, was bcrn at North Moorhouse, Renfrewshire, on the 19th 
of October 1798. He was trained as a cabinet-maker and after- 
wards worked on his father's farm, but, having prepared himself 
for the university, he took his degree at Glasgow, and studied for 
the ministry of the United Secession Church. He published 
Tales of the Covenanters while he was a divinity student, and 
planned and completed a strongly Calvinistic poem on the spiri- 
tual life and destiny of man. This was the Course of Time (1827), 
which passed through many editions and became a favourite 
in serious households in Scotland. It was written in blank 
verse, in ten books, in the poetic diction of the 18th century, but 
with abundance of enthusiasm, impassioned elevation of feeling 
and copious force of words and images. The poem at once 
became popular, but within six months of its publication, on the 
18th of September 1827, its author died of consumption. 

POLLOKSHAWS, a police burgh and burgh of barony of 
Renfrewshire, Scotland, on the White Cart, now virtually a 
suburb of Glasgow, with which it is connected by electric 
tramway and the Glasgow & South-Western and Caledonian 
railways. Pop. (1901), 11,183. It is named from the shaws 
or woods (and is locally styled " the Shaws ") and the lands of 
Pollok, which have been held by the Maxwells since the 13th 
century. The family is now called Stirling-Maxwell, the estate 
and baronetcy having devolved in 1865 upon Sir William 
Stirling of Keir, who then assumed the surname of Maxwell. 
Pollok House adjoins the town on the west. The staple indus- 
tries are cotton-spinning and weaving, silk-weaving, dyeing, 
bleaching, calico-printing and the manufacture of chenille and 
tapestry, besides paper mills, potteries and large engineering 
works. Pollokshaws was created a burgh of barony in 181 3, 
and is governed by a council and provost. About 2 m. south- 
west is the thriving town of Thornliebank (pop. 2452), which 
owes its existence to the cotton-works established towards the 
end of the 18th century. 

POLL-TAX, a tax levied on the individual, and not on 
property or on articles of merchandise, so-called from the old 
English poll, a head. Raised thus per capita, it is sometimes 
called a capitation tax. The most famous poll-tax in English 
history is the one levied in 1380, which led to the revolt of the 
peasants under Wat Tyler in 1381, but the first instance of the 
kind was in 1377, when a tax of a groat a head was voted by both 
clergy and laity. In 1379 the tax was again levied, but on a 
graduated scale. John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, paid ten 
marks, and the scale descended from him to the peasants, who 
paid one groat each, every person over sixteen years of age being 
liable. In 1380 the tax was also graduated, but less steeply. 
For some years after the rising of 1381 money was only raised 
in this way from aliens, but in 1513 a general poll tax was 
imposed. This, however, only produced about £50,000, instead 
I of £160,000 as was expected, but a poll-tax levied in 1641 
I resulted in a revenue of about £400,600. During the reign of 



POLLUX, JULIUS— POLO, MARCO 



Charles II. money was obtained in this way on several occasions, 
although in 1676-167 7 especially there was a good deal of 
resentment against the tax. For some years after 1688 poll- 
taxes were a favourite means of raising money for the 
prosecution of the war with France. Sometimes a single 
payment was asked for the year; at other times quarterly 
payments were required. The poll-tax of 1697 included a 
weekly tax of one penny from all persons not receiving alms. 
In 1698 a quarterly poll-tax produced £321,397. Nothing 
was required from the poor, and those who were liable may be 
divided roughly into three classes. Persons worth less than £300 
paid one shilling; those worth £300, including the gentry and 
the professional classes, paid twenty shillings; while tradesmen 
and shopkeepers paid ten shillings. Non-jurors were charged 
double these rates. Like previous poll-taxes, the tax of 1698 
did not produce as much as was anticipated, and it was the last 
of its kind in England. 

Many of the states of the United States of America raise 
money by levying poll-taxes, or, as they are usually called, 
capitation taxes, the payment of this tax being a necessary 
preliminary to the exercise of the suffrage. 

See S. Dowell, History of Taxation and Taxes in England (1888), 
vol. iii. ; and W. Stubbs, Constitutional History (1896), vol. ii. 

POLLUX, JULIUS, of Naucratis in Egypt, Greek grammarian 
and sophist of the 2nd century a.d. He taught at Athens, 
where, according to Philostratus ( Vit. Soph.) , he was. appointed 
to the professorship of rhetoric by the emperor Commodus on 
account of his melodious voice. Suidas gives a list of his 
rhetorical works, none of which has survived. Philostratus 
recognizes his natural abilities, but speaks of his rhetoric in very 
moderate terms. Pollux is probably the person attacked by 
Lucian in the Lexiphanes and Teacher of Rhetoricians. In the 
Teacher of Rhetoricians Lucian satirizes a worthless and ignorant 
person who gains a reputation as an orator by sheer effrontery; the 
Lexiphanes, a satire upon the use of obscure and obsolete words, 
may conceivably have been directed against Pollux as the author 
of the Onomasticon. This work, which we still possess, is a 
Greek dictionary in ten books, each dedicated to Commodus, 
and arranged not alphabetically but according to subject-matter. 
Though mainly a dictionary of synonyms and phrases, chiefly 
intended to furnish the reader with the Attic names for indi- 
vidual things, it supplies much rare and valuable information on 
many points of classical antiquity. It also contains numerous 
fragments of writers now lost. The chief authorities used were 
the lexicological works of Didymus, Tryphon, and Pamphilus; 
in the second book the extant treatise of Rufus of Ephesus 
On the Names of the Parts of the Human Body was specially 
consulted. 

The chief editions of the Onomasticon are those of W. Dindorf 
(1824), with the notes of previous commentators, I. Bekker (1846), 
containing the Greek text only, and Bethe (1900). There are mono- 
graphs on special portions of the vocabulary; by E. Rohde (on 
the theatrical terms, 1870), and F. von Stojentin (on constitutional 
antiquities, 1875). 

POLLUX, or Pollucite, a rare mineral, consisting of hydrous 
caesium and aluminium silicate, H 2 Cs4Al 4 (Si03)9. Caesium 
oxide (CsoO) is present to the extent of 30-36 %, the 
amount varying somewhat owing to partial replacement by 
other alkalis, chiefly sodium. The mineral crystallizes in the 
cubic system. It is colourless and transparent, and has a 
vitreous lustre. There is no distinct cleavage and the fracture 
is conchoidal. The hardness is 65 and the specific gravity 2-90. 
It occurs sparingly, together with the mineral " castor " (see 
Petalite), in cavities in the granite of the island of Elba, and 
with beryl in pegmatite veins at Rumford and Hebron in Maine. 

POLO, GASPAR GIL (?iS3o-iS9i), Spanish novelist and 
poet, was born at Valencia about 1530. He is often confused 
with Gil Polo, professor of Greek at Valencia University between 
1566 and 1573; but this professor was not named Gaspar. He 
is also confused with his own son, Gaspar Gil Polo, the author 
of De origine et progressu juris romani (1615) and other 
legal treatises, who pleaded before the Cortes as late as 1626. 
A notary by profession, Polo was attached to the treasury 



/ 

commission which visited Valencia in 1571, became coadjutor to 
the chief accountant in 1572, went on a special mission to 
Barcelona in 1580, and died there in 1591. Timoneda, in the 
Sarao de amor (1561), alludes to him as a poet of repute; but of 
his miscellaneous verses only two conventional, eulogistic sonnets 
and a song survive. Polo finds a place in the history of the novel 
as the author of La Diana enamorada, a continuation of Monte- 
mayor's Diana, and perhaps the most successful continuation 
ever written by another hand. Cervantes, punning on the 
writer's name, recommended that " the Diana enamorada should 
be guarded as carefully as though it were by Apollo himself "; 
the hyperbole is not wholly, nor even mainly, ironical. 

The book is one of the most agreeable of Spanish pastorals; 
interesting in incident, written in fluent prose, and embellished 
with melodious poems, it was constantly reprinted, was imitated 
by Cervantes in the Canto de Caliope, and was translated into 
English, French, German and Latin. The English version of 
Bartholomew Young, published in 1598 but current in manu- 
script fifteen years earlier, is said to have suggested the Felismena 
episode in the Two Gentlemen of Verona; the Latin version of 
Caspar Barth, entitled Erotodidascalus (Hanover, 1625), is a per- 
formance of uncommon merit, as well as a bibliographical curiosity. 

POLO, MARCO (c. 1 2 54-13 24), the Venetian, greatest of 
medieval travellers. Venetian genealogies and traditions of 
uncertain value trace the Polo family to Sebenico in Dalmatia, 
and before the end of the nth century one Domenico Polo is 
found in the great council of the republic (1094). But the 
ascertained line of the traveller begins only with his grandfather. 
Andrea Polo of S. Felice was the father of three sons, Marco, 
Nicolo and Maffeo, of whom the second was the father of the 
subject of this article. They were presumably " noble," i.e. 
belonging to the families who had seats in the great council, 
and were enrolled in the Libro d' Oro; for we know that Marco 
the traveller is officially so styled (nobilis vir). The three 
brothers were engaged in commerce; the elder Marco, resident 
apparently in Constantinople and in the Crimea, (especially at 
Sudak), suggests, by his celebrated will, a long business 
partnership with Nicolo and Maffeo. 

About 1260, and even perhaps as early as 1250, we find Nicolo 
and Maffeo at Constantinople. Nicolo was married and had left 
his wife there. The two brothers went on a speculation to the 
Crimea, whence a succession of chances and openings carried 
them to the court of Barka Khan at Sarai, further north up to 
Bolghar (Kazan), and eventually across the steppes to Bokhara. 
Here they fell in with certain envoys who had been on a mission 
from the great Khan Kublai to his brother Hulagu in Persia, 
and by them were persuaded to make the journey to Cathay in 
their company. Under the heading China the circumstances 
are noticed which in the last half of the 13th century and first 
half of the 14th threw Asia open to Western travellers to a degree 
unknown before and since— until the 19th century. Thus began 
the medieval period of intercourse between China and catholic 
Europe. Kublai, when the Polos reached his court, was either 
at Cambaluc (Khanbaligh, the Khan's city), i.e. Peking, which he 
had just rebuilt, or at his summer seat at Shangtu in the country 
north of the Great Wall. It was the first time that the khan, a 
man full of energy and intelligence, had fallen in with European 
gentlemen. He was delighted with the Venetian brothers, 
listened eagerly to all they had to tell of the Latin world, and 
decided to send them back as his envoys to the pope, with letters 
requesting the despatch of a large body of educated men to 
instruct his people in Christianity and the liberal arts. With 
Kublai, as with his predecessors, religion was chiefly a political 
engine. Kublai, the first of his house to rise above the essential 
barbarism of the Mongols, had perhaps discerned that the 
Christian Church could afford the aid he desired in taming his 
countrymen. It was only when Rome had failed to meet his 
advance that he fell back upon Buddhism as his chief civilizing 
instrument. 

The brothers arrived at Acre in April 1269. They learned 
that Clement IV. had died the year before, and no new pope had 
yet been chosen. So they took counsel with an eminent church- 
man, Tedaldo, archdeacon of Liege and papal legate for the 



8 



POLO, MARCO 



whole realm of Egypt, and, being advised by him to wait 
patiently, went home to Venice, where they found that Nicolo's 
wife was dead, but had left a son Marco, now fifteen. The papal in- 
terregnum was the longest that had been known, at least since the 
dark ages. After the Polos had spent two years at home there was 
still no pope, and the brothers resolved on starting again for the 
East, taking young Marco with them. At Acre they again saw 
Tedaldo, and were furnished by him with letters to authenticate 
the causes that had hindered their mission. They had not yet left 
Lajazzo, Layas, or Ayas on the Cilician coast (then one of the 
chief points for the arrival and departure of the land trade of 
Asia), when they heard that Tedaldo had been elected pope. 
They hastened back to Acre, and at last were able to execute 
Kublai's mission, and to obtain a papal reply. But, instead of 
the hundred teachers asked for by the Great Khan, the new pope 
(styled Gregory X.) could supply but two Dominicans; and these 
lost heart and turned back, when they had barely taken the first 
step of their journey. 

The second start from Acre must have taken place about 
November 1271; and from a consideration of the indications 
and succession of chapters in Polo's book, it would seem that the 
party proceeded from Lajazzo to Sivas and Tabriz, and thence 
by Yezd and Kirman down to Hormuz (Hurmua) at the mouth 
of the Persian Gulf, with the purpose of going on to China by sea; 
but that, abandoning their naval plans (perhaps from fear of the 
flimsy vessels employed on this navigation from the Gulf east- 
wards), they returned northward through Persia. Traversing 
Kirman and Khorasan they went on to Balkh and Badakshan, 
in which last country young Marco recovered from illness. In 
a passage touching on the climate of the Badakshan hills, 
Marco breaks into an enthusiasm whiqh he rarely betrays, but 
which is easily understood by those who have known what 
it is, with fever in the blood, to escape to the exhilarating 
mountain air and fragrant pine-groves. They then ascended 
the upper Oxus through Wakhan to the plateau of Pamir 
(a name first heard in Marco's book). These regions were 
hardly described again by any European traveller (save Benedict 
Goes) till the expedition in 1838 of Lieut. John Wood of the 
Indian navy, whose narrative abounds in incidental illustration 
of Marco Polo. Crossing the Pamir the travellers descended 
upon Kashgar, Yarkand and Khotan (Khutan). These are 
regions which remained almost absolutely closed to our know- 
ledge till after i860, when the temporary overthrow of the 
Chinese power, and the enterprise of British, Russian and other 
explorers, again made them known. 

From Khotan the Polos passed on to the vicinity of Lop-Nor, 
reached for the first time since Polo's journey by Prjevalsky 
in 1 87 1. Thence the great desert of Gobi was crossed to 
Tangut, as the region at the extreme north-west of China, both 
within and without the Wall, was then called. 

In his account of the Gobi, or desert of Lop, as he calls it, 
Polo gives some description of the terrors and superstitions of 
the waste, a description which strikingly reproduces that of 
the Chinese pilgrim Suan T'sang, in passing the same desert in 
the contrary direction six hundred years before. 

The Venetians, in their further journey, were met and 
welcomed by the Great Khan's people, and at last reached his 
presence at Shangtu, in the spring of 1275. Kublai received 
them with great cordiality, and took kindly to young Marco, by 
this time about twenty-one years old. The " young bachelor," 
as the book calls him, applied himself diligently to the acquisi- 
tion of the divers languages and written characters chiefly in use 
among the multifarious nationalities subject to the Khan; and 
Kublai, seeing that he was both clever and discreet, soon 
began to employ him in the public service. G. Pauthier found 
in the Chinese annals a record that in the year 1277 a certain Polo 
was nominated as a second-class commissioner or agent attached 
to the imperial council, a passage which we may apply to the 
young Venetian. Among his public missions was one which 
carried him through the provinces of Shansi, Shensi, and 
Szechuen, and the wild country on the borders of Tibet, to the 
remote province of Yunnan, called by the Mongols Karajang, 



and into northern Burma (Mien). Marco, during his stay at 
court, had observed the Khan's delight in hearing of strange 
countries, of their manners, marvels, and oddities, and had 
heard his frank expressions of disgust at the stupidity of envoys 
and commissioners who could tell of nothing but their official 
business. He took care to store his memory or his note-book 
with curious facts likely to interest Kublai, which, on his return 
to court, he related. This south-western journey led him 
through a country which till about i860 was almost a terra 
incognita — though since the middle of the 19th century we have 
learned much regarding it through the journeys of Cooper, 
Gamier, Richthofen, Gill, Baber and others. In this region 
there existed and still exists in the deep valleys of the great 
rivers, and in the alpine regions which border them, a vast 
ethnological garden, as it were, of tribes of various origin, and 
in every stage of semi-civilization or barbarism; these afforded 
many strange products and eccentric traits to entertain Kublai. 
Marco rose rapidly in favour and was often employed on 
distant missions as well as in domestic administration; but we 
gather few details of his employment. He held for three years 
the government of the great city of Yangchow; on another 
occasion he seems to have visited Kangchow, the capital of 
Tangut, just within the Great Wall, and perhaps Karakorum on 
the north of the Gobi, the former residence of the Great Khans: 
again we find him in Ciampa, or southern Cochin-China; and 
perhaps, once more, on a separate mission to the southern states 
of India. We are not informed whether his father and uncle 
shared in such employments, though they are mentioned as 
having rendered material service to the Khan, in forwarding 
the capture of Siang-yang (on the Han river) during the war 
against southern China, by the construction of powerful 
artillery engines — a story, however, perplexed by chronological 
difficulties. 

All the Polos were gathering wealth which they longed to carry 
back to their home, and after their exile they began to dread 
what might follow Kublai's death. The Khan, however, was 
deaf to suggestions* of departure and the opportunity only 
came by chance. 

Arghun, khan of Persia, the grandson of Kublai's brother 
Hulagu, lost in 1 286 his favourite wife, called by Polo Balgana 
{i.e. Bulughan or " Sable "). Her dying injunction was that her 
place should be filled only by a lady of her own Mongol tribe. 
Ambassadors were despatched to the court of Peking to obtain 
such a bride. The message was courteously received, and 
the choice fell on the lady Cocacin (Kukachin), a maiden of 
seventeen. The overland road from Peking to Tabriz was then 
imperilled by war, so Arghun's envoys proposed to return by 
sea. Having made acquaintance with the Venetians, and eager 
to profit by their experience, especially by that of Marco, who 
had just returned from a mission to the Indies, they begged the 
Khan to send the Franks in their company. He consented with 
reluctance, but fitted out the party nobly for the voyage, charging 
them with friendly messages to the potentates of Christendom, 
including the pope, and the kings of France, Spain and England. 
They sailed from Zaiton or Amoy Harbour in Fukien (a town 
corresponding either to the modern Changchow or less probably 
toTswanchoworChinchew),thenoneof the chief Chinese havens 
for foreign trade, in the beginning of 1292. The voyage in- 
volved long detention on the coast of Sumatra, and in south 
India, and two years or more passed before they arrived in 
Persia. Two of the three envoys and a vast proportion of their 
suite perished by the way; but the three Venetians survived all 
perils, and so did the young lady, who had come to look on them 
with filial regard. Arghun Khan had died even before they 
quitted China; his brother reigned in his stead; and his son 
Ghazan succeeded to the lady's hand. The Polos went on 
(apparently by Tabriz, Trebizond, Constantinople and Negro- 
pont) to Venice, which they seem to have reached about the end 
of 1295. 

The first biographer of Marco Polo was the famous geo- 
graphical collector John Baptist Ramusio, who wrote more than 
two centuries after the traveller's death. Facts and dates 



POLO, MARCO 



sometimes contradict his statements, but he often adds detail, 
evidently authentic, of great interest and value, and we need not 
hesitate to accept as a genuine tradition the substance of his 
story of the Polos' arrival at their family mansion in St John 
Chrysostom parish in worn and outlandish garb, of the scornful 
denial of their identity, and the stratagem by which they secured 
acknowledgment from Venetian society. 

We next hear of Marco Polo in a militant capacity. Jealousies 
had been growing in bitterness between Venice and Genoa 
throughout the 13th century. In 1298 the Genoese prepared 
to strike at their rivals on their own ground, and a powerful fleet 
under Lamba Doria made for the Adriatic. Venice, on hearing 
of the Genoese armament, equipped a fleet still more numerous, 
and placed it under Andrea Dandolo. The crew of a Venetian 
galley at this time amounted, all told, to 250 men, under a 
comito or master, but besides this officer each galley carried a 
sopracomito or gentleman-commander, usually a noble. On one 
of the galleys of Dandolo's fleet Marco Polo seems to have gone 
in this last capacity. The hostile fleets met before Curzola 
Island on the 6th of September, and engaged next morning. 
The battle ended in a complete victory for Genoa, the details 
of which may still be read on the facade of St Matthew's church 
in that city. Sixty-six Venetian galleys were burnt in 
Curzola Bay, and eighteen were carried to Genoa, with 7000 
prisoners, one of whom was Marco Polo. The captivity was of 
less than a year's duration; by the mediation of Milan peace 
was made, on honourable terms for both republics, by July ■ 
1299; and Marco was probably restored to his family during 
that or the following month. 

But his captivity was memorable as the immediate cause of 
his Book. Up to this time he had doubtless often related his 
experiences among his friends; and from these stories, and the 
frequent employment in them (as it would seem) of grand 
numerical expressions, he had acquired the nickname of Marco 
Millioni. Yet it would seem that he had committed nothing 
to writing. The narratives not only of Marco Polo but of 
several other famous medieval travellers (e.g. Ibn Batuta, 
Friar Odoric, Nicolo Conti) seem to have been extorted from 
them by a kind of pressure, and committed to paper by other 
hands. Examples, perhaps, of that intense dislike to the use of 
pen and ink which still prevails among ordinary respectable 
folk on the shores of the Mediterranean. 

In the prison of Genoa Marco Polo fell in with a certain person 
of writing propensities, Rusticiano or Rustichello of Pisa, also a 
captive of the Genoese. His name is otherwise known as that 
of a respectable literary hack, who abridged and recast several 
of the French romances of the Arthurian cycle, then in fashion. 
He wrote down Marco's experiences at his dictation. 

We learn little of Marco Polo's personal or family history 
after this captivity; but we know that at his death he 
left a wife, Donata (perhaps of the Loredano family, but 
this is uncertain), and three daughters, Fantina and Bellela 
(married, the former to Marco Bragadino), and Moreta 
(then a spinster, but married at a later date to Ranuzzo 
Dolfino). One last glimpse of the traveller is gathered from 
his will, now in St Mark's library. On the 9th of January 
1324 the traveller, in his seventieth year, sent for a neighbouring 
priest and notary to make his testament. We do not know the 
exact time of his death, but it fell almost certainly within the 
year 1324, for we know from a scanty series of documents, 
beginning in June 1325, that he had at the latter date been 
some time dead. He was buried, in accordance with his will, 
in the Church of St Lorenzo, where the family burying-place 
was marked by a sarcophagus, erected by his filial care for his 
father Nicolo, which existed till near the end of the 16th century. 
On the renewal of the church in 1592 this seems to have 
disappeared. 

The archives of Venice have yielded a few traces of our tra- 
veller. Besides his own will just alluded to, there are the wills of 
his uncle Marco and of his younger brother Maffeo; a few legal 
documents connected with the house property in St John 
Chrysostom, and other papers of similar character; and 



two or three entries in the record of the Maggior Con- 
siglio. We have mentioned the sobriquet of Marco Millioni. 
Ramusio tells us that he had himself noted the use of this name 
in the public books of the commonwealth, and this statement 
has been verified in an entry in the books of the Great Council 
(dated April 10, 1305), which records as one of the securities 
in a- certain case. the " Nobilis vir Marchus Paulo Milion." 
It is alleged that long after the traveller's death there was 
always in the Venetian masques one individual who assumed 
the character of Marco Millioni, and told Munchausen-like 
stories to divert the vulgar. There is also a record (March 9, 
13 n) of the judgment of the court of requests (Curia Peti- 
tionum) upon a suit brought by the " Nobilis vir Marcus Polo " 
against Paulo Girardo, who had been an agent of his, to recover 
the value of a certain quantity of musk for which Girardo had 
not accounted. Another document is a catalogue of certain 
curiosities and valuables which were collected in the house of 
Marino Faliero, and this catalogue comprises several objects 
that Marco Polo had given to one of the Faliero family. 

The most tangible record of Polo's memory in Venice is a 
portion of the Ca' Polo — the mansion (there is reason to believe) 
where the three travellers, after their long absence, were denied 
entrance. The court in which it stands was known in Ramusio's 
time as the Corte del millioni, and now is called Corte Sabbionera. 
That which remains of the ancient edifice is a passage with a 
decorated archway of Italo-Byzantine character pertaining to 
the 13th century. 

No genuine portrait of Marco Polo exists. There is a medallion 
portrait on the wall of the Sala dello Scudo in the ducal palace, 
which has become a kind of type; but it is a work of imagination 
no older than iy6r. The oldest professed portrait is one in the 
gallery of Monsignor Badia at Rome, which is inscribed Marcus 
Polus venetus totius orbis et Indie peregrator primus. It is 
a good picture, but evidently of the 16th century at earliest. 
The Europeans at Canton have absurdly attached the name of 
Marco Polo to a figure in a Buddhist temple there containing a 
gallery of " Arhans " or Buddhist saints, and popularly known 
as the " temple of the five hundred gods." The Venetian 
municipality obtained a copy of this on the occasion of the 
geographical congress at Venice in 1881. 

The book indited by Rusticiano is in two parts. The first, or 
prologue, as it is termed, is unfortunately the only part which con- 
sists of actual personal narrative. It relates in an interesting 
though extremely brief fashion the circumstances which led the 
two elder Polos to the Khan's court, together with those of their 
second journey (when accompanied by Marco), and of the return 
to the west by the Indian seas and Persia. The second and staple 
part consists of a series of chapters of unequal length and unsystem- 
atic structure, descriptive of the different states and provinces of 
Asia (certain African islands and regions included), with occasional 
notices of their sights and products, of curious manners and re- 
markable events, and especially regarding the Emperor Kublai, 
his court, wars and administration. A series of chapters near 
the close treats of sundry wars that took place between various 
branches of 'the house of Jenghiz in the latter half of the 13th 
century. This last series is either omitted or greatly curtailed in 
all the MS. copies and versions except one (Paris, National Library, 
Fonds Fr. n 16). 

It was long doubtful in what language the work was originally 
written. That this had been some dialect of Italian was a natural 
presumption, and a contemporary statement could be alleged in 
its favour. But there is now no doubt that the original was French. 
This was first indicated by Count Baldelli-Boni, who published an 
elaborate edition of two of the Italian texts at Florence in 1827, 
and who found in the oldest of these indisputable signs that it was 
a translation from the French. The argument has since been 
followed up by others; and a manuscript in rude and peculiar 
French, belonging to the National Libraiy of Paris (Fonds Fr. 
1 1 16), which was printed by the Societe de geographie in 1824., is 
evidently either the original or a close transcript of the original 
dictation. A variety of its characteristics are strikingly indicative 
of the unrevised product of dictation, and are such as would 
necessarily have disappeared either in a translation or in a revised 
copy. Many illustrations could be adduced of the fact that the use 
of French was not a circumstance of surprising or unusual nature; 
for the language had at that time, in some points of view, even a 
wider diffusion than at present, and examples of its literary em- 
ployment by writers who were not Frenchmen (like Rusticiano 
himself, a compiler of French romances) are very numerous. 



10 



POLO, MARCO 



Eighty-five MSS. of the book are known, and their texts exhibit 
considerable differences. These fall under four principal types. 
Of these, type i. is found completely only in that old French codex 
which has been mentioned (Paris, National Library, Fr. 1116). 
Type ii. is shown by several valuable MSS. in purer French (Paris, 
Nat. Libr., Fr. 2810; Fr. 5631; Fr. 5649; Bern, Canton Library, 
125), which formed the basis of the edition prepared by the late 
M. Pauthier in 1865. It exhibits a text condensed and revised 
from the rude original, but without any exactness, though perhaps 
under some general direction by Marco Polo himself, for an inscrip- 
tion prefixed to certain MSS. (Bern, Canton Libr. 125; Paris, 
Nat. Libr., Fr. 5649) records the presentation of a copy by the tra- 
veller himself to the Seigneur Thiebault de Cepoy, a distinguished 
Frenchman known to history, at Venice in the year 1306. Type 
iii. is that of a Latin version prepared in Marco Polo's lifetime, 
though without any sign of his cognisance, by Francesco Pipino, 
a Dominican of Bologna, and translated from an Italian copy. 
In this, condensation and curtailment are carried a good deal further 
than in type ii. Some of the forms under which this type appears 
curiously illustrate the effects of absence of effective publication, 
not only before the invention of the press, but in its early days. 
Thus the Latin version published by Grynaeus at Basel in the 
Novus Orbis (1532) is different in its language from Pipino's, and 
yet is clearly traceable to that as its foundation. In fact it is a 
retranslation into Latin from some version of Pipino (Marsden 
thinks the Portuguese printed one of 1502). It introduces changes 
of its own, and is worthless as a text; yet Andreas Mtiller, who in 
the 17th century took so much trouble with Polo, unfortunately 
chose as his text this fifth-hand version. The French editions 
published in the middle of the 16th century were translations 
from Grynaeus's Latin. Hence they complete this curious and vicious 
circle of transmission — French, Italian, Pipino's Latin, Portuguese, 
Grynaeus's Latin, French. 

Type iv. deviates largely from those already mentioned; its 
history and true character are involved in obscurity. It is only 
represented by the Italian version prepared for the press by John 
Baptist Ramusio, with interesting preliminary dissertations, and 
published at Venice two years after his death, in the second volume 
of the Navigationi e viaggi. Its peculiarities are great. Ramusio 
seems to imply that he made some use of Pipino's Latin, and various 
passages confirm this. But many new circumstances, and anec- 
dotes occurring in no other copy, are introduced ; many names 
assume a new shape; the whole style is more copious and literary 
than that of any other version. While a few of the changes and 
interpolations seem to carry us farther from the truth, others 
contain facts of Asiatic nature or history, as well as of Polo's 
alleged experiences, which it is difficult to ascribe to any hand 
but the traveller's own. 

We recognize to a certain extent tampering with the text, as in 
cases where Polo's proper names have been identified, and more 
modern forms substituted. In some other cases the editorial 
spirit has gone astray. Thus the age of young Marco has been 
altered to correspond with a date which is itself erroneous. Ormuz 
is described as an island, contrary to the old texts, and to the fact 
in Polo's time. In speaking of the oil-springs of Caucasus the 
phrase " camel-loads " has been substituted for " ship-loads," 
in ignorance that the site was Baku on the Caspian. 

But, on the other hand, there are a number of new circumstances 
certainly genuine, which can hardly be ascribed to any one but 
Polo himself. Such is the account which Ramusio's version gives 
of the oppressions exercised by Kublai's Mahommedan minister 
Ahmad, telling how the Cathayans rose against him and murdered 
him, with the addition that Messer Marco was on the spot when 
all this happened. Not only is the whole story in substantial 
accordance with the Chinese annals, even to the name of the chief 
conspirator {Vanchu in Ramusio, Wangcheu in the Chinese records), 
but the annals also tell of the frankness of " Polo, assessor of the 
privy council," in opening Kublai's eyes to the iniquities of his 
agent. 

Polo was the first traveller to trace a route across the whole 
longitude of Asia, naming and describing kingdom after kingdom 
which he had seen ; the first to speak of the new and brilliant court 
which had been established at Peking; the first to reveal China in 
all its wealth and vastness, and to tell of the nations on its borders; 
the first to tell more of Tibet than its name, to speak of Burma, 
of Laos, of Siam, of Cochin-China, of Japan, of Java, of Sumatra 
and of other islands of the archipelago, of the Nicobar and Andaman 
Islands, of Ceylon and its sacred peak, of India but as a country 
seen and partially explored ; the first in medieval times to give 
any distinct account of the secluded Christian Empire of Abyssinia, 
and of the semi-Christian island of Sokotra, and to speak, however 
dimly, of Zanzibar, and of the vast and distant Madagascar; whilst 
he carries us also to the remotely opposite region of Siberia and the 
Arctic shores, to speak of dog-sledges, white bears and reindeer- 
riding Tunguses. 

The diffusion of the book was hardly so rapid as has been some- 
times alleged. We know from Gilles Mallet's catalogue of the books 
collected in the Louvre by Charles V., dating c. 1370-1375, that 
five copies of Marco Polo's work were then in the collection ; but on 
the other hand, the 202 known MSS. and the numerous early printed 



editions of " Mandeville," with his lying wonders, indicates a much 
greater popularity. Dante, who lived twenty-three years after 
the book was dictated, and who touches so many things in the seen 
and unseen worlds, never alludes to Polo, nor, we believe, to any- 
thing that can be connected with him; nor can any trace of Polo 
be discovered in the book of his contemporary, Marino Sanudo 
the Elder, though this worthy is well acquainted with the work, 
later by some years, of Hayton the Armenian, and though many 
of the subjects on which he writes in his own book {Secreta Fidelium 
Cruris 1 ) challenge a reference to Polo's experiences. " Mande- 
ville " himself, who plundered right and left, hardly ever plunders 
Polo (see one example in Dawn of Modern Geography, iii. 323, note). 
The only literary works we know of the 14th century which show 
acquaintance with Polo's book or achievements are Pipino's 
Chronicle, Villani's Florentine History, Pietro d'Abano's Conciliator, 
the Chronicle of John of Ypres, and the poetical romance of Baudouin 
de Sebourc, which last borrows themes largely from Polo. 

Within the traveller's own lifetime we find the earliest examples 
of the practical and truly scientific coast-charts (Portolani), based 
upon the experience of pilots, mariners, merchants, &c. In two of 
the most famous of the 14th century Portolani, we trace Marco 
Polo's influence — first, very slightly in the Laurentian or Medicean 
Portolano of 1 35 1 (at Florence), but afterwards with clearness 
and in remarkable detail in the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (now at 
Paris). Both of these represent a very advanced stage of medieval 
knowledge, a careful attempt to represent the known world on the 
basis of collected fact, and a disregard for theological or pseudo- 
scientific theory; in the Catalan Atlas, as regards Central and 
Further Asia, and partially as regards India, Marco Polo's Book is 
the basis of the map. His names are often much perverted, and it 
is not always easy to understand the view that the compiler took 
of his itineraries. Still we have Cathay placed in the true position 
of China, as a great empire filling the south-east of Asia. The 
trans-Gangetic peninsula is absent, but that of India proper is, 
for the first time in the history of geography, represented with a 
fair approximation to correct form and position. 

It is curious that, in the following age, owing partly to his un- 
happy reversion to the fancy of a circular disk, the map of Fra 
Mauro (1459), one of the greatest map-making enterprises in history, 
and the result of immense labour in the collection of facts and the 
endeavour to combine them, gives a much less accurate idea of 
Asia than the Carta catalana. Columbus possessed a printed 
copy of the Latin version of Polo's book made by Pipino, and on 
more than seventy pages of this there are manuscript notes in the 
admiral's handwriting, testifying, what is sufficiently evident from 
the whole history of the Columbian voyages, to the immense in- 
fluence of the work of the Venetian merchant upon the discoverer 
of the new world. 

When, in the 16th century, attempts were made to combine 
new and old knowledge, the results were unhappy. The earliest 
of such combinations tried to realize Columbus's ideas regarding 
the identity of his discoveries with the Great Khan's dominions; 
but even after America had vindicated its independent existence, 
and the new knowledge of the Portuguese had named China where 
the Catalan map had spoken of Cathay, the latter country, with 
the whole of Polo's nomenclature, was shunted to the notth, forming 
a separate system. Henceforward the influence of Polo's work 
on maps was simply injurious; and when to his names was added 
a sprinkling of Ptolemy's, as was usual throughout the 16th century, 
the result was a hotchpotch conveying no approximation to facts 
(see further Map). 

As to the alleged introduction of important inventions into 
Europe by Polo — although the striking resemblance of early Euro- 
pean block-books to those of China seems clearly to indicate the 
derivation of the art from that country, there is no reason for 
connecting this introduction (any more than that of gunpowder 
or the mariner's compass) with the name of Marco. In the 14th 
century not only were missions of the Roman Church established in 
some of the chief cities of eastern China, but a regular overland 
trade was carried on between Italy and China, by way of Tana 
(Azov), Astrakhan, Otrar, Kamul (Hami) and Kanchow. Many 
a traveller other than Marco Polo might have brought home the 
block-books, and some might have witnessed the process of making 
them. This is the less to be ascribed to Polo, because he so curiously 
omits to speak of the process of printing, when, in describing ihe 
block-printed paper-money of China, his subject seems absolutely 
to challenge a description of the art. 

See the Recueil of the Paris Geographical Society (1824), vol. i., 
giving the text of the fundamental MS. (Nat. Libr. Paris, Fr. 
1 1 16; see above), as well as that of the oldest Latin version; G. 
Pauthier's edition, Livre . . . de Marco Polo . . . (Paris, 1865), 
based mainly upon the three Paris MSS. (Nat. Libr. Fr. 2810; 
Fr. 5631; Fr. 5649; see above) and accompanied by a commentary 
of great value; Baldelli-Boni's Italian edition, giving the oldest 
Italian version (Florence, 1827); Sir Henry Yule's edition, which 
in its final shape, as revised and augmented by Henri Cordier 
(. . . Marco Polo . . . London, 1903)', is the most complete 

1 Printed by Bongars in the collection called Gesta Dei per Francos 
(1611), ii. 1-281. 



POLO 



ii 



History. 



storehouse of Polo learning in existence, embodying the labours 
of all the best students of the subject, and giving the essence of 
such works as those of Major P. Molesworth Sykes {Ten Thousand 
Miles in Persia, &c.) so far as these touch Marco Polo; the 
Archimandrite Palladius Katharov's " Elucidations of Marco Polo " 
(from vol. x. of the Journal of the North China Branch of the 
Royal Asiatic Society (1876), pp. 1-54; F. von Richthofen, Letters 
to Shangai Chamber of Commerce; E. C. Baber, Travels . . . in 
Western China; G. Phillips, Identity of . . . Zaitun with Chang- 
chau in T'oung Pao (Oct. 1890), and other studies in T'oung-Pao 
(Dec. 1895 and July 1896). There are in all 10 French editions 
of Polo as well as 4 Latin editions, 27 Italian, 9 German, 4 Spanish, 
I Portuguese, 12 English, 2 Russian, 1 Dutch, I Bohemian (Chekh), 
I Danish and I Swedish. See also E. Bretschneider, Mediaeval 
Researches from Eastern Asiatic Sources, i. 239, 167; ii. 8, 71, 81-84, 
184; Leon Cahun, Introduction & Vhistoire de I'Asie, 339, 386; 
C. Raymond Beazley, Dawn of Modern Geography, iii. 15-160, 
545-547. 554, 556-563. (H. Y.; C. R. B.) 

POLO (Tibetan pulu, ball), the most ancient of games with 
stick and ball. Hockey, the Irish national game of hurling 
(and possibly golf and cricket) are derived from polo. 
The latter was called hockey or hurling on horse- 
back in England and Ireland respectively, but historically 
hockey and hurling are polo on foot. 

The earliest records of polo are Persian. From Persia the 
game spread westward to Constantinople, eastwards through 
Turkestan to Tibet, China and Japan. From Tibet polo travelled 
to Gilgit and Chitral, possibly also to Manipur. Polo also flourished 
in India in the 16th century. Then for 200 years its records in 
India cease, till in 1854 polo came into Bengal from Manipur by 
way of Cachar and in 1862 the game was played in the Punjab. 

There have been twelve varieties of the game during its 
existence of at least 2000 years. (1) A primitive form 
consisting of feats of horsemanship and of skill with stick and 
ball. (2) Early Persian, described in Shahnama, a highly 
organized game with rules, played four a side. (3) Later 
Persian, 16th century, the grounds 300 by 1 70 yds. Sir Anthony 
Shirley says the game resembled the rough football of the same 
period in England. (4) The game in the 17th century in Persia. 
A more highly organized game than No. 3, as described by 
Chardin. (5) The Byzantine form played at Constantinople 
in the 12th century. A leathern ball the size of an apple and 
a racquet were used. (6) The Chinese game, about a.d. 600 
played with a light wooden ball. The goal was formed by 
two posts with a boarding between, in the latter a hole being 
cut and a net attached to it in the form of a bag. The side 
which hit the ball into the bag were the winners. Another 
Chinese form was two teams ranged on opposite sides of 
the ground, each defending its own goal. The object of the 
game was to drive the ball through the enemy's goal. (7) The 
Japanese game, popular in feudal times, still survives under 
the name of Dakiu, or ball match. The Japanese game 
has a boarded goal; 5 ft. from the ground is a circular hole 
1 ft. 2 in. in diameter with a bag behind. The balls are of. 
paper with a cover of pebbles or bamboo fibre, diameter 
1-7 in., weight i\ oz. The sticks are racket shaped. The 
object is to lift over or carry the ball with the racket and 
place it in the bag. (8) Called rol, played with a long stick 
with which the ball was dribbled along the ground. (9) Another 
ancient Indian form in which the sides ranged up on opposite 
sides of the ground and the ball was thrown in. This is 
probably the form of the game which reached India from 
Persia and is represented at the present day by Manipur and 
Gilgit polo, though these forms are probably rougher than the 
old Indian game. (10) Modern English with heavy ball and 
sticks, played in England and the colonies and wherever polo 
is played in Europe. Its characteristics are: offside; severe 
penalties for breach of the rules; close combination; rather 
short parsing; low scoring, and a strong defence, (n) Indian 
polo has a lighter ball, no boards to the grounds, which are 
usually full-sized; a modified offside-rule, but the same system of 
penalties. ~It is a quicker game than the English. (12) The 
American game has no offside and no penalties, in the English 
sense. The attack is stronger, the passing longer, the pace 
greater and more sustained. American players are more certain 



goal-hitters and their scoring is higher. They defeated the 
English players in 1909 with ease. 

Polo was first played in England by the 10th Hussars in 1869. 
The game spread rapidly and some good play was seen at Lillie 
Bridge. But the organization of polo in England dates from 
its adoption by the Hurlingham Club in 1873. The ground 
was boarded along the sides, and this device, which was employed 
as a remedy for the irregular shape of the Hurlingham ground 
has become almost universal and has greatly affected the develop- 
ment of the game. The club committee, in 1874, drew up the first 
code of rules, which reduced the number of players to five a side 
and included offside. The next step was the foundation of the 
Champion Cup, in 1877. Then came the rule dividing the game 
into periods of ten minutes, with intervals of two minutes for 
changing ponies after each period, and five minutes at half- 
time. The height of ponies was fixed at 14-2, and a little later 
an official measurer was appointed, no pony being allowed to 
play unless registered at Hurlingham. The next change was 
the present scale of penalties for offside, foul riding or dangerous 
play. A short time after, the crooking of the adversary's stick, 
unless in the act of hitting the ball, was forbidden. The game 
grew faster, partly as the result of these rules. Then the ten 
minutes' rule was revised. The period did not close until the 
ball went over the boundary. Thus the period might be ex- 
tended to twelve or thirteen minutes, and although this time 
was deducted from the next period the strain of the extra 
minutes was too great on men and ponies. It was therefore 
laid down that the ball should go out of play on going out of 
bounds or striking the board, whichever happened first. In 1910 
a polo handicap was established, based on the American system 
of estimating the number of goals a player was worth to his 
side. This was modified in the English handicap by assigning 
to each player a handicap number as at golf. The highest 
number is ten, the lowest one. The Hurlingham handicap is 
revised during the winter, again in May, June and July, each 
handicap coming into force one month after the date of issue. 
In tournaments under handicap the individual handicap numbers 
are added together, and the team with the higher aggregate 
concedes goals to that with the lower, according to the con- 
ditions of the to„urnament. The handicap serves to divide 
second from first class tournaments, for the former teams must 
not have an aggregate over 25. 

The size of the polo ground is 300 yds. in length and from 
160 to 200 yds. in width. The larger size is only found now 
where boards are not used. The ball is made of willow root, is 
3 J in. in diameter, weight not over 5! oz. The polo stick has 
no standard size or weight, and square or cigar-shaped heads 
are used at the discretion of the player. On soft grounds, the 
former, on hard grounds the latter are the better, but Indian 
and American players nearly always prefer the cigar shape. 

The goal posts, now generally made of papier mache, are 
8 yds. apart. This is the goal line. Thirty yards from the goal 
line a line is marked out, nearer than which to the goal no one 
of a fouled side may be when the side fouling has to hit out, 
as a penalty from behind the back line, which is the goal line 
produced. At 50 yds. from each goal there is generally a mark 
to guide the man who takes a free hit as a penalty. 

Penalties are awarded by the umpires, who should be two in 
number', well mounted, and with a good knowledge of the rules 
of the game. The Hurlingham and Ranelagh clubs appoint 
official umpires. There should also be a referee in case of 
disagreement between the umpires, and it is usual to have a 
man with a flag behind each goal to signal when a goal is 
scored. The Hurlingham club makes and revises the rules of 
the.game, and its code is, with some local modifications, in force 
in the United Kingdom, English-speaking colonies, the Argentine 
Republic, California, and throughout Europe. America and 
India are governed by their own polo associations. 

The American rules have no offside, and their penalties consist 
of subtracting a goal or the fraction of a goal, according to the 
offence, from the side which has incurred a penalty for fouling. 
The differences between the Hurlingham and Indian rules 



12 



POLONAISE— POLONNARUWA 



are very slight, and they tend to assimilate more as time 
goes on. 

Polo in the army is governed by an army polo committee, 
which fixes the date of the inter-regimental tournament. The 
semi-finals and finals are played at Hurlingham. The earlier 
ties take place at centres arranged by the army polo committee, 
who are charged by the military authorities with the duty of 
checking the expenditure of officers on the game. The value of 
polo as a military exercise is now fully recognized, and with the 
co-operation of Hurlingham, Ranelagh and Roehampton the 
expenses of inter-regimental tournaments have been regulated 
and restrained. 

The County Polo Association has affiliated to it all the county 
clubs. It is a powerful body, arranging the conditions of county 
tournaments, constructing the handicaps for county players, and 
in conjunction with the Ranelagh club holding a polo week for 
county players in London. The London clubs are three — 
Hurlingham, Ranelagh and Roehampton. Except that they use 
Hurlingham rules the clubs are independent, and arrange the con- 
ditions and fix the dates of their own tournaments. Ranelagh 
has four, Roehampton three and Hurlingham two polo grounds. 
There are about 400 matches played at these clubs, besides 
members' games from May to July during the London season. 
At present the Meadowbrook still hold the cup which was won 
later- by an English team in 1886. In 1002 an American 
national team made an attempt to recover it and failed. 
Polo. They lacked ponies and combination; but they bought 

the first and learned the second, and tried again successfully 
in 1909, thus depriving English polo of the championship of 
the world. 

Polo in England has passed through several stages. It was 
always a game of skill. The cavalry regiments in India in early 
The Game. P°'° days, the 5th, 9th, 12th and 17th Lancers, the 
10th Hussars and the 13th Hussars, had all learned the 
value of combination. In very early days regimental players had 
learned the value of the backhanded stroke, placing the ball so as 
to give opportunities to their own side. The duty of support- 
ing the other members of the team and riding off opponents 
so as to clear the way for players on the same side was 
understood. This combination was made . easier when the 
teams -were reduced from five a side to four. Great stress 
was laid on each man keeping his place, but a more 
flexible style of play existed from early days in the 17 th Lancers 
and was improved and perfected at the Rugby Club by the late 
Colonel Gordon Renton and Captain E. D. Miller, who had 
belonged to that regiment. For a long time the Rugby style 
of play, with its close combination, short passes and steady 
defence, was the model on which other teams formed themselves. 
The secret of the success of Rugby was the close and unselfish 
combination and the hard work done by every member of the 
team. After the American victories of 1909 a bolder, harder 
hitting style was adopted, and the work of the forwards became 
more important, and longer passes are now the rule. But the 
main principles are the same. The forwards lead the attack and 
are supported by the half-back and back when playing towards 
the adversaries' goal. In defence the forwards hamper the 
opposing No. 3 and No. 4 and endeavour to clear the way for 
their own No. 3 and No. 4, who are trying not merely to keep the 
ball out of their own goal but to turn defence into attack*. Each 
individual player must be a good horseman, able to make a pony 
gallop, must have a control of the ball, hitting hard and clean 
and in the direction he wishes it to go. He must keep his eye 
on the ball and yet know where the goal-posts are, must be 
careful not to incur penalties and quick to take advantage of an 
opportunity. Polo gives no time for second thoughts. A polo 
player must not be in a hurry, but he must never be slow nor 
dwell on his stroke. He must be able to hit when galloping his 
best pace on to the ball and able to use the speed of his pony 
in order to get pace. He must be able to hit a backhander or 
to meet a ball coming to him, as the tactics of the game require. 
Polo has given rise to a new type of horse, an animal of 
14 hands 2 in. with the power of a hunter, the courage of a 



racehorse and the docility of a pony. At first the ponies were 
small, but now each pony must pass the Hurlingham official 
measurer and be entered on the register. The English The Polo 
system of measurement is the fairest and most Pony. 
humane possible. The pony stripped of his clothing is led by 
an attendant, not his own groom, into a box with a perfectly 
level floor and shut off from every distraction. A veterinary 
surgeon examines to see that the pony is neither drugged nor 
in any way improperly prepared. The pony is allowed to 
stand easily, and a measuring standard with a spirit-level is 
then placed on the highest point of the wither, and if the pony 
measures 14-2 and is five years old it is registered for life. Ponies 
are of many breeds. There are Arabs, Argentines, Americans, 
Irish and English ponies, the last two being the best. The Polo 
and Riding Pony Society, with headquarters at 12 Hanover 
Square, looks after the interests of the English and Irish pony 
and encourages their breeders. The English ponies are now 
bred largely for the game and are a blend of thoroughbred 
blood (the best are always the race-winning strains) or Arab and 
of the English native pony. 

Authorities. — Polo in England: J. Moray Brown, Riding and 
Polo, Badminton Library, revised and brought up to date by 
T. F. Dale (Longmans, 1899) ; Captain Younghusband, Polo in India, 
(n.d.); J. Moray Brown, Polo (Vinton, 1896); T. F. Dale, The Game 
of Polo (A. Constable & Co., 1897) ; Captain Younghusband, Tourna- 
ment Polo (1897); Captain de Lisle, Durham Light Infantry, Hints 
to Polo Players in India (1897); T. B. Drybrough, Polo (Vinton, 
1898; revised, Longmans, 1906); Captain E. D. Miller, Modem 
Polo (1903); H. L. Fitzpatrick, Equestrian Polo, in Spalding's 
Athletic Library (1904); Major G. J. Younghusband, Tournament 
Polo (1904); T. F. Dale " Polo, Past and Present," Country Life; 
Walter Buckmaster, " Hints on Polo Combination," Library of 
Sport (George Newnes Ltd., 1905 ; Vinton & Co., 1909) ; Hurlingham 
Club, Rules of Polo, Register of Ponies; Polo and Riding Pony 
Society Stud Booh (12 vols., 12 Hanover Square). Annuals: American 
Polo Association, 143 Liberty Street, New York; Indian Polo 
Association, Lucknow, N. P.; Captain E. D. Miller, D.S.O., The 
Polo Players' Guide and Almanack ; The Polo Annual, ed. by L. V. L. 
Simmonds. Monthlies: Bailey's Magazine (Vinton & Co.); The 
Polo Monthly (Craven House, Kingsway, London). 

Polo in Persia; Firdousi's Shahnama, translated as Le Lime 
des rois by J. Mohl, with notes and coram.; Sir Anthony 
Shirley, Travels in Persia (1569); Sir John Chardin, Voyages en 
Perse (1686), ed. aug. de notes, &c. par L. Langles, 1811 ; Sir William 
Ouseley, Travels in Various Countries of the East, particularly Persia 
(1810). 

There are many allusions to polo in the poets, notably Nizami, 
Jami and Omar Khayyam. 

Polo in Constantinople: Cinnamus Joannes epitome rerum.ab 
loanne et Alexio Commenis gest. (Bonn, 1836). 

Polo in India: Ain-i-Akbari (1555); G. F. Vigne, Travels in 
Kashmir (Ladakh and Iskardo, 1842); Colonel Algernon Durand, 
The Making of a Frontier (1899). 

Polo in Gilgit and Chitral: " Polo in Baltistan." The Field 
(1888); Polo in Manipur, Captain McCulloch, Manipuri% and the 
Adjacent Tribes (1859). (T. F. D.) 

POLONAISE {i.e. Polish, in French), a stately ceremonious 
dance, usually written in \ time. As a form of musical com- 
position it has been employed by such composers as Bach, 
Handel, Beethoven, and above all by Chopin. It is usual to 
date the origin of the dance from the election (1573) of Henry 
duke of Anjou, afterwards Henry III. of France, to the throne 
of Poland. The ladies of the Polish nobility passed in cere- 
monial procession before him at Cracow to the sound of stately 
music. This procession of music became the regular opening 
ceremony at royal functions, and developed into the dance. 

The term is also given to a form of skirted bodice, which has 
been fashionable for ladies at different periods. 

POLONNARUWA, a ruined city and ancient capital of 
Ceylon. It first became a royal residence in a.d. 368, when the 
lake of Topawewa was formed, and succeeded Anuradhapura 
as the capital in the middle of the 8th century. The principal 
ruins date chiefly from the time of Prakrama Bahu (a.d. 1153- 
11 86). The most imposing pile remaining is the Jetawa- 
narama temple, a building 170 ft. in length, with walls about 
80 ft. high and 12 ft. thick. The city is now entirely deserted, 
and, as in the case of Anuradhapura, its ruins have only recently 
been rescued from the jungle. 



POLOTSK— POLTAVA 



13 



POLOTSK, a town of Russia, in the government of Vitebsk, 
at the confluence of the Polota with the Dvina, 62 m. by rail 
N.W. of the town of Vitebsk. Pop. 20,751. Owing to the 
continuous wars, of which, from its position on the line of 
communication between central Russia and the west it was for 
many centuries the scene, scarcely any of its remarkable anti- 
quities remain. The upper castle, which stood at the confluence 
of the rivers and had a stone wall with seven towers, is in ruins, 
as is the lower castle formerly enclosed with strong walls and 
connected with the upper castle by a bridge. The cathedral 
of St Sophia in the upper castle, built in the 12th century, 
fell to ruins in the 18th century, whereupon the United Greek 
bishop substituted a modern structure. Upwards of two-thirds 
of the inhabitants are Jews ; the remainder have belonged mostly 
to the Orthodox Greek Church since 1839, when they were 
compelled to abandon the United Greek Church. Flax, linseed, 
corn and timber are the leading articles of commerce. 

Polotesk or Poltesk is mentioned in 862 as one of the towns 
given by the Scandinavian Rurik to his men. In 980 it had 
a prince of its own, Ragvald (Rogvolod or Rognvald), whose 
daughter is the subject of many legends. It remained an 
independent principality until the 12th century, resisting the 
repeated attacks of the princes of Kiev; those of Pskov, Lithu- 
ania, and the Livonian Knights, however, proved more effective," 
and Polotsk fell under Lithuanian rule in 1320. About 1385 its 
independence was destroyed by the Lithuanian prince Vitovt. 
It was five times besieged by Moscow in 1500-18, and was 
taken by Ivan the Terrible in 1563. Recaptured by Stephen 
Bathory, king of Poland, sixteen years later, it became Polish 
by the treaty of 1582. It was then a large and populous 
city, and carried on an active commerce. Pestilences and 
conflagrations were its ruin; the plague of 1566 wrought 
great havoc among its inhabitants, and that of 1600 destroyed 
15,000. The castles, the town and its walls were burned in 
1607 and 1642. The Russians continued their attacks, burning 
and plundering the town, and twice, in 1633 and 1705, taking 
possession of it for a few years. It was not definitely annexed, 
however, to Russia until 1772, after the first dismemberment 
of Poland. In 181 2 its inhabitants resisted the French invasion, 
and the town was partially destroyed. 

POLTAVA, a government of south-western Russia, bounded 
by the government of Chernigov on the N., Kharkov on the E-, 
Ekaterinoslav and Kherson on the S., and Kiev on the W., and 
having an area of 19,260 sq. m. Its surface is an undulating 
plain 500 to 600 ft. above sea-level, with a few elevations reach- 
ing £70 ft. in the north, and gently sloping to 300 and 400 ft. in 
the south-west. Owing to the deep excavations of the rivers, 
their banks, especially those on the right, have the aspect of 
hilly tracts, while low plains stretch to the left. Almost the 
whole of the surface consists of Tertiary deposits; Cretaceous 
rocks appear in the north-east, at the bottom of the deeper 
ravines. The government touches the granitic region of the 
Dnieper only in the south, below Kremenchug. Limestone 
with dolerite veins occurs in the isolated hill of Isachek, which 
rises above the marshes of the Sula. The whole is covered with 
a layer, 20 to 60 ft. thick, of boulder clay, which again is often 
mantled with a thick sheet of loess. Sandstone (sometimes 
suitable for grindstones) and limestone are quarried, and a few 
beds of gypsum and peat-bog are known within the government. 
With the exception of some sandy tracts, the soil is on the whole 
very fertile. Poltava is drained by the Dnieper", which flows 
along its border, navigable throughout, and by its tributaries 
the Sula, Psiol, Vorskla, Orel, Trubezh, and several others, 
none of them navigable, although their courses vary from 150 
to 270 m. each in length. Even those which used to be navigated 
within the historical period, such as the Trubezh and Supoi, 
are now drying up, while the others are being partially trans- 
formed into marshes. Deep sand-beds intersected by number- 
less ravines and old arms of the river stretch along the left 
bank of the Dnieper, where accordingly the settlements are 
few. Only 5% of the total area is under forest; timber, wooden 
wares, and pitch are imported. 



The estimated population in 1906 was 3,312,400. The great 
majority are Little Russians.' Agriculture is the principal 
pursuit, 60% of the total area being arable land. The crops 
chiefly grown are wheat, rye and oats; the sunflower is largely 
cultivated, especially for oil, and the growing of tobacco, always 
important, has made a great advance. Kitchen gardening, 
the cultivation of the plum, and the preparation of preserved 
fruits are important branches of industry. At Lubny, where 
an apothecaries' garden is maintained by the Crown, the col- 
lection and cultivation of medicinal plants are a speciality. 
The main source of wealth in Poltava always has been, and still 
is, its live-stock breeding — horses, cattle, sheep, pigs. Some 
of the wealthier landowners and many peasants rear finer breeds 
of horses. The land is chiefly owned by the peasants, who 
possess 52% of the cultivable area; 42% belongs to private 
persons, and the remainder to the Crown, the clergy, and the 
municipalities. 

Among the manufactures distilleries hold the leading place, 
after which come flour-mills, tobacco factories, machine-making, 
tanneries, saw-mills, sugar-works and woollen manufactures. 
In the villages and towns several domestic trades are carried 
on, such as the preparation of sheepskins, plain woollen cloth, 
leather, boots and pottery. The fair of Poltava is of great 
importance for the whole woollen trade of Russia, and 
leather, cattle, horses, coarse woollen cloth, skins, and various 
domestic wares are exchanged for manufactures imported from 
Great Russia. The value of merchandise brought to the fair 
averages over £2,500,000. Several other fairs, the aggregate 
returns for which reach more than one-half of the above, are 
held at Romny (tobacco), Kremenchug (timber, corn, tallow 
and salt), and Kobelyaki (sheepskins). Corn is exported to a 
considerable extent to the west and to Odessa, as also saltpetre, 
spirits, wool, tallow, skins and woollen cloth. The Dnieper is 
the principal artery for the exports and for the import — timber. 
The chief river-ports are Kremenchug and Poltava. Steamers 
ply between Kiev and Ekaterinoslav; but the navigation is 
hampered by want of water and becomes active only in the 
south. Traffic mostly follows the railway. Poltava is divided 
into fifteen districts, of which the chief towns are Poltava, 
Gadyach, Khorol, , Kobelyaki, Konstantinograd, Kremenchug, 
Lokhvitsa, Lubny, Mirgorod, Pereyaslavl, Piryatin, Priluki, 
Romny, Zenkov and Zolotonosha. 

History. — At the dawn of Russian history the region now 
occupied by Poltava was inhabited by the Slav tribe of the 
Syeveryanes. As early as 988 the Russians erected several 
towns on the Sula and the Trubezh for their protection against 
the Turkish Petchenegs and Polovtsi, who held the south- 
eastern steppes. Population extended, and the towns of 
Pereyaslavl, Lubny, Priluki, Piryatin, Romny, begin to be 
mentioned in the nth and 12th centuries. The Mongol invasion 
of 1239-42 destroyed most of them, and for two centuries 
afterwards they disappear from Russian annals. About 133 1 
Gedimin, prince of Lithuania, annexed the so-called " Syeversk 
towns " and on the recognition of the union of Lithuania with 
Poland they were included in the united kingdom along with 
the remainder of Little Russia. In 1476 a separate principality 
of Kiev under Polish rule and Polish institutions was formed 
out of Little Russia, and remained so until the rising of the 
Cossack chief Bogdan Chmielnicki in 1654. By the Andrussowo 
Treaty, the left bank of the Dnieper being ceded to Russia, 
Poltava became part of the dominions of the Zaporogian 
Cossacks, and was divided into " regiments," six of which 
(Poltava, Pereyaslavl, Priluki, Gadyach, Lubny and Mirgorod) 
lay within the limits of the present government. They lost 
their independence in 1764. (P. A. K.; J. T. Be.) 

POLTAVA, a town of Russia, capital of the government of 
the same name, on the right bank of the Vorskla, 88 m. by 
rail W.S.W. of Kharkov. Pop. 53,060. The town is built on 
a plateau which descends by steep slopes on nearly every side. 
Several suburbs, inhabited by Cossacks, whose houses are buried 
amid gardens, and a German colony, surround the town. The 
oldest buildings are a monastery, erected in 1650, and a wooden 



H 



POLTERGEIST 



church visited by Peter the Great after the battle of Poltava. 
There are a military school for cadets, a theological seminary 
and two girls' colleges; also flour-mills, tobacco works and a 
tannery. 

Poltava is mentioned in Russian annals in 1174, under the 
name of Ltava, but does not again appear in history until 1430, 
when, together with Glinsk, it was given by Gedimin, prince of 
Lithuania, to the Tatar prince Leksada. Under the Cossack 
chief, Bogdan Chmielnicki, it was the chief town of the Poltava 
" regiment." Peter the Great of Russia defeated Charles XII. 
of Sweden in the immediate neighbourhood on the 27th of June 
1 709, and the victory is commemorated by a column over 50 ft. 
in height. 

POLTERGEIST (Ger. for " racketing spirit "), the term 
applied to certain phenomena of an unexplained nature, such 
as movements of objects without any traceable cause, and 
noises equally untraced to their source; but in some cases 
exhibiting intelligence, as when raps answer a question by a 
code. In the word Poltergeist, the phenomena are attributed 
to the action of a Geist, or spirit: of old the popular explanation 
of all residuary phenomena. The hypothesis, in consequence 
of the diffusion of education, has been superseded by that of 
"electricity"; while sceptics in all ages and countries have 
accounted for all the phenomena by the theory of imposture. 
The last is at least a vera causa: imposture has often been 
detected; but it is not so certain that this theory accounts for all 
the circumstances. To the student of human nature the most 
interesting point in the character of poltergeist phenomena 'is 
their appearance in the earliest known stages of culture, their 
wide diffusion, and their astonishing uniformity. Almost all 
the beliefs usually styled " superstitious " are of early occurrence 
and of wide diffusion: the lowest savages believe in ghosts 
of the dead and in wraiths of the living. Such beliefs when 
found thriving in our own civilization might be explained as 
mere survivals from savagery, memories of all 

" The superstitions idle-headed eld 
Received and did deliver to our age." 

But wc have not to deal only with a belief that certain 
apparently impossible things may occur and have occurred in 
the past. We are met by the evidence of sane and credible 
witnesses, often highly educated, who maintain that they 
themselves have heard and beheld the unexplained sounds and 
sights. It appears, therefore, that in considering the phenomena 
of the poltergeist we are engaged with facts of one sort or 
another; facts produced either by skilled imposture, or resting 
on hallucinations of the witnesses; or on a mixture of fraud 
and of hallucination caused by " suggestion." There remains 
the chance that some agency of an unexplored nature is, at least 
in certain cases, actually at work. 

A volume would be needed if we were to attempt to chronicle 
the phenomena of the poltergeist as believed in by savages 
and in ancient and medieval times. But among savages they are 
usually associated with the dead, or with the medicine-men of the 
tribes. These personages are professional " mediums," and like 
the mediums of Europe and America, may be said to have do- 
mesticated the poltergeist. At their seances, savage or civilized, 
the phenomena are reported to occur — such as rappings and 
other noises, loud or low, and " movements of objects without 
physical contact." (See, for a brief account, A. Lang, Cock 
Lane and Common Sense, " Savage Spiritualism "; and see the 
Jesuit Lettres Sdifiantes, North America, 1620-1770, and 
Kohl's Kitchi Garni.) But :l induced phenomena," where 
professional mediums and professional medical men are the 
agents, need not here be considered. The evidence, unless in 
the case of Sir William Crookes's experiments with Daniel Dunglas 
Home, is generally worthless, and the laborious investigations 
of the Society for Psychical Research resulted only in the 
detection of fraud as far as " physical " manifestations by 
paid mediums were concerned. 

The spontaneous poltergeist, where, at least, no professional 
is present, and no seance is being held, is much more curious and 



interesting than the simple tricks played in the dark by impudent 
charlatans. The phenomena are identical, as reported, literally 
" from China to Peru." The Cieza de Leon (1549) tells us 
that the cacique of Pirza, in Popyan, during his conversion 
to Christianity, was troubled by stones falling mysteriously 
through the air (the mysterious point was the question of 
whence they came, and what force urged them), while Chris- 
tians saw at his table a glass of liquor raised in the air, by no 
visible hand, put down empty, and replenished! Mr Denny s 
{Folk Lore of China, 1876, p. 79) speaks of a Chinese householder 
who was driven to take refuge in a temple by the usual phenomena 
— throwing about of crockery and sounds of heavy footfalls — 
after the decease of an aggrieved monkey. This is only one of 
several Chinese cases of poltergeist; and the phenomena are 
described in Jesuit narratives of the 18th century, from Cochin 
China. In these papers no explanation is suggested. There 
is a famous example in a nunnery, recorded (1528) by a notable 
witness, Adrien de Montalembert, almoner to Francis I. The 
agent was supposed to be the spirit of a sister recently deceased. 

Among multitudes of old cases, that of the " Drummer of 
Tedworth " (1662-1663; see Glanvil, Sadducismus iriumphatus, 
1666); that at Rerrick, recorded by the Rev. Mr Telfer 
in 1695; that of the Wesley household (171 6- 171 7) chronicled 
in contemporary letters and diaries of the Wesley family 
(South ey's Life of John Wesley); that of Cideville (1851), from 
the records of the court which tried the law-suit arising out of 
the affair (Proc. Soc. Psychical Research, xviii. 454-463) ; and 
the Alresford case, attested by the great admiral, Lord St 
Vincent, are ' among the most remarkable. At Tedworth we 
have the evidence of Glanvil himself, though it does not 
amount to much; at Rerrick, Telfer was a good chronicler 
and gives most respectable signed vouchers for all the marvels: 
Samuel Wesley and his wife were people of sense, they were 
neither alarmed nor superstitious, merely puzzled; while the. 
court which tried the Cideville case, only decided that " the 
cause of the events remains unknown." At Alresford, in 
Hampshire, the phenomena attested by Lord St Vincent and 
his sister Mrs Ricketts, who occupied the house, were pecu- 
liarly strange and emphatic: the house was therefore pulled 
down. At Willington Mill, near Morpeth (183^1847), the 
phenomena are attested by the journal of Mr Procter, the 
occupant, a Quaker, a " tee-totaller," and a man of great 
resolution. He and his family endured unspeakable things for 
sixteen years, and could find no explanation of the sights and 
sounds, among which were phantasms of animals, as at 
Epworth, in the Wesley case. 

Of all these cases that of the Wesleys has attracted most 
critical attention. It was not, in itself, an extreme instance 
of poltergeist: at Alresford, at the close of the 18th century, 
and at Willington Mill in the middle of the 19th the disturbances 
were much more violent and persistent than at Epworth, while 
our evidence is, in all three examples, derived from the contem- 
porary narratives, letters and journals of educated persons. 
The Wesleys, however, were people so celebrated and so active 
in religion that many efforts have been made to explain their 
" old Jeffrey," as they called the disturbing agency. These 
attempts at explanation have been fruitless. The poet Coleridge, 
who said that he knew many cases, explained all by a theory of 
contagious epidemic hallucination of witnesses. Dr Salmon, 
of Trinity College, Dublin, set all down to imposture by Hetty 
Wesley, a vivacious girl (Fortnightly Review, 1866). The 
documents on which he relied, when closely studied, did not 
support his charges, for he made several important errors in 
dates, and on these his argument rested. F. Podmore, in several 
works (e.g. Studies in Psychical Research), adopted a theory 
of exaggerative memory in the narrators, as one element, 
with a dose of imposture and of hallucination begotten of 
excited expectation. The Wesley letters and journals, written 
from day to day, do not permit of exaggerative memory, and 
when the records of 17.16-1717 are compared with the remini- 
scences collected from his family by John Wesley in 1726, the 
discrepancies are seen to be only such as occur in all human 



POLTERGEIST 



15 



evidence about any sort of events, remote by nine or ten 
years. Thus, in 1726, Mrs Wesley mentioned a visionary 
badger seen by her. She did not write about it to her son 
Samuel in 1717, but her husband and her daughter did then 
describe it to Samuel, as an experience of his mother at 
that date. The whole family, in 1717, became familiar with the 
phenomena, and were tired of them and of Samuel's questions. 
(Mr Podmore's arguments are to be found in the Journal of the 
Studies of Psychical Research, ix. 40-45. Some dates are mis- 
printed.) The theory of hallucination cannot account for the 
uniformity of statements, in many countries and at many 
dates, to the effect that the objects mysteriously set in motion 
moved in soft curves and swerves, or " wobbled." Suppose 
that an adroit impostor is throwing them, suppose that the 
spectators are excited, why should their excitement every- 
where produce a uniform hallucination as to the mode of 
motion? It is better to confess ignorance, and remain in 
doubt, than to invent such theories. 

A modern instance may be analysed, as the evidence was 
given contemporaneously with the events (Podmore, Proc. 
Soc. Psychical Research, xii. 45-58: "Poltergeists"). On 
the 20th or 21st of February 1883 a Mrs White, in a 
cottage at Worksop, was " washing up the tea-things at the 
table," with two of her children in the room, when " the table 
tilted up at a considerable angle," to her amazement. On the 
26th of February, Mr White being from home, Mrs White 
extended hospitality to a girl, Eliza Rose, " the child of an 
imbecile mother." Eliza is later described as " half-witted," 
but no proof of this is given. On the 1st of March, White being 
from home, at about- 11.30 p.m. a number of things " which had 
been in the kitchen a few minutes before " came tumbling down 
the kitchen stairs. Only Mrs White and Eliza Rose were then 
in the kitchen. Later some hot coals made an invasion. On 
the following night, White being at home in the kitchen, with his 
wife and Eliza, a miscellaneous throng of objects came in, 
Mr White made vain research upstairs, where was his brother 
Tom. On his return to the kitchen " a little china woman left 
the mantelpiece and flew into the corner." Being replaced, it 
repeated its flight, and was broken. White sent his brother to 
fetch a doctor; there also came a policeman, named Higgs; and 
the doctor and policeman saw, among other things, a basin and 
cream jug rise up automatically, fall on the floor and break. 
Next morning, a clock which had been silent for eighteen months 
struck; a crash was heard, and the clock was found to have 
leapt over a bed and fallen on the floor. All day many things 
kept flying about and breaking themselves, and Mr White sent 
Miss Rose about her business. Peace ensued. 

Mr Podmore, who visited the scene on the 7th and 8th of 
April and collected depositions, says (writing in 1883): "It 
may be stated generally that there was no. possibility, in most 
cases, of the objects having been thrown by hand. . . . More- 
over it is hard to conceive by what mechanical appliances, 
under the circumstances described, the movements could have 
been effected. ... To suppose that these various objects 
were all moved by mechanical contrivances argues incredible 
stupidity, amounting almost to imbecility, on the part of all 
the persons present who were not in the plot," whereas Higgs, 
Dr Lloyd and a miner named Curass, all " certainly not wanting 
in intelligence," examined the objects and could find no explana- 
tion. White attested that fresh invasions of the kitchen by 
inanimate objects occurred as Eliza was picking up the earlier 
arrivals; and he saw a salt-cellar fly from the table while Eliza 
was in another part of the room. The amount of things broken 
was valued by White at £9. No one was in the room when the 
clock struck and fell. Higgs saw White shut the cupboard 
doors, they instantly burst open, and a large glass jar flew into 
the yard and broke. " The jar could not go in a straight line 
from the cupboard out of the door; but it certainly did go " 
(Higgs). The depositions were signed by the witnesses (April 
1883). 

In 1806, Mr Podmore, after thirteen years of experience 
in examining reports of the poltergeist, produced his explana- 



tions. (1) The witnesses, though " honest and fairly intelli- 
gent," were " imperfectly educated, not skilled in accurate 
observation of any kind." (They described, like many others, 
in many lands, the " wobbling " movement of objects in flight.) 
(2) Mr Podmore took the evidence five weeks after date; there 
was time for exaggerated memories. (Mr Podmore did not 
consult, it seems, the contemporary evidence of Higgs in the 
Retford and Gainsborough Times, 9th of March 1883. On 
examination it proves to tally as precisely as possible with the 
testimonies which he gave to Mr Podmore, except that in March 
he mentioned one or two miracles which he omitted five weeks 
later! The evidence is published in Lang's The Making of 
Religion, 1898, p. 356.) (3) In the evidence given to Mr Podmore 
five weeks after date, there are discrepancies between Higgs and 
White as to the sequence of some events, and as to whether 
one Coulter was present when the clock fell: he asserts, Higgs 
and White deny it . (There is never evidence of several witnesses, 
five weeks after an event, without such discrepancies. If there 
were, the evidence would be suspected as " cooked." Higgs 
in April gave the same version as in March.) (4) As there 
are discrepancies, the statements that Eliza was not always 
present at the abnormal occurrences may be erroneous. " It 
is perhaps not unreasonable to conjecture that Eliza Rose herself, 
as the instrument of mysterious agencies, or simply as a half- 
witted girl gifted with abnormal cunning and love of mischief, 
may have been directly responsible for all that took place." 
(How, if, as we have seen, the theory of mechanical appliances 
is abandoned, " under the circumstances described " ? We need 
to assume that all the circumstances are wrongly described. 
Yet events did occur, the breakages were lamentable, and we 
ask how could the most half-witted of girls damage so much 
property undetected, under the eyes of the owner, a policeman, 
a medical practitioner and others? How could she throw things 
from above into the room where she was picking up the things 
as they arrived? Or is that a misdescription? No evidence 
of Eliza's half-wittedness and abnormal cunning is adduced. 
If we call her "the instrument of mysterious agencies," the 
name of these agencies is — poltergeist! No later attempt to 
find and examine the abnormal girl is recorded.) 

The explanations are not ideally satisfactory, but they are the 
result, in Mr Podmore's mind, of examination of several later 
cases of poltergeist. 1 In one a girl, carefully observed, was 
detected throwing things, and evidence that the phenomena 
occurred, in her absence, at another place and time, is discounted. 
In several other cases, exaggerations of memory, malobservation 
and trickery combined, are the explanations, and the conclu- 
sion is that there is " strong ground " for believing in trickery 
as the true explanation of all these eleven cases, including 
the Worksop affair. Mr Podmore asserts that, at Worksop, 
" the witnesses did not give their testimony until some weeks 
after the event." That is an erroneous statement as far as Higgs 
goes, the result apparently of malobservation of the local news- 
paper. More or less of the evidence was printed in the week 
when the events occurred. Something more than unconscious 
exaggeration, or malobservation, seems needed to explain the 
amazing statements made by Mr Newman, a gamekeeper of 
Lord Portman, on the 23rd of January 1895, at Durmeston in 
another case. Among other things, he said that on the 18th 
of December 1894, a boot flew out of a door. " I went and put 
my foot on the boot and said ' I defy anything to move this 
boot.' Just as I stepped off, it rose up behind me and knocked 
my hat off. There was nobody behind me." Gamekeepers are 
acute observers, and if the narrative be untrue, malobservation 
or defect of memory does not explain the fact. In this case, 
at Durmeston, the rector, Mr Anderson, gave an account of 

1 The present writer criticized Mr Podmore's explanation in 
The Making of Religion. Mr Podmore replied (Proc. Soc. Psychical 
Research, xiv. 133, 136), pointing out an error in the critic's 
presentation of his meaning. He, in turn, said that the writer 
" champions the supernormal interpretation," which is not exact, 
as the writer has no theory on the subject, though he is not 
satisfied that " a naughty little girl " is a uniformly successful 
solution of the poltergeist problem. 



i6 



POLTERGEIST 



some of the minor phenomena. He could not explain them, and 
gave the best character to the Nonconformist mother of the 
child with whom the events were associated. No trickery- 
was discovered. 

The phenomena are frequently connected with a person, 
often a child, suffering from nervous malady or recent nervous 
shock. No such person appears in the Alresford, Willington, 
Epworth and Tedworth cases, and it is not stated that Eliza 
Rose at Worksop was subjected to a medical examination. In 
a curious case, given by Mrs Crewe, in The Night Side of Nature, 
the young person was the daughter of a Captain Molesworth. 
Her own health was bad, and she had been depressed by the 
death of a sister. Captain Molesworth occupied a semi-detached 
villa at Trinity, near Edinburgh; his landlord lived next door. 
The phenomena set in: the captain bored holes in the wall to 
discover a cause in trickery, and his landlord brought a suit 
against him in the sheriff's court at Edinburgh. 

The papers are preserved, but the writer found that to 
discover them would be a herculean labour. He saw, how- 
ever, a number of documents in the office of a firm of 
solicitors employed in the case. They proved the fact of the 
lawsuit but threw no other light on the matter. We often 
find that the phenomena occur after a nervous shock to the 
person who may be called the medium. The shock is frequently 
consequent on a threat from a supposed witch or wizard. This 
was the case at Cideville in 1850-1851. (See an abstract of the 
documents of the trial, Proceedings S.P.R. xviii. 454-463. 
The entire report was sent to the writer.) In 1901 there 
was a case at Great Grimsby; the usual flying of stones 
and other objects occurred. The woman of the house had been 
threatened by a witch, after that the poltergeist developed. 
No explanation was forthcoming. In Proc. S.P.R. xvii. 
320 the Rev. Mr Deanley gives a curious parallel case 
with detection of imposture. In Miss O'Neal's Devonshire 
Idylls is an excellent account of the phenomena which occurred 
after a Devonshire girl of the best character, well known to Miss 
O'Neal, had been threatened by a witch. In the famous instance 
of Christian Shaw of Bargarran (1697) the child had been thrice 
formally cursed by a woman, who prayed to God that her soul 
" might be hurled through hell." Christian fell into a state 
which puzzled the medical faculty (especially when she floated 
in the air), and doubtless she herself caused, in an hysterical 
state, many phenomena which, however, were not precisely 
poltergeistish. A very marked set of phenomena, in the way 
of movements of objects, recently occurred in the Hudson Bay 
territory, after a half-breed girl had received a nervous shock 
from a flash of lightning that struck near her. Heavy weights 
automatically " tobogganed," as Red Indian spectators said, 
and there were the usual rappings in tent and wigwam. If we 
accept trickery as the sufficient explanation, the uniformity of 
tricks played by hysterical patients is very singular. Still 
more singular is a long series, continued through several years, 
of the same occurrences where no hysterical patient is known to 
exist. In a very curious example, a carpenter's shop being the 
scene, there was concerned nobody of an hysterical temperament, 
no young boy or girl, and there was no explanation (Proc. S.P.R. 
vii- 383-394). The events went on during six weeks. 
An excellent case of hysterical fraud by a girl in France is given 
by Dr Grasset, professor of clinical medicine at Montpellier (Proc. 
S.P.R. xviii. 464-480). But in this instance, though things 
were found in unusual places, nobody over eight years old saw 
them flying about; yet all concerned were deeply superstitious. 

On the whole, while fraud, especially hysterical fraud, is a 
vera causa in some cases of poltergeist, it is not certain that the 
explanation fits all cases, and it is certain that detection of 
fraud has often been falsely asserted, as at Tedworth and 
Willington. No good chronic case, as at Alresford, Epworth, 
Spraiton (Bovet's Pandaemonium), Willington, and in other 
classical instances, has been for months sedulously observed by 
sceptics. In short-lived cases, as at Worksop, science appears 
on the scene long enough after date to make the theory of 
exaggeration of memory plausible. If we ask science to explain 



how the more remarkable occurrences could be produced by a 
girl ex hypothese half-witted, the reply is that the occurrences 
never occurred, they were only " described as occurring " by 
untrained observers with " patent double magnifying " memo- 
ries; and with a capacity for being hallucinated in a uniform 
way all the world over. Yet great quantities of crockery 
and furniture were broken, before the eyes of observers, in a 
house near Ballarmina, in North Ireland, in January 1907. 
The experiment of exhibiting a girl who can break all the 
crockery without being detected, in the presence of a doctor 
and a policeman, and who can, at the same time, induce the 
spectators to believe that the flying objects waver, swerve and 
" wobble," has not been attempted. 

An obvious difficulty in the search for authentic information 
is the circumstance that the poor and imperfectly educated are 
much more numerous than the well-to-do and well educated. 
It is therefore certain that most of the disturbances will occur 
in the houses of the poor and ill educated, and that their evidence 
will be rejected as insufficient. When an excellent case occurs 
in a palace, and is reported by the margravine of Bayreuth, sister 
of Frederick the Great, in her Memoirs, the objection is that her 
narrative was written long after the events. When we have 
contemporary journals and letters, or sworn evidence, as in the 
affairs of Sir Philip Francis, Cideville and Willington, criticism 
can probably find some other good reasons for setting these 
testimonies aside. It is certain that the royal, the rich and the 
• well-educated observers tell, in many cases, precisely the same 
sort of stories about poltergeist phenomena as do the poor and 
the imperfectly instructed. 

On the theory that there exist " mysteribus agencies " which 
now and then produce the phenomena, we may ask what these 
agencies can possibly be? But no answer worthy of considera- 
tion has ever been given to this question. The usual reply is 
that some unknown but intelligent force is disengaged from the 
personality of the apparent medium. This apparent medium 
need not be present; he or she may be far away. The High- 
landers attribute many poltergeist phenomena, inexplicable noises, 
sounds of viewless feet that pass, and so forth, to tdradh, an 
influence exerted unconsciously by unduly strong wishes on the 
part of a person at a distance. The phrase falbh air fdrsaing 
(" going uncontrolled ") is also used (Campbell, Witchcraft and 
Second Sight in the Scottish Highlands, 1902, pp. 144-147). The 
present writer is well acquainted with cases attributed to 
tdradh, in a house where he has often been a guest. They excite 
no alarm, their cause being well understood. We may call this 
kind of thing telelhoryby, a racket produced from a distance. 
A very marked case in Illinois would have been attributed in 
the Highlands to the tdradh of the late owner of the house, a 
dipsomaniac in another state. On his death the disturbances 
ceased (first-hand evidence from the disturbed lady of the 
house, May 1907). It may be worth while to note that the 
phenomena are often regarded as death-warnings by popular 
belief. The early incidents at the Wesleys' house were thought 
to indicate the death of a kinsman; or to announce the approach- 
ing decease of Mr Wesley pere, who at first saw and heard 
nothing unusual. At Worksop the doctor was called in, because 
the phenomena were guessed to be " warnings " of the death 
of a sick child of the house. The writer has first-hand 
evidence from a lady and her son (afterwards a priest) of 
very singular movements of untouched objects in their presence, 
which did coincide with the death of a relation at a distance. 

Bibliography. — The literature of the subject is profuse, but 
scattered. For modern instances the Proceedings of the Society 
for Psychical Research may be consulted, especially an essay by 
F. W. H. Myers, vii. 146-198, also iv. 29-38; with the essay by 
Podmore, already quoted. Books like Dale Owen's Footfalls 
on the. Boundary of Another World, and Fresnoy's Recueil des dis- 
sertations sur les apparitions, are stronger in the quantity of anec- 
dotes than in the quality of evidence. A. Lang's Book of Dreams 
and Ghosts, contains outlandish and Celtic examples, and Telfair's 
(Telfer's) A True Relation of an Apparition (1694-1696) shows un- 
usual regard for securing signed evidence. Kiesewetter's Geschichte 
des neueren Occultismus and Graham Dalyell's Darker Super- 
stitions of Scotland, with any collections of trials for witchcraft 



POLTROON— POLYANTHUS 



17 



may be consulted, and Bovet's Pandaemonium (1684) is very rich 
in cases. The literature of the famous drummer of Tedworth 
(March 1662-April 1663) begins with an abstract of the sworn 
deposition of Mr Mompesson, whose house was the scene of the dis- 
turbances. The abstract is in the Mercurius publicus of April 
1663, the evidence was given in a court of justice on the 15th of April. 
There is also a ballad, a rhymed news-sheet of 1662 (Anthony 
Wood's Collection 401 (193), Bodleian Library). Pepys mentions 
" books " about the affair in his Diary for June 1663. Glanvil's 
first known version is in his Sadducismus triumphatus of 1666. 
The sworn evidence of Mompesson proves at least that he was 
disturbed in an intolerable manner, certainly beyond any means 
at the disposal of his two daughters, aged nine and eleven or there- 
abouts. The agent may have been the taradh of the drummer 
whom Mompesson offended. Glanvil in 1666 confused the dates, 
and, save for his own experiences, merely repeats the statements 
curient in 1662-1663. The ballad and Mompesson's deposition 
are given in Proc. S.P.R. xvii. 304-336, in a discussion between 
the writer and Mr Podmore. The dated and contemporary 
narrative of Procter in the Willington Mill case (1835- 
1847), is printed in the Journ. S.P.R. (Dec. 1892), with some 
contemporary letters on the subject. Mr Procter endured the 
disturbances for sixteen years before he retreated from the 
place. There was no naughty little girl in the affair; no nervous 
or hysterical patient. The Celtic hypothesis of taradh, exercised 
by " the spirit of the living," includes visual apparitions, and many 
a so-called " ghost " of the dead may be merely the tiradh of a 
living person. (A. L.) 

POLTROON, a coward, a worthless rogue without courage or, 
spirit. The word comes through Fr. poltron from Ital. poltrone, 
an idle fellow, one who lolls in a bed or couch (Milanese palter, 
Venetian polirona, adapted from Ger. Polster, a pillow; cf. 
English " bolster"). The old guess that it was from Lat. pollice 
truncus, maimed in the thumb, and was first applied to those 
who avoided military service by self-mutilation, gave rise 
probably to the French application of poltron to a falcon whose 
talons were cut to prevent its attacking game. 

POLTROT, JEAN DE (c. 153 7-1 563), sieur de Mere or Merey, 
a nobleman of Angoumois, who murdered Francis, duke of Guise. 
He had lived some time in Spain, and his knowledge of Spanish, 
together with his swarthy complexion, which earned him the 
nickname of the " Espagnolet," procured him employment as a 
spy in the wars against Spain. Becoming a fanatical Huguenot, 
he determined to kill the duke of Guise, and gained admission 
as a deserter to the camp of the Catholics who were besieging 
Orleans. In the evening of the 18th of February 1563 he hid 
by the side of a road along which he knew the duke would pass, 
fired a pistol at him, and fled. But he was captured the next day, 
and was tried, tortured several times, and sentenced to be drawn 
and quartered. On the 18th of March 1563 he underwent a 
frightful punishment. The horses not being able to drag off his 
limbs, he was hacked to pieces with cutlasses. He had made 
several contradictory declarations regarding the complicity of 
Coligny. The admiral protested emphatically against the 
accusation, which appears to have had no foundation. 

See Memoires du prince de Conde (London, 1743) ; T. A. D'Aubign£, 
Histoire universelle (ed. by de Ruble, Soc. de Vhistoire de France, 
1886) ; A. de Ruble, L'Assassinat du due Francois de Lorraine (Paris, 
1897). 

POLYAENUS, a Macedonian, who lived at Rome as a rhetori- 
cian and pleader in the 2nd century a.d. When the Parthian War 
(162-5) broke out, Polyaenus, too old to share in the campaign, 
dedicated to the emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus a 
work, still extant, called Strategica or Strategemata, a historical 
collection of stratagems and maxims of strategy written in Greek 
and strung together in the form of anecdotes. It is not strictly 
confined to warlike stratagems, but includes also examples of 
wisdom, courage and cunning drawn from civil and political life. 
The work is uncritically written, but is nevertheless important on 
account of the extracts it has preserved from histories now lost. 
It is divided into eight books (parts of the sixth and seventh 
are lost), and originally contained nine hundred anecdotes, 
of which eight hundred and thirty-three are extant. Polyaenus 
intended to write a history of the Parthian War, but there is no 
evidence that he did so. His works on Macedonia, on Thebes, 
and on tactics (perhaps identical with the Strategica) are lost. 

His Strategica seems to have been highly esteemed by the Roman 
emperors, and to have been handed down by them as a sort of 



heirloom. From Rome it passed to Constantinople; at the end of 
the 9th century it was diligently studied by Leo VI., who himself 
wrote a work on tactics; and in the middle of the loth century 
Constantine Porphyrogenitus mentioned it as one of the most 
valuable books in the imperial library. It was used by Stobaeus, 
Suidas, and the anonymous author of the work Ilepi InrioTuv (see 
Palaephatus). It is arranged as follows: bks. 1., ii., iii., strata- 
gems occurring in Greek history; bk. iv., stratagems of the Mace- 
donian kings and successors of Alexander the Great; bk. v., strata- 
gems occurring in the history of Sicily and the Greek islands and 
colonies; bk. vi., stratagems of a whole people (Carthaginians, 
Lacedaemonians, Argives), together with some individuals 
(Philopoemen, Pyrrhus, Hannibal) ; bk. vii., stratagems of the 
barbarians (Medes, Persians, Egyptians, Thracians, Scythians, 
Celts); bk. viii., stratagems of Romans and women. This dis- 
tribution is not, however, observed very strictly. Of the negligence 
or haste with which the work was written there are many instances : 
e.g. he confounds Dionysius the elder and Dionysius the younger, 
Mithradates satrap of Artaxerxes and Mithradates the Great, 
Scipio the elder and Scipio the younger, Perseus, king of Macedonia 
and Perseus the companion of Alexander; he mixes up the strata- 
gems of Caesar and Pompey; he brings into immediate connexion 
events which were totally distinct; he narrates some events twice 
over, with variations according to the different authors from whom 
he draws. Though he usually abridges, he occasionally amplifies 
arbitrarily the narratives of his authorities. He never mentions 
his authorities, but amongst authors still extant he used Herodotus, 
Thucydides, Xenophon, Polybius, Diodorus, Plutarch, Frontinus 
and Suetonius; amongst authors cf whom only fragments now 
remain he drew upon Ctesias, Ephorus, Timaeus, Phylarchus and 
Nicolaus Damascenus. His style is clear, but monotonous and 
inelegant. In the forms of his words he generally follows Attic 
usage. 

The best edition of the text is Wolfflin and Melber (Teubner 
Series, 1887, with bibliography and editio princeps of the Strate- 
gemata of the emperor Leo) ; annotated editions by Isaac Casaubon 
(1589) and A. Coraes (1809); I. Melber, Ueber die Quellen und 
Werth der Strategemensammlung Polydns (1885); Knott, De fide 
et fontibus Polyaeni (1883), who largely reduces the number of 
the authorities consulted by Polyaenus. Eng. trans, by R. Shepherd 
(1793)- 

POLYANDRY (Gr. iroXfe, many, and avqp, man), the system 
of marriage between one woman and several men, who are her 
husbands exclusively (see Family). The custom locally legal- 
izing the marriage of one woman to more than one husband at a 
time has been variously accounted for as the result of poverty and 
of life in unfertile lands, where it was essential to check popula- 
tion as the consequence of female infanticide, or, in the opinion 
of J. F. McLennan and L. H. Morgan, as a natural phase through 
which human progress has necessarily passed. Polyandry is to 
be carefully differentiated from communal marriage, where the 
woman is the property of any and every member of the tribe. 
Two distinct kinds of polyandry are practised: one, often called 
Nair, in which, as among the Nairs of India, the husbands are 
not related to each other; and the second, the Tibetan or fraternal 
polyandry, in which the woman is married to all the brothers of 
one family. Polyandry is practised by the tribes of Tibet, 
Kashmir and the Himalayan regions, by the Todas, Koorgs, 
Nairs and other peoples of India, in Ceylon, New Zealand, by 
some of the Australian aborigines, in parts of Africa, in the 
Aleutian archipelago, among the Koryaks and on the Orinoco. 

See McLennan's Primitive Marriage (London, 1885) ; Studies in 
Ancient History (London, 1886); "The Levirate and Polyandry," 
in The Fortnightly Review, new series, vol. xxi. (London, 1877) ; 
L. H. Moigan, System of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human 
Family (Washington, 1869); Lord Avebury, Origin of Civilization; 
E. Westermarck, History of Human Marriage. 

POLYANTHUS, one of the oldest of the florists' flowers, is 
probably derived from P. variabilis, itself a cross between the 
common primrose and the cowslip; it differs from the primrose in 
having the umbels of flowers carried up on a stalk. The florists' 
polyanthus has a golden margin, and is known as the gold-laced 
polyanthus, the properties being very distinctly laid down and 
rigidly adhered to. The chief of these are a clear, unshaded, 
blackish or reddish ground colour, an even margin or lacing of 
yellow extending round each segment and cutting through its 
centre down to the ground colour, and a yellow band surrounding 
the tube of exactly the same hue as the yellow of the lacing. The 
plants are quite hardy, and grow best in strong, loamy soil 
tolerably well enriched with well-decayed dung and leaf -mould; 



i8 



POLYBIUS 



they should be planted about the end of September or not 
later than October. Plants for exhibition present a much 
better and cleaner appearance if kept during winter in a cold 
well-aired frame. 

For the flower borders what are called fancy polyanthuses are 
adopted. These are best raised annually from seed, the young 
crop each year blooming in succession. The seed should be 
sown as soon as ripe, the young plants being allowed to stand 
through the winter in the seed bed. In April or May they are 
planted out in a bed of rich garden soil, and they will bloom 
abundantly the following spring. A few of the better " thrum- 
eyed " sorts (those having the anthers in the eye, and the pistil 
sunk in the tube) should be allowed to ripen seed; the rest may be 
thrown away. In some remarkable forms which have been 
cultivated for centuries the ordinarily green calyx has become 
petaloid; when this is complete it forms the hose-in-hose prim- 
rose of gardeners. There are also a few well-known double- 
flowered varieties. 

POLYBIUS (c. 204-122 B.C.), Greek historian, was a native of 
Megalopolis in Arcadia, the youngest of Greek cities (Paus. viii. 
9), which, however, played an honourable part in the last days of 
Greek freedom as a stanch member of the Achaean League (q.v.). 
His father, Lycortas, was the intimate friend of Philopoemen, and 
on the death of the latter, in 182, succeeded him as leader of the 
league. The date of Polybius's birth is doubtful. He tells us 
himself that in 181 he had not yet reached the age (? thirty years, 
Polyb. xxix. 9) at which an Achaean was legally capable of 
holding office (xxiv. 6). We learn from Cicero (Ad Fam. v. 12) 
that he outlived the Numantine War, which ended [in 132, and 
from Lucian [Macrob. 22) that he died at the age of eighty-two. 
The majority of authorities therefore place his birth between 
214 and 204 B.C. Little is known of his early life. As the son of 
Lycortas he was naturally brought into close contact with the 
leading men of the Achaean League. With Philopoemen he 
seems to have been on intimate terms. After Philopoemen's 
tragic death in Messenia (182) he was entrusted with the honour- 
able duty of conveying home the urn in which his ashes had been 
deposited (Plut. Phil. 21). In 181, together with his father, 
Lycortas and the younger Aratus, he was appointed, in spite of 
his youth, a member of the embassy which was to visit Ptolemy 
Epiphanes, king of Egypt, a mission, however, which the sudden 
death of Ptolemy brought to a premature end (xxv. 7). The 
next twelve years of his life are a blank, but in 169 he reappears 
as a trusted adviser of the Achaeans at a difficult crisis in the 
history of the League. In 1 7 1 war had broken out between Rome 
and the Macedonian king Perseus, and the Achaean statesmen 
were divided as to the policy to be pursued; there were good 
reasons for fearing that the Roman senate would regard neu- 
trality as indicating a secret leaning towards Macedon. Polybius 
therefore declared for an open alliance with Rome, and his views 
were adopted. It was decided to send an Achaean force to co- 
operate with the Roman general, and Polybius was selected to 
command the cavalry. The Roman consul declined the proffered 
assistance, but Polybius accompanied him throughout the 
campaign, and thus gained his first insight into the military 
system of Rome. In the next year (168) both Lycortas and 
Polybius were on the point of starting at the head of 1200 
Achaeans to take service in Egypt against the Syrians, when an 
intimation from the Roman commander that armed inter- 
ference was undesirable put a stop to the expedition (xxix. 23). 
The success of Rome in the war with Perseus was now assured. 
The final victory was rapidly followed by the arrival in Achaea 
of Roman commissioners charged with the duty of establishing 
Roman interests there. Polybius was arrested with 1000 of 
the principal Achaeans, but, while his companions were con- 
demned to a tedious incarceration in the country towns of Italy, 
he obtained permission to reside in Rome. This privilege he 
owed to the influence of L. Aemilius Paullus and his two sons, 
Scipio and Fabius (xxxii. 9). Polybius was received into Aemi- 
lius's house, and became the instructor of his sons. Between 
Scipio (P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus the younger), the future 
conqueror of Carthage ,and himself a friendship soon sprang up, 



which ripened into a lifelong intimacy, and was of inestimable 
service to him throughout his career. It protected him from 
interference, opened to him the highest circles of Roman society, 
and enabled him to acquire a personal influence with the leading 
men, which stood him in good stead when he afterwards came 
forward to mediate between his countrymen and Rome. It 
placed within his reach opportunities for a close study of Rome 
and the Romans such as had fallen to no historian before him, 
and secured him the requisite leisure for using them, while 
Scipio's liberality more than once supplied him with the means of 
conducting difficult and costly historical investigations (Pliny, 
N.H. v. 9). In 151 the few surviving exiles were allowed to 
return to Greece. But the stay of Polybius in Achaea was brief. 
The estimation in which he was held at Rome is clearly shown 
by the anxiety of the consul Marcus (or Manlius) Manilius (149) 
to take him as his adviser on his expedition against Carthage. 
Polybius started to join him, but broke off his journey at Corcyra 
on learning that the Carthaginians were inclined to yield (xxxvi. 
3). But when, in 147, Scipio himself took the command in 
Africa, Polybius hastened to join him, and was an eye-witness 
of the siege and destruction of Carthage. During his absence in 
Africa the Achaeans had made a last desperate attempt to 
assert their independence of Rome. He returned in 146 to find 
Corinth in ruins, the fairest cities of Achaea at the mercy of the 
Roman soldiery, and the famous Achaean League shattered to 
pieces (see Achaean Leacue). All the influence he possessed 
was freely spent in endeavouring to shield his countrymen from 
the worst consequences of their rashness. The excesses of the 
soldiery were checked, and at his special intercession the statues 
of Aratus and Philopoemen were preserved (xxxix. 14). An 
even more difficult task was that entrusted to him by the 
Roman authorities themselves, of persuading the Achaeans to 
acquiesce in the new regime imposed upon them by their con- 
querors, and of setting the new machinery in working order. 
With this work, which he accomplished so as to earn the heartfelt, 
gratitude of his countrymen (xxxix. 16), his public career seems 
to have closed. The rest of his life was, so far as we know, 
devoted to the great history which is the lasting monument of 
his fame. He died, at the age of eighty-two, of a fall from his 
horse (Lucian, Macrob. 22). The base of a statue erected to 
him by Elis was found at Olympia in 1877. It bears the inscrip- 
tion 17 ir6\i.s ri 'HXeicoy HoKvpiov Avuopra Me-y OLKoTroXirriv. 

Of the forty books which made up the history of Polybius, the 
first five alone have come down to us in a complete form ; of the rest 
we have only more or less copious fragments. But the general 
plan and scope of the work are explained by Polybius himself. 
His intention was to make plain how and why it was that " all the 
known regions of the civilized world had fallen under the sway 
of Rome " (iii. 1). This empire of Rome, unprecedented in its 
extent and still more so in the rapidity with which it had been ac- 
quired, was the standing wonder of the age, and " who," he exclaims 
(i. 1), " is so poor-spirited or indolent as not to wish to know by 
what means, and thanks to what sort of constitution, the Romans 
subdued the world in something less than fifty-three years? " 
These fifty-three years are those between 220 (the point at which 
the work of Aratus ended) and 168 B.C., and extend therefore 
from the outbreak of the Hannibalic War to the defeat of Perseus 
at Pydna. To this period then the main portion of his history 
is devoted from the third to the thirtieth book inclusive. But 
for clearness' sake he prefixes in bks. i. and ii. such a preliminary 
sketch of the earlier history of Rome, of the First Punic War, and 
of the contemporary events in Greece and Asia, as will enable his 
readers more fully to understand what follows. This seems to 
have been his original plan, but at the opening of bk. iii., wiitten 
apparently after 146, he explains that he thought it desirable to 
add some account of the manner in which the Romans exercised 
the power they had won, of their temperament and policy and of 
the final catastrophe which destroyed Carthage and for ever broke 
np the Achaean League (iii. 4, 5). To this appendix, giving the 
history from 168-146, the last ten books are devoted. 

Whatever fault may be found with Polybius, there can be no 
question that he had formed a high conception of the task before 
him. He lays repeated stress on two qualities as distinguishing 
his history from the ordinary run of historical compositions. The 
first of these, its synoptic character, was partly necessitated by the 
nature of the period. The various states fringing the basin of the 
Mediterranean had become so inextricably interwoven that it 
was no longer possible to deal with them in isolation. Polybius 
therefore claims for his history that it will take a comprehensive 



<WOLYMm 



1 9 



view of the whole course of events in the civilized world, within 
the limits of the period (i. 4). He thus aims at placing before his 
readers at each stage a complete survey of the field of action from 
Spain to Syria and Egypt. This synoptic method proceeds' from 
a true appreciation of what is now called the unity of history, and 
to Polybius must be given the credit of having first firmly grasped 
and clearly enforced a lesson which the events of his own time 
were especially well calculated to teach. It is the great merit 
of his work that it gives such a picture of the 2nd and 3rd centuries 
B.C. as no series of special narratives could have supplied. 

The second quality upon which Polybius insists as distinguishing 
his history from all others is its " pragmatic " character. It deals, 
that is, with events and with their causes, and aims at an accurate 
record and explanation of ascertained facts. This " pragmatic 
method " (ix. 2) makes history intelligible by explaining the how 
and the why; and, secondly, it is only when so written that history 
can perform its true function of instructing and guiding those who 
study it. For the great use of history, according to Polybius, is to 
contribute to the right conduct of human life (i. 35). But this 
it can do only if the historian bears in mind the true nature of his 
task. He must remember that the historian should not write as 
the dramatist does to charm or excite his audience for the moment 
(ii. 56). He will aim simply at exhibiting events in their true 
light, setting forth " the why and the how " in each case, not 
confusing causes and occasions, or dragging in old wives' fables, 
prodigies and marvels (ii. 16, iii. 48). He will omit nothing which 
can help to explain the events . he is dealing with : the genius and 
temperament of particular peoples, their political and military 
systems, the characters of the leading men, the geographical features 
of the country, must all be taken into account. To this conception 
of history Polybius is on the whole consistently faithful. It is 
true that his anxiety to instruct leads often to a rather wearisome 
iteration of his favourite maxims, and that his digressions, such 
as that on the military art, are occasionally provokingly long and 
didactic. But his comments and reflections are for the most part 
sound and instructive (e.g. those on the lessons to be learnt from 
the revolt of the mercenaries in Africa, i. 65; from the Celtic raids 
in Italy, ii. 35 ; and on the Roman character), while among his digres- 
sions are included such invaluable chapters as those on the Roman 
constitution (bk. vi), the graphic description of Cisalpine Gaul 
(bk. ii.) and the account of the rise and constitution of the Achaean 
League (ii. 38 seq.). To his anxiety again to trace back events 
to their first causes we owe, not only the careful inquiry (bk. iii.) 
into the origin of the Second Punic War, but the sketch of early 
Roman history in bk. i., and of the early treaties between Rome 
and Carthage in iii. 22 seq. Among the many defects which he 
censures in previous historians, not the least serious in his eyes 
are their inattention to the political and geographical surroundings 
of the history (ii. 16, iii. 36), and their neglect duly to set forth the 
causes of events (iii. 6). 

Polybius is equally explicit as regards the personal qualifications 
necessary for a good historian, and in this respect too his practice is 
in close agreement with his theory. Without a personal knowledge 
of affairs a writer will inevitably distort the true relations and im- 
portance of events (xii. 28). Such experience would have saved 
accomplished and fluent Greek writers like Timaeus from many 
of their blunders (xii. 25a), but the shortcomings of Roman soldiers 
and senators like Q. Fabius Pictor show that it is not enough by 
itself. Equally indispensable is careful painstaking research. All 
available evidence must be collected, thoroughly sifted, soberly 
weighed, and, lastly, the historian must be animated by a sincere 
love of truth and a calm impartiality. 

It is important to consider how far Polybius himself comes Up 
to his standard. In his personal acquaintance with affairs, in the 
variety of his experience, and in his opportunities for forming a 
correct judgment on events he is without a rival among ancient 
historians. A great part of the period of which he treats fell within 
his own lifetime (iv. 2). He may just have remembered the battle 
of Cynoscephalae (197), and, as we have seen, he was actively 
engaged in the military and political affairs of the Achaean League. 
During his exile in Rome he was able to study the Roman constitu- 
tion, and the peculiarities of the Roman temperament; he made 
the acquaintance of Roman senators, and became the intimate 
friend of the greatest Roman of the day. Lastly, he was able to 
survey with his own eyes the field on which the great struggle 
between Rome and Hannibal was fought out. He left Rome 
only to witness the crowning triumph of Roman arms in Africa, 
and to gain a practical acquaintance with Roman methods of 
government by assisting in the settlement of Achaea. When, in 
146, his public life closed, he completed his preparation of himself 
for his great work by laborious investigations of archives and monu- 
ments, and by a careful personal examination of historical sites and 
scenes. To all this we must add that he was deeply read in the 
learning of his day, above all in the writings of earlier historians. 

Of Polybius's anxiety to get at the truth no better proof can be 
given than his conscientious investigation of original documents 
and monuments, and his careful study of geography and topography 
— both of them points in which his predecessors, as well as his 
successor Livy, conspicuously failed. Polybius is careful con- 
stantly to remind us that he writes for those who are ^tXo/i«0e?s '• 



lovers of knowledge, with whom truth is the first consideration. 
He closely studied the bronze tablets in Rome on which were in- 
scribed the early treaties concluded between Romans and Cartha- 
ginians. He quotes the actual language of the treaty which ended 
the First Punic War (i. 62), and of that between Hannibal and Philip 
of Macedon (vii. 9). In xvi. 15 he refers to a document which he 
had personally inspected in the archives at Rhodes, and in iii. 33 
to the monument on the Lacinian promontory, recording the 
number of Hannibal's forces. According to Dionysius, i. 17, he 
got his date for the foundation of Rome from a tablet in the pontifical 
archives. As instances of his careful attention to geography and 
topography we have not only the fact of his widely extended travels, 
from the African coast and the Pillars of Hercules in the west, to 
the Euxine and the coasts of Asia Minor in the east, but also the 
geographical and topographical studies scattered throughout his 
history. 

Next to the duty of original research, Polybius ranks that of 
impartiality. Some amount of bias in favour of one's own country 
may, he thinks, be pardoned as natural (xvi. 14) ; but it is unpardon- 
able, he says, for the historian to set anything whatever above the 
truth. And on the whole, Polybius must be allowed here again 
to have practised what he preached. It is true that his affection 
for and pride in Arcadia appear in more than one passage (iv. 20, 
21), as also does his dislike of the Aetolians (ii. 45, iv. 3, 16). His 
treatment of Aratus and Philopoemen, the heroes of the Achaean 
League, and of Cleomenes of Sparta, its most constant enemy, is 
perhaps open to severer criticism. Certainly Cleomenes does not 
receive full justice at his hands. Similarly his views of Rome 
and the Romans may have been influenced by his firm belief in 
the necessity of accepting the Roman supremacy as inevitable, 
and by his intimacy with Scipio. He had a deep admiration for 
the great republic, for her well-balanced constitution, for her military 
system, and for the character of her citizens. But just as his 
patriotism does not blind him to the faults and follies of his country- 
men (xxxviii. 4, 5, 6), so he does not scruple to criticize Rome. 
He notices the incipient degeneracy of Rome after 146 (xviii. 35). 
He endeavours to hold the balance evenly between Rome and 
Carthage ; he strongly condemns the Roman occupation of Sardinia 
as a breach of faith (iii. 28, 31); and he does full justice to 
Hannibal. Moreover, there can be no doubt that he sketched the 
Roman character in a masterly fashion. 

His interest in the.study of character and his skill in its delinea- 
tion are everywhere noticeable. He believes, indeed, in an over- 
ruling fortune, which guides the course of events. It is fortune 
which has fashioned anew the face of the world in his own time 
(iv. 2), which has brought the whole civilized world into subjection 
to Rome (i. 4) ; and the Roman Empire itself is the most marvellous 
of her works (viii. 4). But under fortune not only political and 
geographical conditions but the characters and temperaments of 
nations and individuals play their part. The Romans had been 
fitted by. their previous struggles for the conquest of the world 
(i. 63) ; they were chosen to punish the treachery of Philip of Macedon 
(xv. 4); and the greatest of them, Scipio himself, Polybius regards 
as the especial favourite of fortune (xxxii. 15; x. 5). 

In respect of form, Polybius is far the inferior of Livy, partly 
owing to his very virtues. His laudable desire to present a picture 
of the whole political situation at each important moment is fatal 
to the continuity of his narrative. Thus the thrilling story of the 
Second Punic War is broken in upon by digressions on the con- 
temporary affairs in Greece and Asia. More serious, however, 
than this excessive love' of synchronism is his almost pedantic 
anxiety to edify. For grace and elegance of composition, and for 
the artistic presentation of events, he has a hardly concealed : con- 
tempt. Hence a general and almost studied carelessness of effect, 
which mars his whole work. On the other hand he is never weary 
of preaching. His favourite theories of the nature and aims of 
history, of the distinction between the universal and special histories, 
of the duties of an historian, sound as most of them are in them- 
selves, are enforced with wearisome iteration; more than once the 
effect of a graphic picture is spoilt by obtrusive moralizing. Nor, 
lastly, is Polybius's style itself such as to compensate for these 
defects. It is, indeed, often impressive from the evident earnest- 
ness of the writer, and from his sense of the gravity of his subject, 
and is unspoilt by rhetoric or conceit. It has about it the ring of 
reality; the language,, is sometimes pithy .and vigorous; and now 
and then we meet with apt metaphors, such as those borrowed 
from boxing (i. 57), from cock-fighting (i. 58), from draughts (i. 84). 
But, in spite of these redeeming features, the prevailing baldness 
of Polybius's style excludes him from the first rank among classical 
writers; and it is impossible to quarrel with the verdict pronounced 
by Dionysius of Halicarnassus, who places him among those authors 
of later times who neglected the graces of style, and who paid for 
their neglect by leaving behind them works " which no one was 
patient enough to read through to the end." 

It is to the value and variety of his matter, to his critical insight, 
breadth of view and wide research, and not least to the surpassing 
importance and interest of the period with which he deals, that 
Polybius owes his place among the writers of history. What is 
known as to the fortunes of his histories, and the reputation they 
enjoyed, fully bears out this cSriclusion. The silence respecting 



20 



POLYCARP 



him maintained by Quintilian and by Lucian may reasonably be 
taken to imply their agreement with Dionysius as to his merits 
as a master of style. On the other hand, Cicero (De off. iii. 32) 
describes him as " bonus auctor in primis "; in the De republica 
(ii. 14) he praises highly his accuracy in matters of chronology; 
and Cicero's younger contemporary, Marcus Brutus, was a devoted 
student of Polybius, and was engaged on the eve of the battle of 
Pharsalia in compiling an epitome of his histories (Suidas, s.v. ; 
Plutarch, Brut. 4). Livy, however, notwithstanding the extent 
to which he used his writings (see Livy), speaks of him in such 
qualified terms as to suggest the idea that his strong artistic sensi- 
bilities had been wounded by Polybius's literary defects. He has 
nothing better to say of him than that he is ' by no means con- 
temptible " (xxx. 45), and " not an untrustworthy author" (xxxiii. 
10). Posidonius and Strabo, both of them Stoics like Polybius 
himself, are said to have written continuations of his history (Suidas, 
s.v. ; Strabo p. 515). Arrian in the early part of the 2nd and 
Aelian in the 3rd century both speak of him with respect, though 
with reference mainly to his excellence as an authority on the art 
of war. In addition to his Histories Polybius was the author of 
the following smaller works: a life of Philopoemen (Polyb. x. 24), 
a history of the Numantine War (Cic. Ad Fam. v. 12), a treatise on 
tactics (Polyb. ix. 20; Arrian, Tactica; Aelian, Tact. i.). The 
geographical treatise, referred to by Geminus, is possibly identical 
with the thirty-fourth book of the Histories (Schweighauser, 
Praef. p. 184. 

Authorities. — The complete books (i.-v.) of the Histories 
were first printed in a Latin translation by Nicholas Perotti in 
1473. The date of the first Greek edition, that by Obsopaeus, 
is 1530. For a full account of these and of later editions, as well 
as of the extant MSS., see Schweighauser's Preface to his edition 
of Polybius. Our knowledge of the contents of the fragmentary 
books is derived partly from quotations in ancient writers, but 
mainly from two collections of excerpts; one, probably the work 
of a late Byzantine compiler, was first printed at Basel in 1549 
and contains extracts from books vi.-xviii. (ircpJ irptafltUiiv, irepl 
aper>}s koI xaiaas) ; the other consists of two fragments from the 
" select passages " from Greek historians compiled by the directions 
of Constantine Porphyrogenitus in the 10th century. To these 
must be added the Vatican excerpts edited by Angelo Mai in the 
present century. 

The following are the more important modern editions of Polybius : 
Ernesti (3 vols., 1763-1764); Schweighauser (8 vols., 1793, and 
Oxford, 1823); Bekker (2 vols., 1844); L. Dindorf (4 vols., 1866- 
1868, 2nd ed., T. Buttner-Wobst, 5 vols., Leipzig, 1882-1904); 
Hultsch (4 vols., 1867-1871); J. L. Strachan-Davidson, Selections 
from Polybius (Oxford, 1888). For the literature of the subject, 
see Engelmann, Biblioth. script, class.: Script, graeci, pp. 646- 
650 (8th ed. Leipzig, 1880). See also W. W. Capes, The History 
of the Achaean League (London, 1888); F. Susemihl, Gesch. d. 
griech. Litteratur in d. Alexandrinerzeit, ii. 80-128 (Leipzig, 1891- 
1892); 0. Cuntz, Polybios und sein Werk (Leipzig, 1902); R. v. 
Scala, Die Studien des Polybios (Stuttgart, 1890); J. B. Bury, 
Ancient Greek Historians (1909), "a whole-hearted appreciation 
of Polybius"; J. L. Strachan-Davidson, in Hellenica, pp. 353- 
387 (London, 1898), and in Appendix II. to Selections from Polybius 
pp. 642-668 (Oxford, 1888). (H. F. P.; X.) 

POLYCARP (c. 69-e. 155), bishop of Smyrna and one of the 
Apostolic Fathers, derives much of his importance from the fact 
that he links together the apostolic age and that of nascent 
Catholicism. The sources from which we derive our knowledge 
of the life and activity of Polycarp are: (1) a few notices in the 
writings of Irenaeus, (2) the Epistle of Polycarp to the Church at 
Philippi, (3) the Epistle of Ignatius to Polycarp, (4) the Epistle 
of the Church at Smyrna to the Church at Philomelium, giving 
an account of the martyrdom of Polycarp. Since these authori- 
ties have all been more or less called in question and some of them 
entirely rejected by recent criticism, it is necessary to say a few 
words about each. 

1. The Statements of Irenaeus are found (a) in his Adversus haereses, 
iii. 3, 4, (b) in the letter to Victor, where Irenaeus gives an account 
of Polycarp's visit to Rome, (c) in the letter to Florinus — a most 
important document which describes the intercourse between 
Irenaeus and Polycarp and Polycarp's relation with St John. No 
objection has been made against the genuineness of the statements 
in the Adversus haereses, but the authenticity of the two letters 
has been stoutly contested in recent times by van Manen. 1 The 
main attack is directed against the Epistle to Florinus, doubtless 
because of its importance. " The manifest exaggerations," says 
van Manen, " coupled with the fact that Irenaeus never shows 
any signs of acquaintance with Florinus . . . enable us to perceive 
clearly that a writer otherwise unknown is speaking to us here." 
The criticism of van Manen has, however, found no supporters 
outside the Dutch school. The epistle is quoted by Eusebius 

1 Ency. Bib. iii. 3490. 



(v. 20), and is accepted as genuine by Harnack 8 and Kriiger.' 
The relevant statements in the letter, moreover, are supported 
by the references to Polycarp which we find in the body of 
Irenaeus's great work. 

2. The Epistle of Polycarp. — Though Irenaeus states that Polycarp 
wrote many " letters to the neighbouring churches or to certain 
of the brethren " 4 only one has been preserved, viz. the well-known 
letter to the Philippians. The epistle is largely involved in the 
Ignatian controversy (see Ignatius). The testimony which it 
affords to the Ignatian Epistles is so striking that those scholars 
who regard these letters as spurious are bound to reject the Epistle 
of Polycarp altogether, or at any rate to look upon it as largely 
interpolated. The former course has been adopted by Schwegler, 6 
Zeller, 6 and Hilgenfeld, 7 the latter by Ritschl 8 and Lipsius. 9 The 
rehabilitation of the Ignatian letters in modern times has, however, 
practically destroyed the attack on the Epistles of Polycarp. The 
external evidence in its favour is of considerable weight. Irenaeus 
(iii. 3, 4) expressly mentions and commends a " very adequate " 
(kavuTOTt;) letter of Polycarp to the Philippians, and we have no 
reason for doubting the identity of this letter mentioned by Irenaeus 
with our epistle. Eusebius (iii. 36) quotes extracts from the 
epistle, and some of the extracts contain the very passages which 
the critics have marked as interpolations, and Jerome (De Vir. III. 
xvii.) testifies that in his time the epistle was publicly read in the 
Asiatic churches. The internal evidence is equally strong. There 
is absolutely no motive for a forgery in the contents of the epistle. 
As Harnack says, " There is no trace of any tendency beyond the 
immediate purpose of maintaining the true Christian life in the 
church and warning it against covetousness and against an un- 
brotherly spirit. The occasion of the letter was a case of embezzle- 
ment, the guilty individual being a presbyter at Philippi. It shows 
a fine combination of mildness with severity; the language is simple 
but powerful, and, while there is undoubtedly a lack of original 
ideas, the author shows remarkable skill in weaving together 
pregnant sentences and impressive warnings selected from the 
apostolic epistles and the first Epistle of Clement. In these circum- 
stances it would never have occurred to any one to doubt the 
genuineness of the epistle or to suppose that it had been inter- 
polated, but for the fact that in several passages reference is made 
to Ignatius and his epistles." The date of the epistle depends 
upon the date of the Ignatian letter;; and is now generally fixed 
between 112 and 118. An attempt has been made in some quarters 
to prove that certain allusions in the epistle imply the rise of the 
heresy of Marcion and that it cannot therefore be placed earlier than 
140. Lightfoot, however, has proved that Polycarp's statements 
may equally well be directed against Corinthianism or any other 
form of Docetism, while some of his arguments are absolutely 
inapplicable to Marcionism. 

3. The Epistle of Ignatius to Polycarp. — This epistle has of course 
been subjected to the same criticism as has been directed against 
the other epistles of Ignatius (see Ignatius). Over and above the 
general criticism, which may now be said to have been completely 
answered by the investigations of Zahn, Lightfoot and Harnack, 
one or two special arguments have been brought against the Epistle 
to Polycarp. Ussher, for instance, while accepting the other six 
epistles, rejected this on the ground that Jerome says that Ignatius 
only sent one letter to Smyrna— a mistake due to his misinterpre- 
tation of Eusebius. Some modern scholars (among whom Harnack 
was formerly numbered, though he has modified his views on the 
point) feel a difficulty about the peremptory tone which Ignatius 
adopts towards Polycarp. There was some force in this argument 
when the Ignatian Epistles were dated about 140, as in that case 
Polycarp would have been an old and venerable man at the time. 
But now that the date is put back to about 112 the difficulty 
vanishes, since Polycarp was not much over forty when he received 
the letter. We must remember, too, that Ignatius was writing 
under the consciousness of impending martyrdom and evidently 
felt that this gave him the right to criticize the bishops and churches 
of Asia. 

4. The Letter of the Church at Smyrna to the Philomelians is a 
most important document, because we derive from it all our in- 
formation with regard to Polycarp's martyrdom. Eusebius has 
preserved the greater part of this epistle (iv. 15), but we possess it 
entire with various concluding observations in several Greek MSS., 
and also in a Latin translation. The epistle gives a minute 
description of the persecution in Smyrna, of the last days of 
Polycarp and of his trial and martyrdom; and as it contains many 
instructive details and professes to have been written not long after 
the events to which it refers, it has always been regarded as one 
of the most precious remains of the 2nd century. Certain recent 
critics, however, have questioned the authenticity of the narrative. 

2 Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur, i. 593-594. 

3 Early Christian Literature (Eng. trans., 1897), p. 150. 

4 Letter to Florinus ap. Euseb. v. 20. 

5 Nachapostolisches Zeitalter, ii. 154. 

6 Apostolgeschichte, p. 52. 

7 Apostolische Vater, p. 272. 

8 Entstehung der altkatholischen Kirche, p. 584. 

9 Ueber das Verhaltniss, &c, p. 14. 



POLYCARP 



21 



Lipsius brings 1 the date of the epistle down to about 260, though 
he admits many of the statements as trustworthy. Keim, too, 2 
endeavours to show that, although it was based on good information, 
it could not have been composed till the middle of the 3rd century. 
A similar position has also been taken up by Schurer, 3 Holtzmann, 4 
Gebhardt, 6 Reville, 6 and van Manen. 7 The last named regards the 
document "as a decorated narrative of the saint's martyrdom 
framed after the pattern of Jesus' martyrdom," though he thinks 
that it cannot be put as late as 250, but must fall within the limits 
of the 2nd century. It cannot be said, however, that the case 
against the document has been at all substantiated, and the more 
moderate school of modern critics {e.g. Lightfoot, 8 Harnack, 9 
Kruger) 10 is unanimous in regarding it as an authentic document, 
though it recognizes that here and there a few slight interpolations 
have been inserted. 11 Besides these we have no other sources for 
the life of Polycarp ; the Vita S. Polycarpi auctore Pionio (published 
by Duchesne, Paris, 1881, and Lightfoot Ignatius and Polycarp, 
1885, ii. 1015-1047) is worthless. 

Assuming the genuineness of the documents mentioned, we 
now proceed to collect the scanty information which they afford 
with regard to Polycarp's career. Very little is known about 
his early life. He must have been born not later than the year 
60, for on the day of his death (c. 155) he declared that he had 
served the Lord for eighty-six years (Martyrium, 9). The 
statement seems to imply that he was of Christian parentage; 
he cannot have been older than eighty-six at the time of his 
martyrdom , since he had paid a visit to Rome almost immediately 
before. Irenaeus tells us that in early life Polycarp "had been 
taught by apostles and lived in familiar intercourse with many 
that had seen Christ " (iii. 3,4)- This testimony is expanded 
in the remarkable words which Irenaeus addresses to Florinus: 
" I saw thee when I was still a boy (waZs en &v) in Lower Asia 
in company with Polycarp ... I can even now point out the 
place where the blessed Polycarp used to sit when he discoursed, 
and describe his goings out and his comings in, his manner of 
life and his personal appearance and the discourses which he 
delivered to the people, how he used to speak of his intercourse 
with John and with the rest of those who had seen the Lord, and 
how he would relate their words. And everything that he had 
heard from them about the Lord, about His miracles and about 
His teaching, Polycarp used to tell us as one who had received 
it from those who had seen the Word of Life with their own eyes, 
and all this in perfect harmony with the Scriptures. To these 
things I used to listen at the time, through the mercy of God 
vouchsafed to me, noting them down, not on paper but in my 
heart, and constantly by the grace of God I brood over my 
accurate recollections." These are priceless words, for they 
establish a chain of tradition (John-Polycarp-Irenaeus) which is 
without a parallel in early church history. Polycarp thus 
becomes the living link between the Apostolic age and the great 
writers who flourished at the end of the 2nd century. Recent 
criticism, however, has endeavoured to destroy the force of the 
words of Irenaeus. Harnack, for instance, attacks this link at 
both ends. 12 (a) The connexion of Irenaeus and Polycarp, he 
argues, is very weak, because Irenaeus was only a boy {irals) at 
the time, and his recollections therefore carry very little weight. 
The fact too that he never shows any signs of having been influ- 
enced by Polycarp and never once quotes his writings is a further 
proof that the relation between them was slight, (b) The 
connexion which Irenaeus tries to establish between Polycarp 
and John the apostle is probably due to a blunder. Irenaeus has 
confused John the apostle and John' the presbyter. Polycarp 
was the disciple of the latter, not the former. In this second 

1 Zeitschr.f. wissensch. Theol. (1874), p. 200 seq. 

2 Aus dem Urchristenthy.m (1878), p. 90. 
: 3 Zeitschr.f. hist. Theol. (1870), p. 203 seq. 

4 Zeitschr.f '. wissensch. Theol. (1877). 

5 Zeitschr.f. hist. Theol. (1875). 

6 De anno Polycarpi. (1881). 

7 Oud-Christ (1861), and Ency. Bib. iii. 3479. 

8 Ignatius and Polycarp, i. 589 seq. 

9 Gesch. d. altchrist. Lit. II. i. 341. 

10 Early Christian Lit. (Eng. trans., 1897), p. 380. 

11 Amongst these we ought probably to include the expression 
v noBoKixii inK\ri<ria (xvi. 19); koSoXucAs being here used in the sense 
of orthodox— a usage which is not found elsewhere at so early a 
date. 

i? Chronologic, i. 325-329. 



argument Harnack has the support of a considerable number of 
modern scholars who deny the Ephesian residence of John the 
apostle. But, as Gwatkin 13 has pointed out, Harnack's argu- 
ments are by no means decisive, (a) When Irenaeus describes 
himself as a boy (xcus), he need not have meant a very young lad, 
under thirteen, as Harnack makes out. Lightfoot has cited many 
instances which prove that the word could be used of a man 
of thirty. 14 Nor does the alternative phrase which Irenaeus uses 
in iii. 3,4 ( ov /cat Otitis eupaKanev kv tJ; tt/xotJj fmuv i^Xwcta) 
militate against this interpretation, for elsewhere Irenaeus him- 
self distinctly says " triginta annorum aetas prima indoles est 
juvenis " (ii. 22, 5). It is true that Harnack has adduced argu- 
ments which cannot be discussed here to prove that Irenaeus 
was not born till about 140 ; 16 but against this we may quote the 
decision of Lipsius, who puts the date of his birth at 130, 16 while 
Lightfoot argues for 120. 17 The fact that Irenaeus never quotes 
Polycarp does not count for much. Polycarp wrote very little. 
He does not seem to have been a man of great mental capacity. 
" His influence was that of saintliness rather than that of 
intellect." (b) A discussion of Harnack's second line of argument 
is impossible here. His theory with regard to the confusion 
of names is a gratuitous assumption and cannot be proved. 
The tradition of St John's residence at Ephesus is too strong to 
be easily set aside. In spite therefore of much modern criticism 
there seems to be no solid reason for rejecting the statements of 
Irenaeus and regarding Polycarp as the link between the Apostolic 
age and the first of the Catholic fathers. 

Though Polycarp must have been bishop of Smyrna for nearly 
half a century we know next to nothing about his career. We 
get only an occasional glimpse of his activity, and the period 
between 115 and 155 is practically a blank. The only points of 
sure information which we possess relate to (1) his relations with 
Ignatius, (2) his protests against heresy, (3) his visit to Rome in 
the time of Anicetus, (4) his martyrdom. 

1. His Relations with Ignatius. — Ignatius, while on his way to 
Rome to suffer martyrdom, halted at Smyrna and received a 
warm welcome from the church and its bishop. Upon reaching 
Troas he despatched two letters, one to the church at Smyrna, 
another addressed personally to Polycarp. In these letters 
Ignatius charged Polycarp to write to all the churches between 
Smyrna and Syria (since his hurried departure from Troas made 
it impossible for him to do so in person) urging them to send 
letters and delegates to the church at Antioch to congratulate 
it upon the cessation of the persecution and to establish it in the 
faith. The letters of Ignatius illustrate the commanding 
position which Polycarp had already attained in Asia. It was 
in the discharge of the task which had been laid upon him by 
Ignatius that Polycarp was brought into correspondence with 
the Philippians. The Church at Philippi wrote to Polycarp 
asking him to forward their letters to Antioch. Polycarp replied, 
promising to carry out their request and enclosing a number of 
the letters of Ignatius which he had in his possession. 

2. Polycarp's Attack on Heresy. — All through his life Polycarp 
appears to have been an uncompromising opponent of heresy. 
We find him in his epistle (ch. vii.) uttering a strong protest 
against certain false teachers (probably the followers of 
Cerinthus) . 

For every one who shall not confess that Jesus Christ is come 
in the flesh is antichrist; and whosoever shall not confess the 
testimony of the Cross is of the devil ; and whosoever shall pervert 
the oracles of the Lord to his own lusts and say that there is neither 
resurrection nor judgment, that man is the first-born of Satan. 
Wherefore let us forsake their vain doing and their false teaching 
and turn unto the word which was delivered unto us from the 
beginning." 

Polycarp lived to see the rise of the Marcionite and Valentinian 
sects and vigorously opposed them. Irenaeus tells us that on 

ls Contemp. Review, February 1897. 

14 Ignatius and Polycarp, i. 432, for instance, Constantine (Euseb. 
V.C. ii. 51) describes himself as koiiiSv ntus, though he must have 
been over thirty at the time. 

15 Chronologie, i. 325-333. 

16 See Lightfoot, op. at. i. 432. 

17 Essays on Supernatural Religion, 264, 265. 



22 



POLYCLITUS 



one occasion Marcion endeavoured to establish relations with 
him and accosted him with the words, " Recognize us." But 
Polycarp displayed the same uncompromising attitude which his 
master John had shown towards Cerinthus and answered, " I 
recognize you as the first-born of Satan." The steady progress 
of the heretical movement in spite of all opposition was a cause 
of deep sorrow to Polycarp, so that in the last years of his life the 
words were constantly on his lips, " Oh good God, to what times 
hast thou spared me, that I must suffer such things!" 

3. Polycarp' s Visit to Rome. — It is one of the most interesting 
and important events in the church history of the 2nd century 
that Polycarp, shortly before his death, when he was considerably 
over eighty years old, undertook a journey to Rome in order to 
visit the bishop Anicetus. Irenaeus, to whom we are indebted 
for this information (Haer. iii. 3, 4; Epist. ad victorem, ap. 
Euseb. v. 24), gives as the reason for the journey the fact that 
differences existed between Asia and Rome " with regard to 
certain things " and especially about the time of the Easter 
festival. He might easily have told us what these " certain 
things " were and given us fuller details of the negotiations 
between the two great bishops, for in all probability he was 
himself in Rome at the time. But unfortunately all he says is 
that with regard to the certain things the two bishops speedily 
came to an understanding, while as to the time of Easter, each 
adhered to his own custom, without breaking off communion 
with the other. We learn further that Anicetus as a mark of 
special honour allowed Polycarp to celebrate the Eucharist in 
the church, and that many Marcionites and Valentinians were 
converted by him during his stay in Rome. 

4. Polycarp's Martyrdom. — Not many months apparently 
after Polycarp's return from Rome a persecution broke out in 
Asia. A great festival was in progress at Smyrna. The pro- 
consul Statius Quadratus was present on the occasion, and the 
asiarch Philip of Tralles was presiding over the games. Eleven 
Christians had been brought, mostly from Philadelphia, to be 
put to death. The appetite of the populace was inflamed by the 
spectacle of their martyrdom. A cry was raised " Away with 
the atheists. Let search be made for Polycarp." Polycarp took 
refuge in a country farm. His hiding-place, however, was be- 
trayed and he was arrested and brought back into the city. 
Attempts were made by the officials to induce him to recant, but 
without effect. When he came into the theatre the proconsul 
urged him to " revile Christ," and promised, if he would consent 
to abjure his faith, that he would set him at liberty. To this 
appeal Polycarp made the memorable answer, " Eighty and six 
years have I served Him and He hath done me no wrong. How 
then can I speak evil of my King who saved me? " These words 
only intensified the fury of the mob. They clamoured for a lion 
to be let loose upon him there and then. The asiarch however 
refused, urging as an excuse that the games were over. When 
they next demanded that their victim should be burned, the 
proconsul did not interfere. Timber and faggots were hastily 
collected and Polycarp was placed upon the pyre. With calm 
dignity and unflinching courage he met his fate and crowned a 
noble life with an heroic death. 

The question as to the date of the martyrdom has evoked 
considerable controversy. Eusebius in his Chronicon gives 
a.d. 166 as the date of Polycarp's death, and until the year 1867 
this statement was never questioned. In that year appeared 
Waddington's Mimoire sur la chronologie de la vie du rheteur 
Aelius Aristide, in which it was shown from a most acute combin- 
ation of circumstances that the Quadratus whose name is men- 
tioned in the Martyrium was proconsul of Asia in 155-156, and 
that consequently Polycarp was martyred on the 23rd of February 
155. Waddington's conclusion has received overwhelming 
support amongst recent critics. His views have been accepted 
by (amongst many others) Renan, 1 Hilgenfeld, 2 Gebhardt, 3 
Lipsius, 4 Harnack, 6 Zahn, 6 Lightfoot, 7 Randell. 8 Against this 

1 Antichrist (1873), p. 207. s Zeitschr.f. wiss. Theol. (1874), p. 325. 

3 Zeitschr. f. hist. Theol. (1875), p. 356. 

4 Jahrb. f. prot. Theol. (1883), p. 525. 6 Chronologic, i. 334-356. 

6 Zeitschr. f. wiss. Theol. (1882), p. 227; (1884), p. 216. 

7 Ignatius and Polycarp, i. 629-702. 8 Studia biblica (1885), i. 175. 



array of scholars only the following names of importance can be 
quoted in support of the traditional view — Keim, 9 Wieseler 10 and 
Uhlhorn. 11 The problem is too complex to admit of treatment 
here. There seems to be little doubt that the case for the earlier 
date has been proved. The only point upon which there is 
division of opinion is as to whether Waddington's date 155, or — 
as is suggested by Lipsius and supported by C.H. Turner 12 — the 
following year 156 is the more probable. The balance of opinion 
seems to favour the latter alternative, because it leaves more 
room for Polycarp's visit to Anicetus, who only became bishop of 
Rome in 154. Harnack, however, after careful investigation, 
prefers 155. 

The significance of Polycarp in the history of the Church is 
out of all proportion to our knowledge of the facts of his career. 
The violent attack of the Smyrnaean mob is an eloquent tribute 
to his influence in Asia. " This is the teacher of Asia," they 
shouted, " this is the father of the Christians: this is the des- 
troyer of our gods: this is the man who has taught so many no 
longer to sacrifice and no longer to pray to the gods." 13 And 
after the execution they refused to deliver up his bones to the 
Christians for burial on the ground that " the Christians would 
now forsake the Crucified and worship Polycarp." 14 Polycarp 
was indeed, as Polycrates says, 15 " one of the great luminaries " 
(ju«Y&Xa <7Totx«o) of the time. It was in no small degree due to 
his stanch and unwavering leadership that the Church was saved 
from the peril of being overwhelmed by the rising tide of the 
pagan revival which swept over Asia during the first half of the 
2nd century, and it was his unfaltering allegiance to the Apostolic 
faith that secured the defeat of the many forms of heresy which 
threatened to destroy the Church from within. Polycarp had 
no creative genius. He was a " transmitter, not a maker," 
but herein lies his greatness. Much occurred between the 
Apostolic age and the age when the faith of the Church was 
fixed in the earliest creed and protected by the determination 
of the canon of the New Testament. This intervening period 
was the most perilous epoch in the history of the ante-Nicene 
Church. The Apostolic tradition might have been perverted 
and corrupted. The purity of the Gospel might have been 
defiled. The Christian ideal might have been lost. That the 
danger was so largely averted Is to no small extent the result of 
the faithful witness of Polycarp. As Irenaeus says (iii. 3, 4), 
" Polycarp does not appear to have possessed qualifications for 
successfully conducting a controversial discussion with erroneous 
teachers . . . but he could not help feeling how unlike their 
speculations were to the doctrines which he had learned from 
the Apostles, and so he met with indignant reprobation their 
attempt to supersede Christ's gospel with fictions of their own 
devising." It is this that constitutes Polycarp's service to the 
Church, and no greater service has been rendered by any of its 
leaders in any age. 

Bibliography— J- B. Lightfoot, Apostolic Fathers, pt. ii. 
(2nd ed., 1889). Polycarp is dealt with in i. 417-459, 530-704; 
ii. 897-1086; G. Volkmar, Epistula Polycarpi Smyrnaei genuine. 
(Zurich, 1885) ; T. Zahn, Forschungen zur Geschichte des Kanons, &c, 
iv. 249, 279; J. M. Cotterill, "The Epistle of Polycarp to the 
Philippians," Journ. of Philol. (1891), xix., 241-285; Harnack, 
Chronologie der altchristlichen Litteratur (1897). See also Apo- 
stolic Fathers. (H. T. A.) 

POLYCLITUS, the name of two Greek sculptors of the school 
of Argos; the first belonging to the fifth century, the second to 
the early part of the fourth. 

1. The elder and best known Polyclitus was a contemporary of 
Pheidias, and in the opinion of the Greeks his equal. He made 
a figure of an Amazon for Ephesus which was regarded as superior 
to the Amazon of Pheidias made at the same time; and his 
colossal Hera of gold and ivory which stood in the temple near 
Argos was considered as worthy to rank with the Zeus of Pheidias. 

9 Aus dent Urchristentum, p. 90. 

10 Die Christenverjolgungen der Caesaren (1878), p. 34. 

11 Studia biblica (1890), ii. 105-156. 

12 Realencyk. f. prot. Theol., 2nd ed. xii. 105. 

13 Martyrium, ch. 12. 

14 Ibid/17. 

15 A p. Euseb. v. 24. 



POLYCRATES— POLYGAMY 



23 



It would be hard for a modern critic to rate Polyclitus so high: 
the reason is that balance, rhythm and the minute perfection of 
bodily form, which were the great merits of this sculptor, do not 
appeal to us as they did to the Greeks of the 5th century. He 
worked mainly in bronze. 

As regards his chronology we have data in a papyrus pub- 
lished by Grenfell and Hunt containing lists of athletic victors. 
From this it appears that he made a statue of Cyniscus, a victori- 
ous athlete of 464 or 460 B.C., of Pythocles (452) and Aristion 
(452). He thus can scarcely have been born as late as 480 b.C, 
His statue of Hera is dated by Pliny to 420 B.C. His artistic 
activity must thus have been long and prolific. 

Copies of his spearman (doryphorus) (see Greek Art, Plate VI. 
fig. 80), and his victor winding a ribbon round his head (diadu- 
menus) have long been recognized in our galleries. We see their 
excellence, but they inspire no enthusiasm, because they are 
more fleshy than modern figures of athletes, and want charm. 
They are chiefly valuable as showing us the square forms of body 
affected by Polyclitus, and the scheme he adopted, throwing 
the weight of the body (as Pliny says of him) on one leg. We 
must not, however, judge of a great Greek sculptor by Roman 
copies of his works. This has been enforced by the discovery at 
Delos, by the French excavators, of a diadumenus of far more 
pleasing type and greater finish, which also goes back to Poly- 
clitus. The excavations at Olympia^have also greatly widened 
our knowledge of the sculptor. Among the bases of statues 
found on that site were three signed by Polyclitus, still bearing 
on their surface the marks of attachment of the feet of the 
statues. This at once gives us their pose; and following up the 
clue, A. Furtwangler has identified several extant statues as 
copies of figures of boy athletes victorious at Olympia set up by 
Polyclitus. Among these the Westmacott athlete in the British 
Museum is conspicuous. And it is certain that these boys, 
although the anatomy of their bodies seems to be too mature, yet 
have a real charm, combining beauty of form with modesty and 
unaffected simplicity. They enable us better to understand the 
merit of the sculptor. 

The Amazon of Polyclitus survives in several copies, among 
the best of which is one in the British Museum (for its type see 
Greek Art, fig. 40). Here again we find a certain heaviness; 
and the womanly character of the Amazon scarcely appears 
through her robust limbs. But the Amazon of Pheidias, if 
rightly identified, is no better. The masterpiece of Polyclitus, 
his Hera of gold and ivory, has of course totally disappeared. 
The coins of Argos give us only the general type. Many archaeo- 
logists have tried to find a copy of the head. The most defen- 
sible of all these identifications is that of C. Waldstein, who 
shows that a head of a girl in the British Museum (labelled as 
Polyclitan) corresponds so nearly with that of Hera on 5th 
century coins of Argos that we must regard it as a reflex of the 
head of the great statue. It seems very hard and cold beside 
such noble heads of the goddess as those in the Ludovisi Gallery 
(Terme Museum) Rome. American archaeologists have in 
recent years conducted excavations on the site of the Argive 
temple of Hera (Argos and Greek Art, fig. 39) ; but the sculp- 
tural fragments, heads and torsos, which seem to belong to the 
temple erected in the time of Polyclitus, have no close stylistic 
resemblance to other statues recognized as his; and at present 
their position in the history of art is matter of dispute. 

The want of variety in the works of Polyclitus was brought as 
a reproach against him by ancient critics. Varro says that his 
statues were square and almost of one pattern. We have 
already observed that there was small variety in their attitudes. 
Except for the statue of Hera, which was the work of his old 
age, he produced scarcely any notable statue of a deity. His 
field was narrowly limited; but in that field he was unsurpassed. 
2. The younger Polyclitus was of the same family as the elder, 
and the works of the two are not easily to be distinguished. 
Some existing bases, however, bearing the name are inscribed 
in characters of the 4th century, at which time the elder sculptor 
cannot have been alive. The most noted work of the younger 
artist was a statue in marble of Zeus Milichius (the Merciful) 



set up by the people of Argos after a shameful massacre which 
took place in 370 B.C. The elder artist is not known to have 
worked in marble. (P. G.) 

POLYCRATES, tyrant of Samos (c. 535-515 B.C.). Having 
won popularity by donations to poorer citizens, he took advan- 
tage of a festival of Hera, which was being celebrated outside 
the walls, to make himself master of the city (about 535 B.C.). 
After getting rid of his brothers Pantagnotus and Syloson, who 
had at first shared his power, he established a despotism which 
is of great importance in the history of the island. Realizing 
clearly the value of sea-power for a Greek state, he equipped 
a fleet of 100 ships, and so became master of the Aegean basin. 
This ascendancy he abused by numerous acts of piracy which 
made him notorious throughout Greece; but his real purpose 
in building his navy was to become lord of all the islands of the 
archipelago and the mainland towns of Ionia. The details 
of his conquests are uncertain, but it is known that in the 
Cyclades he maintained an alliance with the tyrant Lygdamis 
of Naxos, and curried favour with the Delian Apollo by dedi- 
cating to him the island of Rheneia. He also encountered and 
heavily defeated a coalition of two great naval powers of the 
Asiatic coast, Miletus and Lesbos. Doubtless with the object 
of expanding the flourishing foreign trade of Samos, he entered 
into alliance with Amasis, king of Egypt, who, according to 
Herodotus, renounced his ally because he feared that the gods, 
in envy of Polycrates' excessive good fortune, would bring 
ruin upon him and his allies. It is more probable that the 
breach of the compact was due to Polycrates, for when Cambyses 
of Persia invaded Egypt (525) the Samian tyrant offered to 
support him with a naval contingent. This squadron never 
reached Egypt, for the crews, composed as they were of Poly- 
crates' political enemies, suspecting that Cambyses was under 
agreement to slay them, put back to Samos and attacked their 
master. After a defeat by sea, Polycrates repelled an assault 
upon the walls, and subsequently withstood a siege by a joint 
armament of Spartans and Corinthians assembled to aid the 
rebels. He maintained his ascendancy until about 515, when 
Oroetes, the Persian governor of Lydia, who had been reproached 
for his failure to reduce Samos by force, lured him to the 
mainland by false promises of gain and put him to death by 
crucifixion. 

Beside the political and commercial pre-eminence which he 
conferred upon Samos, Polycrates adorned the city with public 
works on a large scale — -an aqueduct, a mole and a temple of 
Hera (see Samos; Aqueducts). The splendour of his palace 
is attested by the proposal of the Roman emperor Caligula to 
rebuild it. Foreign artists worked for him at high wages; 
from Athens he brought Democedes, the greatest physician of 
the age, at an exceptional salary. He was also a patron of 
letters: he collected a library and lived on terms of intimate 
friendship with the poet Anacreon, whose verses were full of 
references to his patron. The philosopher Pythagoras, however, 
quitted Samos in order to escape his tyranny. " (M. O. B. C.) 

POLYCRATES, Athenian sophist and rhetorician, flourished 
in the 4th century B.C. He taught at Athens, and afterwards 
in Cyprus. He composed declamations on paradoxical themes 
—an Encomium on Clytaemnestra, an Accusation of Socrates, 
an Encomium on Busiris (a mythical king of Egypt, notorious 
for his inhumanity); also declamations on mice, pots and 
counters. His Encomium on Busiris was sharply criticized 
by Isocrates, in a work still extant, and Dionysius of Hali- 
carnassus characterizes his style as frigid, vulgar and inelegant. 

POLYGAMY (Gr. 7roXfe, many, and yaftos, marriage), or as it 
is sometimes termed, Polygyny (yvvii, woman), the system 
under which a man is married to several women at the same time. 
Derivatively it includes the practice of polyandry, but it has 
become definitely restricted to expressing what has been, and still 
is, far the commonest type of relations between the sexes (see 
Family and Marriage). Among Oriental nations plurality of 
legal wives is customary. Mahommedans are allowed four. A 
Hindu can have as many as he pleases: the high-caste sometimes 
having as many as a hundred. Polygamy is the rule among 



24 



POLYGENISTS— POLYGON 



African tribes, and is common among those of Australia and Poly- 
nesia. In China, however, only one wife is lawful. In many 
polygamous countries the practical obstacle of expense prevents 
men from taking advantage of their privileges. While poly- 
gamy was the rule in biblical days among the ancient Jews, and 
was permitted and even enjoined in certain cases by the Mosaic 
law, the Christian Church, though it is nowhere forbidden, except 
for "bishops," in the New Testament, has always set its face 
against it. There have, however, been divines who dissented 
from this general disapproval. The Anabaptists insisted on 
freedom in the matter, and Bernardino Ochino conditionally 
defended plurality of wives. When in 1 540 Philip the Magnani- 
mous, the reforming Landgrave of Hesse, determined (with his 
wife's approval, she being a confirmed invalid) to marry a second 
wife, Luther and Melanchthon approved " as his personal friends, 
though not as doctors of theology"; while Martin Bucer assisted 
at the marriage. In later times the Mormons (q.v.) in America 
provide the most notable instance of the revival of polygamy. 

POLYGENISTS, the term applied to those anthropologists 
who contend that the several primary races of mankind are 
separate species of independent origin. (See Monogenists.) 

POLYGLOTT (Gr. irokvs, many, and y\Snra, tongue) , the term 
for a book which contains side by side versions of the same text 
in several different languages; the most important polyglotts 
are editions of the Bible, or its parts, in which the Hebrew and 
Greek originals are exhibited along with the great historical 
versions, which are of value for the history of the text and its 
interpretation. The first enterprise of this kind is the famous 
Hexapla of Origen in which the Old Testament Scriptures were 
written in six parallel columns, the first containing the Hebrew 
text, the second a transliteration of this in Greek letters, the 
third and fourth the Greek translations by Aquila and Sym- 
machus, the fifth the Septuagint version as revised by Origen, 
the sixth the translation by Theodotion. Inasmuch, however, as 
only two languages, Hebrew and Greek, were employed the work 
was rather diglott than polyglott in the usual sense. After the 
invention of printing and the revival of philological studies, 
polyglotts became a favourite means of advancing the knowledge 
of Eastern languages (for which no good helps were available) as 
well as the study of Scripture. The series began with the 
Complutensian printed by Acnaldus Guilielmus de Brocario at 
the expense of Cardinal Ximenes at the university at Alcala. de 
Henares (Complutum). The first volume of this, containing the 
New Testament in Greek and Latin, was completed on the 10th 
of January 1514. In vols, ii.-v. (finished on July 10, 1517) 
the Hebrew text of the Old Testament was printed in the 
first column of each page, followed by the Latin Vulgate and 
then by the Septuagint version with an interlinear Latin trans- 
lation. Below these stood the Chaldee, again with a Latin 
translation. The sixth volume containing an appendix is dated 
1 51 5, but the work did not receive the papal sanction till March 
1520, and was apparently not issued till 1522. The chief editors 
were Juan de Vergara, Lopez de Zuniga (Stunica), Nunez de 
Guzman (Pincianus), Antonio de Librixa (Nebrissensis) , and 
Demetrius Ducas. About half a century after the Complu- 
tensian came the Antwerp Polyglott, printed by Christopher 
Plantin (1560-1572, in 8 vols, folio). Of this the principal editor 
was Arias Montanus aided by Guido Fabricius Boderianus, 
Raphelengius, Masius, Lucas of Bruges and others. This work 
was under the patronage of Philip II. of Spain; it added a new 
language to those of the Complutensian by including the Syriac 
New Testament; and, while the earlier polyglott had only the 
Targum of Onkelos on the Pentateuch, the Antwerp Bible had 
also the Targum on the Prophets, and on Esther, Job, Psalms 
and the Salomonic writings. Next came Le Jay's Paris Poly- 
glott (1645), which embraces the first printed texts of the Syriac 
Old Testament (edited by Gabriel Sionita, a Maronite, but the 
book of Ruth by Abraham Ecchelensis, also a Maronite) and of 
the Samaritan Pentateuch and version (by Morinus). It has also 
an Arabic version, or rather a series of various Arabic versions. 
The last great polyglott is Brian Walton's (London, 1657), 
which is much less beautiful than Le Jay's but more complete 



in various ways, including, among other things, the Syriac of 
Esther and of several apocryphal books for which it is wanting 
in the Paris Bible, Persian versions of the Pentateuch and Gospels, 
and the Psalms and New Testament in Ethiopic. Walton was 
aided by able scholars, and used much new manuscript material. 
His prolegomena, too, and collections of various readings mark an 
important advance in biblical criticism. It was in connexion 
with this polyglott that E. Castell produced his famous Heptaglott 
Lexicon (2 vols, folio, London, 1669), an astounding monument of 
industry and erudition even when allowance is made for the fact 
that for the Arabic he had the great MS. lexicon compiled and 
left to the university of Cambridge by the almost forgotten 
W. Bedwell. The liberality of Cardinal Ximenes, who is said 
to have spent half a million ducats on it, removed the Complu- 
tensian polyglott from the risks of commerce. The other three 
editions all brought their promoters to the verge of ruin. The 
later polyglotts are of little scientific importance, the best 
recent texts having been confined to a single language; but every 
biblical student still uses Walton and, if he can get it, Le Jay. 
Of the numerous polyglott editions of parts of the Bible it may 
suffice to mention the Genoa psalter of 1516, edited by Giustini- 
ani, bishop of Nebbio. This is in Hebrew, Latin, Greek, Chaldee 
and Arabic, and is interesting from the character of the Chaldee 
text, being the first specimen of Western printing in the Arabic 
character, and from a curious note on Columbus and the dis- 
covery of America on the margin of Psalm xix. (A. W. Po.) 

POLYGNOTUS, Greek painter in the middle of the 5th century 
B.C., son of Aglaophon, was a native of Thasos, but was adopted 
by the Athenians, and admitted to their citizenship. He painted 
for them in the time of Cimon a picture of the taking of Ilium 
on the walls of the Stoa Poecile, and another of the marriage of 
the daughters of Leucippus in the Anaceum. In the hall at the 
entrance to the Acropolis other works of his were preserved. 
The most important, however, of his paintings were his frescoes 
in a building erected at Delphi by the people of Cnidus. The 
subjects of these were the visit to Hades by Odysseus, and the 
taking of Ilium. Fortunately the traveller Pausanias has left 
us a careful description of these paintings, figure by figure 
(Paus. x. 25-31). The foundations of the building have been 
recovered in the course of the French excavations at Delphi. 
From this evidence, some modern archaeologists have tried to 
reconstruct the paintings, excepting of course the colours of them. 
The best of these reconstructions is by Carl Robert, who by the 
help of vase-paintings of the middle of the fifth century has 
succeeded in recovering both the perspective of Polygnotus 
and the character of his figures (see Greek Art, fig. 29). The 
figures were detached and seldom overlapping, ranged in two or 
three rows one above another; and the farther were not smaller 
nor dimmer than the nearer. The designs are repeated in 
Frazer's Pausanias, v. 360 and 372. It will hence appear 
that paintings at this time were executed on almost precisely 
the same plan as contemporary sculptural reliefs. We 
learn also that Polygnotus employed but few colours, and 
those simple. Technically his art was primitive. His excellence 
lay in the beauty of his drawing of individual figures; but 
especially in the "ethical" and ideal character of his art. The 
contemporary, and perhaps the teacher, of Pheidias, he had the 
same grand manner. Simplicity, which was almost childlike, 
sentiment at once noble and gentle, extreme grace and charm 
of execution, marked his works, in contrast to the more 
animated, complicated and technically superior paintings of 
a later age. (P. G.) 

POLYGON (Gr. to\vs, many, and ytavia, an angle), in geo- 
metry, a figure enclosed by any number of lines— the sides — 
which intersect in pairs at the corners or vertices. If the sides 
are coplanar, the polygon is said to be " plane "; if not, then it 
is a "skew" or "gauche" polygon. If the figure lies entirely 
to one side of each of the bounding lines the figure is " convex"; 
if not it is "re-entrant" or "concave." A "regular" polygon 
has all its sides and angles equal, i.e. it is equilateral and equi- 
angular; if the sides and angles be not equal the polygon is 
I "irregular." Of polygons inscriptible in a circle an equilateral 



POLYGON 



25 



figure is necessarily equiangular, but the converse is only true 
when the number of sides is odd. The term regular polygon 
is usually restricted to "convex" polygons; a special class of 
polygons (regular in the wider sense) has been named " star 
polygons " on account of their resemblance to star-rays; these 
are, however, concave. 

Polygons, especially of the "regular" and "star" types, were 
extensively studied by the Greek geometers. There are two 
important corollaries to prop. 32, book i., of Euclid's Elements 
relating to polygons. Having proved that the sum of the angles 
of a triangle is a straight angle, i.e. two right angles, it is readily 
seen that the sum of the internal angles of a polygon (necessarily 
convex) of re sides is re — 2 straight angles (2re— 4 right angles), for the 
polygon can be divided into n— 2 triangles by lines joining one 
vertex to the other vertices. The second corollary is that the 
sum of the supplements of the internal angles, measured in the 
same direction, is 4 right angles, and is thus independent of the 
number of sides. 

The systematic discussion of regular polygons with respect to the 
inscribed and circumscribed circles is given in the fourth book of 
the Elements. (We may note that the construction of an equilateral 
triangle and square appear in the first book.) The triangle is dis- 
cussed in props. 2-6; the square in props. 6-9; the pentagon (5-side) 
in props. 10-14; the hexagon (6-side) in prop. 15; and the quin- 
decagon in prop. 16. The triangle and square call for no special 
mention here, other than that any triangle can be inscribed or 
circumscribed to a circle. The pentagon is of more interest. Euclid 
bases his construction upon the fact that the isosceles triangle 
formed by joining the extremities of one side of a regular penta- 
gon to the opposite vertex has each angle at the base double the 
angle at the vertex. He constructs this triangle in prop. 10, by 
dividing a line in medial section, i.e. the square of one part equal to 
the product of the other part and the whole line (a construction given 
in book ii. 11), and then showing that the greater segment is the 
base of the required triangle, the remaining sides being each equal 
to the whole line. The inscription of a pentagon in a circle is 
effected by inscribing an isosceles triangle similar to that constructed 
in prop. 10, bisecting the angles at the base and producing the bisec- 
tors to meet the circle. Euclid then proves that these intersections 
and the three vertices of the triangle are the vertices of the required 
pentagon. The circumscription of a pentagon is effected by con- 
structing an inscribed pentagon, and drawing tangents to the circle 
at the vertices. This supplies a general method for circumscribing 
a polygon if ttie inscribed be given, and conversely. In book xiii., 
prop. 10, an alternative method for inscribing a pentagon is indicated, 
for it is there shown that the sum of the squares of the sides of a 
square and hexagon inscribed in the same circle equals the square 
of the side of the pentagon. It may be incidentally noticed that 
Euclid's construction of the isosceles triangle which has its basal 
angles double the vertical angle solves the problem of quinquesecting 
a right angle; moreover, the base of the triangle is the side of the 
regular decagon inscribed in a circle having the vertex as centre 
and the sides of the triangle as radius. The inscription of a hexagon 
in a circle (prop. 15) reminds one of the Pythagorean result that 
six equilateral triangles placed about a common vertex form a plane; 
hence the bases form a regular hexagon. The side of a hexagon 
inscribed in a circle obviously equals the radius of the circle. The 
inscription of the quindecagon in a circle is made to depend upon 
the fact that the difference of the arcs of a circle intercepted by 
covertical sides of a regular pentagon and equilateral triangle is 
\ — \, = f%, of the whole circumference, and hence the bisection 
of this intercepted arc (by book iii., 30) gives the side of the 
quindecagon. 

The methods of Euclid permit the construction of the following 
series of inscribed polygons: from the square, the 8-side or octagon, 
16-, 32- . . ., or generally 4-2 n -side; from the hexagon, the 12-side 
or dodecagon, 24-, 48- . . ., or generally the 6-2"-side; from the 
pentagon, the 10-side or decagon, 20-, 40- . . ., or generally 5-2"- 
side; from the quindecagon, the 30-, 60- . . ., or generally 15-2"- 
side. It was long supposed that no other inscribed polygons were 
possible of construction by elementary methods {i.e. by the ruler 
and compasses); Gauss disproved this by forming the 17-side, and 
he subsequently generalized his method for the (2"+ 1) -side, when 
this number is prime. 

The problem of the construction of an inscribed heptagon, nonagon, 
or generally of any polygon having an odd number of sides, is readily 
reduced to the construction of a certain isosceles triangle. Suppose 
the polygon to have (2re + l) sides. Join the extremities of one 



side to the opposite vertex, and consider the triangle so formed. 
It is readily seen that the angle at the base is n times the angle at 
the vertex. In the heptagon the ratio is 3, in the nonagon 4, and 
so on. The Arabian geometers of the 9th century showed that the 
heptagon required the solution of a cubic equation, thus resembling 
the Pythagorean problems of " duplicating the cube " and " tri- 
secting an angle." Edmund Halley gave solutions for the heptagon 
and nonagon by means of the parabola and circle, and by a 
parabola and hyperbola respectively. 

Although rigorous methods for inscribing the general polygons in 
a circle are wanting, many approximate ones have been devised. 
Two such methods are here given: (1) Divide the diameter of the 
circle into as many parts as the polygon has sides. On the 
diameter construct an equilateral triangle; and from its vertex 
draw a line through the second division along the diameter, 
measured from an extremity, and produce this line to intercept 
the circle. Then the chord joining this point to the extremity of 
the diameter is the side of the required polygon. (2) Divide the 
diameter as before, and draw also the perpendicular diameter. 
Take points on these diameters beyond the circle and at a dis- 
tance from the circle equal to one division of the diameter. Join the 
points so obtained; and draw a line from the point nearest the 
divided diameter where this line intercepts the circle to the third 
division from the produced extremity; this line is the required 
length. 

The construction of any regular polygon on a given side may be 
readily performed with a protractor or scale of chords, for it is 
only necessary to lay off from the extremities of the given side 
lines equal in length to the given base, at angles equal to the interior 
angle of the polygon, and repeating the process at each extremity 
so obtained, the angle being always taken on the same side; or lines 
may be laid off at one half of the interior angles, describing a circle 
having the meet of these lines as centre and their length as radius, 
and then measuring the given base around the circumference. 

Star Polygons. — These figures were studied by the Pythagoreans, 
and subsequently engaged the attention of many geometers — 
Boethius, Athelard . of Bath, Thomas Bradwardine, archbishop 
ot Canterbury, Johannes Kepler and others. Mystical and magical 
properties were assigned to them at an early date ; the Pythagoreans 
regarded the pentagram, the star polygon derived from the pentagon, 
as the symbol of health, the Platonists of well-being, while others 
used it to symbolize happiness. Engraven on metal, &c. it is 
worn in almost every country as a charm or amulet. 

The pentagon gives rise to one star polygon, the hexagon gives 
none, the heptagon two, the octagon one, and the nonagon two. 
In general, the number of star polygons which can be drawn with 
the vertices of an n-point regular polygon is the number of numbers 
which are not factors of n and are less than \n. 




Pentagrams. 



Heptagrams. 



Nonograms. 



Number of n-point and n-side Polygons. A polygon may be 
regarded as determined by the joins of points or the meets of lines. 
The termination -gram is often applied to the figures determined 
by lines, e.g. pentagram, hexagram. It is of interest to know how 
many polygons can be formed with n given points as vertices (no 
three of which are collinear), or with n given lines as sides (no two 
of which are parallel) . Considering the case of points it is obvious that 
we can join a chosen point with any one cf the remaining (it — 1) 
points; any one of these (n — 1) points can be joined to any one 
of the remaining (n— 2), and by proceeding similarly it is seen that 
we can pass through the n points in (n — 1) («— 2) . . . 2-1 or 
(re — 1)! ways. It is obvious that the direction in which we pass 
is immaterial ; hence we must divide this number by 2, thus obtaining 
(n — 1)!/2 as the required number. In a similar manner it may 
be shown that the number of polygons determined by n lines is 
(re — 1)!/2. Thus five points or lines determine 12 pentagons, 
6 points or lines 60 hexagons, and so on. 

Mensuration. — In the regular polygons the fact that they can be 
inscribed and circumscribed to a circle affords convenient expres- 
sions for their area, &c. In a w-gon, i.e. a polygon with re-sides, 
each side subtends at the centre the angle 2ir/re, i.e. 36o°/«, and 
each internal angle is (n—2)ir/n or (re — 2) i8o°/n. Calling the 
length of side a we may derive the following relations: Area 



Number 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


n 


12 


of sides. 


Triangle. 


Square. 


Pentagon. 


Hexagon. 


Heptagon. 


Octagon. 


Nonagon. 


Decagon. 


Undecagon. 


Dodecagon. 


a 


6o° 


90° 


108 


120° 


128$° 


135° 


140 


144 


147^° 


i5 °: 





120 


90° 


72 


6o° 


5if° 


45° 


40° 


36° 


32t 8 t° 


30° 


A 


0-43301 


1 


1-72048 


2-59808 


3-6339I 


4-82843 


6-18182 


7-69421 


9-36564 


11-19615 


R 


o-S7735 


0-70710 


0-85065 


1 


1-1523 


1-3065 


1-4619 


1-6180 


1-7747 


1-9318 


r 


0-28867 


o-5 


0-68819 


0-86602 


1-0383 


1-2071 


1-3737 


1-5388 


1-7028 


i-866o 

■ 



26 



POLYGONACEAE 



(A) = \ aht cot (x/») ; radius of circum-circle (R) = J a cosec (v/n) 
radius of in-circle {r) = %a cot (ir/n). 

The table at foot of p, 1592 gives the value of the internal angle 
(a), the angle /S subtended at the centre by a side, area (A), radius 
of the circum-circle (R), radius of the inscribed circle (r) for the 
simpler polygons, the length of the side being taken as unity. 

POLYGONACEAE, in botany, a natural order of Dicotyledons, 
containing 30 genera with about 700 species, chiefly in the north 
temperate zone, and represented in Great Britain by three 
genera, Polygonum, Rumex (Dock, q.v.) and Oxyria. They are 

mostly herbs characterized by the 
union of the stipules into a 
sheath or ocrea, which protects the 
younger leaves in the bud stage 
(fig. 1). Some are climbers, as, for 
instance, the British Polygonum 
Convolvulus (black bindweed). In 
Muehlenbeckia platyclada, a native 
of the Solomon Islands, the stem 
and branches are flattened, form- 
ing ribbon-like cladodes jointed at 
the nodes. The leaves are alter- 
nate, simple and generally entire; 
the edges are rolled back in the 
bud. They are generally smooth, but sometimes, especially in 
mountain species, woolly. The small regular, generally her- 
maphrodite flowers are borne in large numbers in compound 
inflorescences, the branches of which are cymose. The parts of 
the flower are whorled (cyclic) or acyclic. The former arrange- 
ment may be derived from a regular trimerous flower with two 
whorls of perianth leaves, two staminal whorls and a three-sided 
ovary — such a flower occurs in the Californian genus Pterostegia 
(fig. 2). The flower of rhubarb {Rheum) is derived from 
this by doubling in the outer staminal whorl (fig. 3), and 




the three inner leaves enlarge and envelope the fruit as three 
membranous wings one or more of which bear on the back large 
fleshy warts. Less often, as in the South American genus 
Triplaris, the three outer perianth leaves form the agent of 
distribution, developing into long flat membranous wings, the 
whole mechanism suggesting a shuttlecock. The number of the 
carpels is indicated by the three-sided (in dimerous flowers two- 
sided) ovary, and the number of the styles; the ovary is uni- 
locular and contains a single erect ovule springing from the top 
of the floral axis (fig. 7). The fruit is a dry one-seeded nut, two- 



Fig. 1. — Leaf of Polygonum, 
with part of stem (g, ocrea). 






Fig. 2. — Pterostegia. Fig. 3. — Rheum. Fig. 4. — Rumex. 

that of the dock {Rumex) by doubling in the outer staminal 
whorl and suppression of the inner (fig. 4). In Koenigia, a 
tiny annual less than an inch high, native in the arctic and 
sub-arctic regions and the Himalayas, there is one perianth and 
one staminal whorl only. Dimerous whorled flowers occur in 
Oxyria (mountain sorrel), another arctic and alpine genus, the 
flowers of which resemble those of Rumex but are dimerous 
(fig. 5). In the acyclic flowers a 5-merous perianth is followed 





Fig. 6. — Polygonum. 



Fig. 7. — Dry one-seeded fruit 

of dock {Rumex) cut vertically 

(enlarged). 

of, Pericarp formed from ovary 
wall. 

i, Seed. 

e. Endosperm. 

Embryo with radicle point- 
ing upwards and cotyledons 
downwards. 



Ph 



by s to 8 stamens as in Polygonum (fig. 6) . The perianth leaves 
are generally uniform and green, whit - ? or red in colour. They 
are free or more or less united, and persist till the fruit is ripe, 
dften playing a part in its distribution, and affording useful 
characters for distinguishing genera or species. Thus in the docks 




Fig. 8. 
Rumex obtusifolius, Common Dock. 

1. Upper part of plant, showing the flowers. 

2. Leaf from base of the stem. 

3. Fruit enlarged. 

4. Fruit of Rumex Acetosa (sorrel) (enlarged). 

sided in bicarpellary flowers, as in Oxyria. The straight or 
curved embryo is embedded in a mealy endosperm. The flowers 
are wind-pollinated, as in the docks {Rumex), where they are 
pendulous on long slender stalks and have large hairy stigmas; 
or insect-pollinated, as in Polygonum or rhubarb {Rheum), where 
the stigmas are capitate and honey is secreted by glands near the 
base of the stamens. Insect-pollinated flowers are rendered 
conspicuous chiefly by their aggregation in large numbers, as 
for instance in Bistort {Polygonum Bistorta), where the perianth 
is red and the flowers are crowded in a spike. In buckwheat 
{q.v., P. Fagopyrum) the numerous flowers have a white or red 
perianth and are perfumed; they are dimorphic, i.e. there are 
two forms of flowers, one with long styles and short stamens, 
the other with short styles and long stamens. In other cases 
self-pollination is the rule, as in knot-grass {P. aviculare), where 
the very small, solitary odourless flowers are very rarely visited 
by insects and pollinate themselves by the incurving of the three 
inner stamens on to the styles. 

Polygonaceae is mainly a north temperate order. A few genera 
are tropical, e.g. Coccoloba, which has 125 species restricted to tropical 
and sub-tropical America. Polygonum has a very wide distribution 
spreading from the limits of vegetation in the northern hemisphere 
to the mountains of tropical Africa and South Africa, through the 
highlands of tropical Asia to Australia, and in America as far south 
as Chile. Most of the genera have, however, a limited distribution. 
Of the three which are native in the British Isles, Polygonum ha? 



POLYGONAL NUMBERS— POLYHEDRON 



12 species; Rumex (fig. 8) (n species) includes the Various species of 
dock .(q.v.) and sorrel (R. Acetosa); and Oxyria digyna, an alpine 
plant (mountain sorrel), takes its generic name (Gr. 6&s, sharp) 
from the acidity of its leaves. Rheum (Rhubarb, q.v.) is central 
Asiatic. 

POLYGONAL NUMBERS, in mathematics. Suppose we have 
a number of equal circular counters, then the number of counters 
which can be placed on a regular polygon so that the tangents to 
the outer rows form the regular polygon and all the internal 
counters are in contact with its neighbours, is a "polygonal 
number " of the order of the polygon. If the polygon be a 
triangle then it is readily seen that the numbers are 3, 6, 10, 15 
... and generally \n {n + 1) ; if a square, 4, 9, 16, . . . and gener- 
ally n 2 ; if a pentagon, 5, 12, 22. . . and generally »(3»-i);.if a 
hexagon, 6, 15, 28, . .. and generally «( 2 »-i); and similarly for a 
polygon of r sides, the general expression for the corresponding 
polygonal number is §m[(»— 1) (r — 2) + 2]. 

Algebraically, polygonal numbers may be regarded as the sums 
of consecutive terms oi the arithmetical progressions having 1 for 
the first term and 1, 2, 3, ... for the common differences. Taking 
unit common difference we have the series 1; 1+2=3; J +2+3 
T z 6 ' ,' ^ 2 L + 3 + 4 = 10; or generally 1+2+3 • • '• + » = 
3 n(»i+i) ; these are triangular numbers. With a common difference 
2 we have 1; 1+3 = 4! 1+3+5=91 i+3 + 5+7 = i6; 
or generally 1+3+5+...+ ( 2n -i)=n 2 ; and generally for 
the polygonal number of the rth order we take the sums of consecu- 
tive terms of the series 

1. i + (r-2), 1+2 (r-2), . . . i+n-i.r-2; 
and hence the nth polygonal number of the rth order is the surr of 
n terms of this series, i.e., 

i + i+(r- 2 ) + i+2(r-2)+ . . . +(i+ w _i. r _ 2 ) 
= « + jtt.n — i.r — 2. 
The series 1, 2. 3, 4, . . . or generally n, are the so-called " linear 
numbers " (cf. Figurate Numbers). 

POLYHEDRAL NUMBERS, in mathematics. These numbers 
are related to the polyhedra (see Polyhedron) in a manner 
similar to the relation between polygonal numbers (see above) 
and polygons. Take the case of tetrahedral numbers. Let AB, 
AC, AD be three covertical edges of 
a regular tetrahedron. Divide AB, 
. . . into parts each equal to A 1, so 
that tetrahedra having the common 
vertex A are obtained, whose linear 
dimensions increase arithmetically. 
Imagine that we have a number of 
spheres (or shot) of a diameter equal 
to the distance Ai. It is seen that 
4 shot having their centres at the 
vertices of the tetrahedron Ai will form 
a pyramid. In the case of the tetra- 
hedron of edge A 2 we require 3 along each side of the base, i.e. 
6, 3 along the base of Ai, and 1 at A, making 10 in all. To add 
a third layer, we will require 4 along each base, i.e. 9, and 1 in 
the centre. Hence in the tetrahedron A3 we have 20 shot. 
The numbers 1,4, 10, 20 are polyhedral numbers, and from their 
association with the tetrahedron are termed "tetrahedral 
numbers." 

This illustration may serve for a definition of polyhedral 
numbers: a polyhedral number represents the number of equal 
spheres which can be placed within a polyhedron so that the 
spheres touch one another or the sides of the polyhedron. 

In the case of the tetrahedron we have seen the numbers to be 
I 4, 10, 20; the general formula for the «th tetrahedral number is 
tn(n + i)(n+2). Cubic numbers are 1, 8, 27, 64 12s &c • 
or generally n». Octahedral numbers are 1, 6, 19, 44, &c.,or generally 
4«(2n 2 + i) Dodecahedral numbers are 1, 20, 84, 220, &c • or 
generally |«(9n 2 - 9 «+ 2 ). Icosahedral numbers are 1, 12 48 
124, &c, or generally i»(5n 2 -5« +2). ' 

POLYHEDRON (Gr. ttoXus, many, t8pa, a base), in geometry, 
a solid figure contained by plane faces. If the figure be entirely 
to one side of any face the polyhedron is said to be " convex, " 
and it is obvious that the faces enwrap the centre once; if, on the 
other hand, the figure is to both sides of every face it is said to be 
" concave, " and the centre is multiply enwrapped by the faces. 
" Regular polyhedra " are such as have their faces all equal 
regular polygons, and all their solid angles equal; the term is 




27 

usually restricted to the five forms in which the centre is singly 
enclosed, viz. the Platonic solids, while the four polyhedra in 
which the centre is multiply enclosed are referred to as the 
Kepler-Poinsot solids, Kepler having discovered three, while 
Poinsot discovered the fourth. Another group of polyhedra 
are termed the " Archimedean solids," named after Archimedes, 
who, according to Pappus, invented them. These have faces 
which are all regular polygons, but not all of the same kind, 
while all their solid angles are equal. These figures are often 
termed " semi-regular solids," but it is more convenient to restrict 
this term to solids having all their angles, edges and faces equal, 
the latter, however, not being regular polygons. 

Platonic Solids. The names of these five solids are: (1) the 
tetrahedron, enclosed by four equilateral triangles; (2) the cube 
or hexahedron, enclosed by 6 squares; (3) the octahedron, 
enclosed by 8 equilateral triangles; (4) the dodecahedron, en- 
closed by 12 pentagons; (5) the icosahedron, enclosed by 20 
equilateral triangles. 

The first three were certainly known to the Egyptians; and 
it is probable that the icosahedron and dodecahedron were added 
by the Greeks. The cube may have originated by placing three 
equal squares at a common vertex, so as to form a trihedral angle. 
Two such sets can be placed so that the free edges are brought 
into coincidence while the vertices are kept distinct. This 
solid has therefore 6 faces, 8 vertices and 12 edges. The equi- 
lateral triangle is the basis of the tetrahedron, octahedron and 
icosahedron. 1 If three equilateral triangles be placed at a 
common vertex with their covertical sides coincident in pairs, 
it is seen that the base is an equal equilateral triangle; hence four 
equal equilateral triangles enclose a space. This solid has 4 
faces, 4 vertices and 6 edges. In a similar manner, four covertical 
equilateral triangles stand on a square base. Two such sets placed 
base to base form the octahedron, which consequently has 8 
faces, 6 vertices and 12 edges. Five equilateral triangles coverti- 
cally placed would stand on a pentagonal base, and it was found 
that, by forming several sets of such pyramids, a solid could be 
obtained which had 20 triangular faces, which met in pairs to 
form 30 edges, and in fives to form 12 vertices. This is the 
icosahedron. That the triangle could give rise to no other solid 
followed from the fact that six covertically placed triangles formed 
a plane. The pentagon is the basis of the dodecahedron. Three 
pentagons may be placed at a common vertex to form a solid 
angle, and by forming several such sets and placing them in 
juxtaposition a solid is obtained having 12 pentagonal faces, 
30 edges, and 20 vertices. 

These solids played an important part in the geometry of the 
Pythagoreans, and in their cosmology symbolized the five ele- 
ments: fire (tetrahedron), air (octahedron), water (icosahedron), 
earth (cube), universe or ether (dodecahedron). They were 
also discussed by the Platonists, so much so that they became 
known as the " Platonic solids." Euclid discusses them in the 
thirteenth book of his Elements, where he proves that no more 
regular bodies are possible, and shows how to inscribe them in a 
sphere. This latter problem received the attention of the 
Arabian astronomer Abul Wefa (10th century a.d.), who solved 
it with a single opening of the compasses. 

Mensuration of the Platonic Solids.— The mensuration of the regular 
polyhedra is readily investigated by the methods of elementary 
geometry the property that these solids may be inscribed in and 
circumscribed to concentric spheres being especially useful. 

If F be the number of faces, n the number of edges per face, m 
the number of faces per vertex, and / the length, of an edge, and if 
we denote the angle between two adjacent faces by I, the area by A 
the volume by V, the radius of the circum-sphere by R, and of the 
ln-sphere by r, the following general formulae hold, a being written 
for 2-ir/n, and for 2ir/m : — 

Sin |I =cos 0/sin a; tan §1 =cos 0/(sin 2 o-cos 2 0)1. 

A = t PnF cot a. 
V = irA = fal'n F tan JI cot 2 a 

= iil l n F cot 2 a cos 0/(sin 2 a— cos 2 0)|. 
R = |/ tan §1 tan = \l sin 0/(sin 2 a-cos 2 0)1. 
r = \l tan \\ cot a = jl cot a cos 0/(sin 2 a-cos 2 0)1. 

1 In the language of Proclus, the commentator: " The equilateral 
triangle is the proximate cause of the three elements, ' fire,' ' air ' and 
water ' ; but the square is annexed to the ' earth.' " 



28 



POLYHEDRON 



The following Table gives the values of A, V, R, r for the five Polyhedra: 





A. 
Area. 


Volume 
V. 


Radius of Circum-sphere. 
R. 


Radius of In-sphere. 
r. 




P.V3 
(I-732I P) 


Z 3 /6V2 
(0-11785/') 


/. V6/4 


/.V6/12 


Cube 


6P 


P 


/.V3/2 


¥ 


Octahedron 


P.2V3 
(3-4642 P) 


/ 3 -V2/3 
(0-47140 I 3 ) 


IN 2 


IN 6 


Dodecahedron .... 


/ 2 .i5V(i+2V5) 
(20-64578 P) 


' 3 -5Vi(47+2iV5)/40| 
(7-663119 / 3 ) 


/■W((5+3V5)/2) 


/.V{(20+nV5)/4o! 


Icosahedron 


P-5V3 
(8-6605 P) 


/ 3 -fVK7+3V5)/2i 
(2-18169 I 3 ) 


/■IVi(5+V5)/2! 


UV{(7+3V5)/6) 



Kepler- Poinsot Polyhedra. — These solids have all their faces 
equal regular polygons, and the angles at the vertices all equal. 
They bear a relation to the Platonic solids similar to the 
relation of " star polygons " to ordinary regular polygons, 
inasmuch as the centre is multiply enclosed in the former 
and singly in the latter. Four such solids exist: (1) small 
stellated dodecahedron; (2) great dodecahedron; (3) great 
stellated dodecahedron; (4) great icosahedron. Louis Poinsot 
discussed these solids in his memoir, " Sur les polygones et les 
polyedres " (Journ. Ecole poly, [iv.] 1810), three of them having 
been previously considered by Kepler. They were afterwards 
treated by A. L. Cauchy {Journ. Ecole poly, [ix.] 1813), who 
showed that they were derived from the Platonic solids, and 
that no more than four were possible. A. Cayley treated 
them in several papers (e.g. Phil. Mag., 1859, 17, p. 123 seq.), 
considering them by means of their projections on the 
circumscribing sphere and not, as Cauchy, in solido. 

The small stellated dodecahedron is formed by stellating the Platonic 
dodecahedron (by " stellating " is meant developing the faces con- 
tiguous to a specified base so as to form a regular pyramid). It has 
12 pentagonal faces, and 30 edges, which intersect in fives to form 12 
vertices. Each vertex is singly enclosed by the five faces; the 
centre of each face is doubly enclosed by the succession of faces about 
the face ; and the centre of the solid is doubly enclosed by the faces. 
The great dodecahedron is determined by the intersections of the 
twelve planes which intersect the Platonic icosahedron in five of its 
edges; or each face has the same boundaries as the basal sides 
of five covertical faces of the icosahedron. It is the reciprocal 
(see below) of the small stellated dodecahedron. Each vertex 
is doubly enclosed by the succession of covertical faces, while the 
centre of the solid is triply enclosed by the faces. The great stellated 
dodecahedron is formed by stellating the faces of a great dodecahe- 
dron. It has 12 faces, which meet in 30 edges; these intersect in 
threes to form 20 vertices. Each vertex is singly enclosed by the 
succession of faces about it ; and the centre of the solid is quadruply 
enclosed by the faces. The great icosahedron is the reciprocal of 
the great stellated dodecahedron. Each of the twenty triangular 
faces subtend at the centre the same angle as is subtended by four 
whole and six half faces of the Platonic icosahedron ; in other words, 
the solid is determined by the twenty planes which can be drawn 
through the vertices of the three faces contiguous to any face of 
a Platonic icosahedron. The centre of the solid is septuply enclosed 
by the faces. 

A connexion between the number of faces, vertices and edges of 
regular polyhedra was discovered by Euler, and the result, which 
assumes the form E -f 2:= F + V, where E, F, V are the number 
of edges, faces and vertices, is known as Euler's theorem on poly- 
hedra. This formula only holds for the Platonic solids. Poinsot 
gave the formula E + 2k = eV -+- F, in which k is the number of 
times the projections of the faces from the centre on to the surface 
of the circumscribing sphere make up the spherical surface, the area 
of a stellated face being reckoned once, and e is the ratio " angles at a 
vertex /2ir" as projected on the sphere, E, V, F being the same as 
before. Cayley gave the formula E + 2D = eV + e'F, where 
e, E, V, F are the same as before, D is the same as Poinsot's k with 
the distinction that the area of a stellated face is reckoned as the sum 
of the triangles having their vertices at the centre of the face and 
standing on the sides, and e' is the ratio: " the angles subtended at 
the centre of a face by its sides /2ir." 

The following table gives these constants for the regular poly- 
hedra ; n denotes the number of sides to a face, ni the number of faces 
to a vertex : — 





F 


V 


E 


n 


«1 


e 


e' 


D 


k 


Tetrahedron ...... 

Cube 

Octahedron 

Dodecahedron 

Icosahedron .... 


4 

6 

8 

12 

20 


4 

8 

6 

20 

12 


6 
12 
12 

3° 
30 


3 
4 
3 
5 
3 


3 
3 
4 
3 
5 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 








Small stellated dodecahedron . 
Great dodecahedron 
Great stellated dodecahedron . 
Great icosahedron .... 


12 
12 
12 
20 


12 
12 
20 
12 


30 
3° 
30 
30 


5 
5 
5 
3 


5 
5 
3 
5 


1 
2 
1 

2 


2 
1 
2 
1 


3 
3 

7 
7 


2 
3 
4 
7 



Archimedean Solids. — These solids are characterized by 
having all their angles equal and all their faces regular 
polygons, which are not all of the same species. Thirteen 
such solids exist. 

1. The truncated tetrahedron is formed by truncating the vertices 
of a regular tetrahedron so as to leave the original faces hexagons. 
(By the truncation of a vertex or edge we mean the cutting away of 
the vertex or edge by a plane making equal angles with all the faces 
composing the vertex or with the two faces forming the edge.) It 
is bounded by 4 triangular and 4 hexagonal faces; there are 18 edges, 
and 12 vertices, at each of which two hexagons and one triangle are 
covertical. 

2. The cuboctahedron is a tesserescae-decahedron (Gr. rco-o-apes-Kai- 
Sata, fourteen) formed by truncating the vertices of a cube so as to 
leave the original faces squares. It is enclosed by 6 square and 
8 triangular faces, the latter belonging to a coaxial octahedron. It 
is a common crystal form. 

3. The truncated cube is formed in the same manner as the 
cuboctahedron, but the truncation is only carried far enough to 
leave the original faces octagons. It has 6 octagonal faces 
(belonging to the original cube), and 8 triangular ones (belonging to 
the coaxial octahedron). 

4. The truncated octahedron is formed by truncating the vertices 
of an octahedron so as to leave the original faces hexagons; con- 
sequently it is bounded by 8 hexagonal and 6 square faces. 

5. 6. Rhombicuboctahedra. — Two Archimedean solids of 26 
faces are derived from the coaxial cube, octahedron and semi- 
regular (rhombic) dodecahedron (see below). The " small rhombi- 
cuboctahedron " is bounded by 12 pentagonal, 8 triangular and 
6 square faces; the " great rhombicuboctahedra " by 12 decagonal, 
8 triangular and 6 square faces. 

7. The icosidodecahedron or dyocaetriacontahedron (Gr. dvo-Kai- 
TptaKovra, thirty-two), is a 32-faced solid, formed by truncating the 
vertices of an icosahedron so that the original faces become triangles. 
It is enclosed by 20 triangular faces belonging to the original icosa- 
hedron, and 12 pentagonal faces belonging to the coaxial dodecahe- 
dron. 

8. The truncated icosahedron is formed similarly to the icosidode- 
cahedron, but the truncation is only carried far enough to leave the 
original faces hexagons. It is therefore enclosed by 20 hexagonal 
faces belonging to the icosahedron, and 12 pentagonal faces belonging 
to the coaxial dodecahedron. 

9. .The truncated dodecahedron is formed by truncating the vertices 
of a dodecahedron parallel to the faces of the coaxial icosahedron 
so as to leave the former decagons. It is enclosed by 20 triangular 
faces belonging to the icosahedron and 12 decagons belonging to the 
dodecahedron. 

10. The snub cube is a 38-faced solid having at each corner 4 tri- 
angles and I square; 6 faces belong to a cube, 8 to the'eoaxial 
octahedron, and the remaining 24 to no regular solid. 

11. 12. The rhombicosidodecahedra. — Two 62-faced solids are 
derived from the dodecahedron, icosahedron and the semi-regular 



POLYMETHYLENES 



29 



triacontahedron. In the " small rhombicosidodecahedron " there 
are 12 pentagonal faces belonging to the dodecahedron, 20 triangular 
faces belonging to the icosahedron and 30 square faces belonging 
to the triacontahedron. In the " great rhombicosidodecahedron " 
the dodeeahedral faces are decagons, the icosahedral hexagons 
and the triacontahedral squares; this solid is sometimes called the 
" truncated icosidodecahedron." 

13. The snub dodecahedron is a 92-faced solid having 4 triangles 
and a pentagon at each corner. The pentagons belong to a dodeca- 
hedron, and 20 triangles to an icosahedron ; the remaining 60 triangles 
belong to no regular solid. 

Semi-regular Polyhedra. — Although this term is frequently 
given to the Archimedean solids, yet it is a convenient de- 
notation for solids which have all their angles, faces, and edges 
equal, the faces not being regular polygons. Two such solids 
exist: (1) the "rhombic dodecahedron," formed by trun- 
cating the edges of a cube, is bounded by 12 equal rhombs; it 
is a common crystal form (see Crystallography); and (2) the 
" semi-regular triacontahedron," which is enclosed by 30 equal 
rhombs. 

The interrelations of the polyhedra enumerated above are con- 
siderably elucidated by the introduction of the following terms: 
(1) Correspondence. Two polyhedra correspond when the radii 
vectores from their centres to the mid-point of the edges, centre of 
the faces, and to the vertices, can be brought into coincidence. (2) 
Reciprocal. Two polyhedra are reciprocal when the faces and ver- 
tices of one correspond to the vertices and faces of the other. (3) 
Summital or facial. A polyhedron (A) is said to be the summital 
or facial holohedron of another (B) when the faces or vertices of A 
correspond to the edges of B, and the vertices or faces of A corre- 
spond to the vertices and faces together of B. (4) Hemihedral. 
A polyhedron is said to be the hemihedral form of another poly- 
hedron when its faces correspond to the alternate faces of the latter 
or holohedral form; consequently a hemihedral form has half the 
number of faces of the holohedral form. Hemihedral forms are of 
special importance in crystallography, to which article the reader 
is referred for a fuller explanation of these and other modifications 
of polyhedra (tetartohedral, enantiotropic, &c). 

It is readily seen that the tetrahedron is its own reciprocal, i.e. 
it is self-reciprocal ; the cube and octahedron, the dodecahedron and 
icosahedron, the small stellated dodecahedron and great dodeca- 
hedron, and the great stellated dodecahedron and great icosahedron 
are examples of reciprocals. We may also note that of the Archime- 
dean solids: the truncated tetrahedron, truncated cube, and trun- 
cated dodecahedron, are the reciprocals of the crystal forms triakis- 
tetrahedron, triakisoctahedron and triakisicosahedron. Since the 
tetrahedron is the hemihedral form of the octahedron, and the octa- 
hedron and cnbe are reciprocal, we may term these two latter solids 
" reciprocal holohedra " of the tetrahedron. Other examples of 
reciprocal holohedra are: the rhombic dodecahedron and cubocta- 
hedron, with regard to the cube and octahedron; and the semi- 
regular triacontahedron and icosidodecahedron, with regard to the 
dodecahedron and icosahedron. As examples of facial holohedra 
we may notice the small rhombicuboctahedron and rhombic dode- 
cahedron, and the small rhombicosidodecahedron and the semi- 
regular triacontahedron. The correspondence of the faces of poly- 
hedra is also of importance, as may be seen from the manner in which 
one polyhedron may be derived from another. Thus the faces 
of the cuboctahedron, the truncated cube, and truncated octahe- 
dron, correspond; likewise with the truncated dodecahedron, trun- 
cated icosahedron, and icosidodecahedron; and with the small and 
great rhombicosidodecahedra. 

The general theory of polyhedra properly belongs to combinatorial 
analysis. The determination of the number of different polyhedra 
of n faces, i.e. n-hedrons, is reducible to the problem : In how many 
ways can multiplets, i.e. triplets, quadruplets, &c, be made with n 
symbols, so that (1) every contiguous pair of symbols in one multiplet 
are a contiguous pair in some other, the first and last of any mul- 
tiplet being considered contiguous, and (2) no three symbols in any 
multiplet shall occur in any other. This problem is treated by 
the Rev T. P. Kirkman in the Manchester Memoirs (1855, 1857- 
1860); and in the Phil. Trans. (1857). 

See Max Bruckner, Vielecke und Vielflache (1900) ; V. Eberhard, 
Zur Morphologie der Polyeder (1891). 

POLYMETHYLENES, in chemistry, cyclic compounds, the 
simplest members of which are saturated hydrocarbons of 
general formula C„H 2 „, where n may be 1 to 9, and known as 
tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, and hepta-methylene, &c, or cyclo- 
propane, -butane, -pentane, -hexane, -heptane, &c. : — 

/CH,, CH 2 -CH 2 XH 2 -CH 2 .CH 2 -CH 2V 

CH< .| I I CH 2 < I I CH< >CH 2 ,&c. 

X CH 2 , CH 2 C-H 2 \CH 2 -CH 2 , \CH 2 -CIl/ 

Cyc/o-propane, -butane, -pentane, -hexane. 

The unsaturated members of the series are named on the 



Geneva system in which the termination -ane is replaced by-ene, 
-diene, -triene, according to the number of double linkages in 
the compound, the position of such double linkages being 
shown by a numeral immediately following the suffix -ene\ 
for example I. is methyl-cyc/o-hexadiene — 1. 3. An alterna- 
tive method employs A. v. Baeyer's symbol A. Thus 
A 2-4 indicates the presence of two double bonds in 
the molecule situated immediately after the carbon atoms 
2 and 4; for example II. is A 2-4 dihydrophthalic acid. 

(2) (3) (2) (3) 

,, CH-CH ^ /C(C0 2 H):CH> 

(i)CH r c{ >CH(4),(i)H0 2 C-CH/ >CH( 4 ). 



'\, 



CHrCH,/ 

(6) (5) 
I. 



\CH 2 CH/ 

(6) (5) 

II. 

As to the stability of these compounds, most trimethylene 
derivatives are comparatively unstable, the ring being broken 
fairly readily; the tetramethylene derivatives are rather more 
stable and the penta- and hexa-methylene compounds are very 
stable, showing little tendency to form open chain compounds 
under ordinary conditions (see Chemistry: Organic). 

Isomerism. — No isomerism can occur in the monosubstitution 
derivatives but ordinary position isomerism exists in the di- 
and poly-substitution compounds. Stereo-isomerism may 
occur: the simplest examples are the dibasic acids, where a cis- 
(maleinoid) form and a trans- (fumaroid) form have been ob- 
served. These isomers may frequently be distinguished by 
the facts that the m-acids yield anhydrides more readily than 
the trans-acids, and are generally converted into the trans-acids 
on heating with hydrochloric acid. O. Aschan (Ber., 1902, 35, 
p. 3389) depicts these cases by representing the plane of the 
carbon atoms of the ring as a straight line and denoting the 
substituted hydrogen atoms by the letters X, Y, Z. Thus for 
dicarboxylic acids (C0 2 H = X) the possibilities are represented by 

(cis), ^ (trans),. jr (I). 

The trans compound is perfectly asymmetric and so its mirror 
image (I) should exist, and, as all the trans compounds syn- 
thetically prepared are optically inactive, they are presumably 
racemic compounds (see O. Aschan, Chemie der alicyklischen 
Verbindungen, p. 346 seq.). 

General Methods of Formation. — Hydrocarbons may be ob- 
tained from the dihalogen paraffins by the action of sodium or 
zinc dust, provided that the halogen atoms are not attached 
to the same or to adjacent carbon atoms (A. Freund, Monats., 
1882, 3, p. 625; W. H. Perkin, jun., Journ. Chem. Soc, 1888, 53, 
p. 213):— 

CH r CHrBr , „ v oM c , CH 2 -CH 2 
CH 2 .CH 2 -Br+ 2Na = 2NaBr +CH 2 .CH 2 ; 

by the action of hydriodic acid and phosphorus or of phos- 
phonium iodide on benzene hydrocarbons (F. Wreden, Ann., 
1877, 187, p. 153; A. v. Baeyer, ibid., 1870, 155, p. 266), ben- 
zene giving methylpentamethylene ; by passing the vapour of 
benzene hydrocarbons over finely divided nickel at 180-250 C. 
(P. Sabatier and J. B. Senderens, Comptes rendus, 1901, 132, p. 
210 seq.); and from hydrazines of the type C n H 2 „_i-NH-NH 2 
by oxidation with alkaline potassium ferricyanide (N. Kijner, 
Journ. prak. Chem., 1901, 64, p. 113). Unsaturated hydro- 
carbons of the series may be prepared from the corre- 
sponding alcohols by the elimination of a molecule of water, 
using either the xanthogenic ester method of L. Tschugaeff 
(Ber. 1899, 32, p. 3332): CnH^ONa-^CnHzn-iO-CS-SNaCR) 
— 3>C„H 2 „_ 2 -|-COS-)-R'SH; or simply by dehydrating with 
anhydrous oxalic acid (N. Zelinsky, Ber., 1901, 34, p. 3249); 
and by eliminating the halogen acid from mono- or di-halogen 
polymethylene compounds by heating them with quinoline. 

Alcohols are obtained from the corresponding halogen com- 
pounds by the action of moist silver oxide, or by warming them 
with silver acetate and acetic acid; by the reduction of ketones 
with metallic sodium; by passing the vapours of monohydric 
phenols and hydrogen over finely divided nickel (P. Sabatier and 
J. B. Senderens, loc. cil.); by the reduction of cyclic esters with 



3° 



POLYMETHYLENES 



sodium and alcohol (L. Bouveault and G. Blanc, Comptes renins, 
1903. 136, P- 1676; 137, p. 60); and by the addition of the 
elements of water to the unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons on 
boiling with dilute acids. 

Aldehydes and Ketones. — The aldehydes are prepared in the 
usual manner from primary alcohols and acids. The ketones 
are obtained by the dry distillation of the calcium salts of di- 
basic saturated aliphatic acids (J. Wislicenus, Ann., 1893, 275, 
p. 309): [CH a -CH 2 -C0 2 ] 2 Ca->[CH 2 -CH 2 ] !! CO; by the action of 
sodium on the esters of acids of the adipic and pimelic acid 
series (W. Dieckmann, Ber., 1894, 27, pp. 103, 2475): — 

CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -C0 2 R CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 . 

CH 2 -CH 2 -C0 2 R ~*CH 2 -CH 2 C-0 ' 
by the action of sodium ethylate on 5-ketonic acids (D. Vor- 
lander, Ber., 1895, 28, p. 2348) : — 

,CH 2 -CH 2 . /CH 2 -CH 2X 



CH 



>CO; 



< x C0 2 H-> CH,. .. 

X CO-CH 3 \CO-CH 2 / 

from sodio-malonic ester and aj3-unsaturated ketones or ketonic 
esters: — 

,CH 2 CO 



(R0 2 C) 2 CH 2 +Ph-CH :CH-COCHfr_>PhCIl 



V 



CH 2 



^CH(C0 2 R)-CO- 

from aceto-acetic ester and esters of a/3-unsaturated acids, 
followed by elimination of the carboxyl group : — 

/CH 2 *CR 2\ 
CH 3 -CO-CH 2 -CO 2 R+R' 2 C:CH-C0 2 R->CO< >CHC0 2 R; 

\CH 2 -CO / 

by the condensation of two molecules of aceto-acetic ester with 
aldehydes followed by saponification (E. Knoevenagel, Ann., 
1894, 281, p. 25; 1896, 288, p. 321; .Ber., 1904, 37, p. 4461):— 

,CH 2 -CHR' X 
2CH 3 -CO-CH 2 -C0 2 R+OHOR'-»CH 3 -c/ >CH 2 ; 

»CH — CO / 
from 1 • 5-diketones which contain a methyl group next the 
keto-group (W. Kerp, Ann., 1896, 290, p. 123): — 

/CH 2 -C(CH 3 ) 



3CH 3 -CO-CHs-»(CH 3 ) 2 C< 



CH 2 



-co/ 



CH; 



by the condensation of succinic acid with sodium ethylate, fol- 
lowed by saponification and elimination of carbon dioxide: — 

„/-• ur tr*r\ tli\ CH 2 -CH 2 -CO 

2C 2 H 4 (C0 2 H)^ Co . CHi . fcHt ; 

and from the condensation of ethyl oxalate with esters of other 
dibasic acids in presence of sodium ethylate (W. Dieckmann, 
Ber., 1897, 30, p. 1470; 1899, 32, p. 1933):— 

C0 2 R y C0 2 R CO-CH 2 . 

.! +CH< _> I \CH 2 . 

C0 2 R x C0 2 R CO-CH/ 

Acids may be prepared by the action of dihalogen paraffins on 
sodio-malonic ester, or sodio-aceto-acetic ester (W. H. Perkin, 
jun., Journ. Chem. Soc, 1888, 53, p. 194) : — 

C 2 H 4 Br 2 +2NaCH(C0 2 R) 2 -*(CH 2 ) 2 C(C0 2 R) 2 +CH 2 (C0 2 R) 2 ; 
ethyl butane tetracarboxylate is also formed which may be 
converted into a tetramethylene carboxylic ester by the action 
of bromine on its disodium derivative (W. H. Perkin and 
Sinclair, ibid., 1829, 61, p. 36). The esters of the acids may 
also be obtained by condensing sodio-malonic ester with 
a-halogen derivatives of unsaturated acids: — 

CH-CO R 
CHs-CH:CBr-C0 2 R4-NaCH(C0 2 R) 2 -»CH 3 -CH< / .| * ; 

X C(C0 2 R) 2 
by the action of diazomethane or diazoacetic ester on the esters 
of unsaturated acids, the pyrazoline carboxylic esters so formed 
losing nitrogen when heated and yielding acids of the cyclo- 
propane series (E. Buchner, Ber., 1890, 23, p. 703; Ann., 1895, 
284, p. 212; H. v. Pechmann, Ber., 1894, 27, p. 1891): — 
™. T CH-C0 2 R N:N-CH-C0 2 R /CHC0 2 R 

CH 2 N 2 + II -► I ■ I -»H,c/ ; 

CH-C0 2 R H 2 C— CH-C0 2 R X:HC0 2 R 

and by the Grignard reaction (S. Malmgren, Ber., 1903, 36, pp. 
668, 2622; N. Zelinsky, ibid., 1902, 35, p. 2687). 



Cyclo-propane Group. 

Trimethylene, C 3 H 6 , obtained by A. Freund (Monats., 1882, 3, 
p. 625) by heating trimethylene bromide with sodium, is a gas, which 
may be liquefied, the liquid boiling at —35° C. (749 mm.). It dis- 
solves gradually^ in concentrated sulphuric acid, forming propyl 
sulphate. Hydriodic acid converts it into w-propyl iodide. It is 
decomposed by chlorine in the presence of sunlight, with explosive 
violence. It is stable to cold potassium permanganate. 

Cyclo-propane carboxylic acid, C 3 H s -C0 2 H, is prepared by heating 
the 1 . 1 -dicarboxylic acid ; and by the hydrolysis of its nitrile, formed 
by heating 7-chlorbutyro-nitrilewith potash (L. Henry and P. Dalle, 
Chem. Centralblatt, 1901, I, p. 1357; 1902, 1, p. 913). It is a colour- 
less oil, moderately soluble in water. 

The 1.1 dicarboxylic acid is prepared from ethylene dibromide and 
sodio-malonic ester. The ring is split by sulphuric or hydrobromic 
acids. The cis 1.2-cyclo-propane dicarboxylic acid is formed by elimi- 
nating carbon dioxide from cycfo-propane tricarboxylic acid -1.2.3 
(from a/3-dibrompropionic ester and sodio-malonic ester). The 
trans-acid is produced on heating pyrazolin-4.5-dicarboxylic ester, 
or by the action of alcoholic potash on o-bromglutaric ester. It 
does not yield an anhydride. 

Cyclo-butane Group. 
Cyclo-butane, C 4 H 8 , was obtained by R. Willstatter (Ber., 1907, 
40, p. 3979) by the reduction of cyclobutene by the Sabatier and 
Senderens method. It is a colourless liquid which boils at 1 1-12 C„ 
and its vapour burns with a luminous flame. Reduction at 180- 
200° C. by the above method gives w-butane. 

Cyclo-butene, C 4 H 6 , formed by distilling trimethyl-cye/o-butyl- 
ammonium hydroxide, boils at 1.5-2.0° C. (see N. Zelinsky, ibid., 
p. 4744; G. Schweter, ibid., p. 1604). 

When sodio-malonic ester is condensed with trimethylene bromide 
the chief product is ethyl pentane tetracarboxylate, tetramethylene 
l.l-dicarboxylic ester being also formed, and from this the free 
acid may be obtained on hydrolysis. It melts at 154-156° C, 
losing carbon dioxide and passing into cye/o-butane carboxylic acid, 
C 4 H 7 C0 2 H. This basic acid yields a monobrom derivative which, 
by the action of aqueous potash, gives the corresponding hydroxy- 
cyc/o-butane carboxylic acid, C 4 H 6 (OH)-C0 2 H. Attempts to elimi- 
nate water from this acid and so produce an unsaturated acid were 
unsuccessful; on warming with sulphuric acid, carbon monoxide 
is eliminated and cycfo-butanone (keto-tetramethylene) is probably 
formed. 

The truxillic acids, C J8 H. 6 4 , which result by the hydrolytic split- 
ting of truxilline, C 38 H 46 N 2 8 , are phenyl derivatives of cyc/o-butane. 
Their constitution was determined by C. Liebermann (Ber., 1888, 
21, p. 2342; 1889, 22, p. 124 seq.). They are polymers of cinnamic 
acid, into which they readily pass on distillation. The o-acid 
on oxidation yields benzoic acid, whilst the /3-acid yields benzil 
in _ addition. The a-acid is diphenyl-24-cycfo-butane dicarboxylic 
acid -1.3; and the /3-acid diphenyl-34-cyclo-butane dicarboxylic 
acid -1.2. By alkalis they are transformed into stereo-isomers, 
the a-acid giving -y-truxillic acid, and the /3-acid S-truxillic acid. 
The o-acid was synthesized by C. N. Riiber (Ber., 1902, 35, p. 241 1; 
I9°4. 37. P- 2274), by oxidizing diphenyl-2.4-cydo-butane-bismethy- 
lene malonic acid (fron cinnamic aldehyde and malonic acid in the 
presence of quinoline) with potassium permanganate. 

Cyclo-/>e»toree Group. 
Derivatives may be prepared in many cases by the breaking down 
of the benzene ring when it contains an accumulation of negative 
atoms (T. Zincke, Ber., 1886-1894; A. Hantzsch, Ber., 1887, 20, p. 
2780; 1889, 22, p. 1238), this type of reaction being generally brought 
about by the action of chlorine on phenols in the presence of alkalis 
(see Chemistry: Organic). A somewhat related example is seen in 
the case of croconic acid, which is formed by the action of alkaline 
oxidizing agents on hexa-oxybenzene : — 

HO-C-C(OH):C(OH) HO-C-CO-CO HO-C-CO. 

HO-C-C(OH) ; C(OH) HO-C-CO-CO HO-C-CO^ 
Hexa-oxybenzene. Rhodizonic acid. Croconic acid. 
Cyc\o-pentane, C5H10, is obtained from cycfo-pentanone by reducing 
it to the corresponding secondary alcohol, converting this into the 
iodo-compound, which is finally reduced to the hydrocarbon (J. 
Wislicenus, Ann., 1893, 275, p. 327). It is a colourless liquid which 
boils at 50-51° C. Methyl-cyclo-pentane, C 6 H 9 CH 3 , first obtained 
by F. Wreden (Ann., 1877, 187, p. 163) by the action of hydriodic 
acid and red phosphorus on benzene, and considered to be hexahydro- 
benzene, is obtained synthetically by the action of sodium on' 1-5 
dibromhexane ; and by the action of magnesium on acetylbutyl 
iodide (N. Zelinsky, Ber., 1902, 35, p. 2684). It is a liquid boiling 
at 72° C. Nitric acid (sp. gr. 1-42) oxidizes it to succinic and acetic 
acids. Cyclo-pentene, C 6 H S , a liquid obtained by the action of 
alcoholic potash on iodo-cycio-pentane, boils at 45° C. Cyclo- 
pentadiene, C 6 H 6 , is found in the first runnings from crude benzene 
distillations. _ It is a liquid which boils at 41° C. It rapidly poly- 
merizes to di-cyc/o-pentadiene. The -CH 2 - group is very reactive 
and behaves in a similar manner to the grouping -CO-CH 2 -CO- in 
open chain compounds, e.g. with aldehydes and ketones it gives the 



POLYMETHYLENES 



3i 



fulvenes, substances characterized by their intense orange-red colour 

HC:CH 
(J.Thiele, Ber., 1900, 33, p. 669). Phenylfulven, I >C:CHPh, 

HCtCH 7 
obtained from benzaldehyde and cyc/o-pentadiene, forms dark red 
plates. Diphenylfulven, from benzophenone and cyc/o-pentadiene, 
crystallizes in deep red prisms. Dimethylfulven is an orange- 
coloured oil which oxidizes rapidly on exposure. Concentrated 
sulphuric acid converts it into a deep red tar. 

Cydo-pentanone, C 6 H 8 0, first prepared pure by the distillation of 
calcium adipate (J. Wislicenus, Ann., 1893, 275, p. 312), is also ob- 
tained by the action of sodium on the esters of pimelic acid; by the 
distillation of .calcium succinate; and by hydrolysis of the cyclo- 
pentanone carboxylic acid, obtained by condensing adipic and 
oxalic esters in the presence of sodium ethylate. Reduction gives 
cyc/o-pentanol, C5H9OH. 

Croconic acid (dioxy-cyc/o-pentene-trione) , C5H2OS, is formed when 
triquinoyl is boiied with water, or by the oxidation of hexa-oxyben- 
zene or dioxydiquinoyl in alkaline solution (T. Zincke, Ber., 1887, 
20, p. 1267). It has the character of a quinone. On oxidation it 
yields cyc/o-pentane-pentanone (leuconic acid). 

Derivatives of the cye/o-pentane group are met with in the break- 
ing-down products of the terpenes (q.v.). 

Campholactone, QH14O2, is the lactone of trimethyl-2-2-3-cyc/o- 
pentanol-5-carboxylic acid-3. For an isomer, isocampholactone 
(the lactone of trimethyl-2-2-3-cyc/o-pentanol-3-carboxylic acid-i) 
see W. H. Perkin, jun., Proc. Chem. Soc, 1903, 19, p. 61. Lauronolic 
acid, C9H14O5, is trimethyl-2-2-3-cyc/o-pentene-4-acid-i. Isolauro- 
nolic acid, C9H14O2, is trimethyl-2-2-3-cyc/o-pentene-3-acid-4. 

Campholic acid, CioH 18 02, is tetrametnyl-i-2-2-3-cyc/o-pentane 
acid-3. Camphononic acid, CjHuOa, is trimethyl-2-2-3-cyc/o-penta- 
none- 1 -carboxylic acid-3. Camphorphorone, C 9 Hi40, is methyl-2- 
isobuty-lene-5-cyc/o-pentanone-i. Isothujone, Ci Hi 6 O, is dim- 
ethyl-i-2-isopropyl-3-cycto-pentene-l-one-5. (F. W. Semmler, Ber., 
I9°°, 33, p. 275.) 

L. Bouveault and G. Blanc (Comples rendus, 1903, 136, p. 1460), 
prepared hydrocarbons of the cyc/o-pentane series from cyclo- 
hexane compounds by the exhaustive methylation process of A. W. 
Hofmann (see Pyridine). For phenyl derivatives of the cyclo- 
pentane group see F. R. Japp, Jour. Chem. Soc, 1897, 71, pp. 139, 
144; H. Stobbe, Ann., 1901, 314, p. in; 315, p. 219 seq.; 1903, 
326, p. 347. 

Cydo-hexane Group. 
Hydrocarbons. — Cydo-hexane, or hexahydro benzene, C6H 12 , is 
obtained by the action of sodium on a boiling alcoholic solution of 
i-6-dibromhexane, and by passing the vapour of benzene, mixed 
with hydrogen, over finely divided nickel. It is a liquid with an odour 
like that of benzene. It boils at 80-81 ° C. Nitric acid oxidizes it to 
adipic acid. When heated with bromine in a sealed tube for some 
days at 150-200 C, it yields i-2-4'5-tetrabrombenzene (N. Zelinsky, 
Ber., 1901, 34, p. 2803). It is stable towards halogens at ordinary 
temperature. Benzene hexachloride, C 6 H 6 C1 6 , is formed by the 
action of chlorine on benzene in sunlight. By recrystallization 
from hot benzene, the a form is obtained in large prisms which melt 
at 157 C, and at their boiling-point decompose into hydrochloric 
acid and trichlorbenzene. The /3 form results by chlorinating 
boiling benzene in sunlight, and may be separated from the a variety 
by distillation in a current of steam. It sublimes at about 310 C. 
Similar varieties of benzene hexabromide are known. 

Hexakydrocymene (methyl-l-isopropyl-4-cyc/o-hexane), Ci H 2 o, is 
important since it is the parent substance of many terpenes (q.fl.). 
It is obtained by the reduction of 1-4 dibrommenthane with sodium 
(J. de Montgolfier, Ann. chim. phys., 1880 [5], 19, p. 158), or of 
cymene, limonene, &c, by Sabatier and Senderens's method. 
It is a colourless liquid which boils at 180 C. 

Cydo-hexene (tetrahydrobenzene), C 6 H l0 , was obtained by A. v. 
Baeyer by removing the elements of hydriodic acid from iodo- 
cyc/o-hexane on boiling it with quinoline. It is a liquid which boils 
at 82 C. Hypochlorous acid converts it into 2-chlor-cyc/o-hexanol-i, 
whilst potassium permanganate oxidizes it to cyc/c-hexandi-ol. 

Cydo-hexadiene (dihydrobenzene) , C«H g . — Two isomers are pos- 
sible, namely cycto-hexadiene-i-3 and cycfo-hexadiene-i-4. A. v. 
Baeyer obtained what was probably a mixture of the two by 
heating I -4 dibrom-cyc/o-hexane with quinoline. C. Harries (Ann., 
1903, 328, p. 88) obtained them tolerably pure by the dry distillation 
of the phosphates of l-3-diamino and l-4-diamino-cyc/o-hexane. 
The I -3 compound boils at 81-82° C. and on oxidation yields succinic 
and oxalic acids. The 1-4 compound also boils at 81-82° C. and on 
oxidation gives succinic and malonic acids. 

Alcohols. — Cydo-hexanol, C«HuOH, is produced by the reduction 
of the corresponding ketone, or of the iodhydrin of quinite. Nitric 
acid oxidizes it to adipic acid, and chromic acid to cyc/o-hexanone. 
Quinite (cyc/o-hexanediol-l-4) is prepared by reducing the correspond- 
ing ketone with sodium amalgam, cm-, and ^rani-modifications 
being obtained which may be separated by their acetyl derivatives. 
Phloroglucile _(cyc/o-hexane-triol-i-3-5) is obtained by reducing an 
aqueous solution of phloroglucin with sodium (W. Wislicenus, Ber., 
1894, 27, p. 357). Quercile (cydo-hexane-pentol-i-2-3-4-5), isolated 
from acorns in 1849 by H. Braconnot (Ann. chim. phys. [3], 27, 



p. 392), crystallizes in colourless prisms which melt at 234° C. When 
heated in vacuo to 240° C. it yields hydroquinone, quinone and 
pyrogallol. It is dextro-rotatory. A laevo-form occurs in the 
leaves of Gymnema sylvestre (F. B. Power, Journ. Chem. Soc, 1904, 
85, p. 624). 

Inosite (cydo-hexane-hexol), CeH 6 (OH)e. — The inactive form occurs 
in the muscles of the heart and in other parts of the human body. 
The d-iortn is found as a methyl ether in pinite (from the juice of Pinus 
lambertina, and of caoutchouc from Mateza roritina of Madagascar), 
from which it may be obtained by heating with hydriodic acid. 
The Worm is also found as a methyl ether in quebrachite. By 
mixing the d- and I- forms, a racemic variety melting at 253° C. is 
obtained. A dimethyl ether of inactive inosite is dambonite which 
occurs in caoutchouc from Gabon. 

Ketones. — Cydo-hexanone, CeH l0 O, is obtained by the distillation 
of calcium pimelate, and by the electrolytic reduction of phenol, 
using an alternating current. It is a colourless liquid, possessing 
a peppermint odour and boiling at 155° C. Nitric acid oxidizes it 
to adipic acid. It condenses under the influence of sulphuric acid 
to form dodecahydrotriphenylene, Ci ? H24, and a mixture of ketones 
(C. Mannul, Ber., 1907, 40, p. 153). M-ethyl-i-cydo-hexanone-$, 
CH 3 -C 6 H 9 0, is prepared by the hydrolysis of pulegone. It is an 
optically active liquid which boils at 168-169° C. Homologues of 
menthone may be obtained from the ketone by successive treatment 
with sodium amide and alkyl halides (A. Haller, Comples rendus, 
1905, 140, p. 127). On oxidation with nitric acid (sp. gr. 1-4) at 
60-70° C, a mixture of — and — -methyl adipic acids is obtained 
(W. Markownikoff, Ann., 1905, 336, p. 299). It can be transformed 
into the isomeric methyl-i-cydo-hexanone-2 (O. Wallach, Ann., 1904, 
329, p. 368). For methyl-i-cydo-hexanone-4, obtained by distilling 
7-methyl pimelate with lime, see O. Wallach, Ber., 1906, 39, 
p. 1492. 

Cydo-hexane-dione-i-5 (dihydroresorcin), C«H 8 02, was obtained 
by G. Merling (Ann., 1894, 278, p. 28) by reducing resorcin in hot 
alcoholic solution with sodium amalgam. Cydo-hexane-dione-l-^ is 
obtained by the hydrolysis of succino-succinic ester. On reduction 
it yields quinite. It combines with benzaldehyde, in the presence 
of hydrochloric acid, to form 2-benzyl-hydroquinone. Cyclo- 
hexane-trione-l-3-5 (phloroglucin) is obtained by the fusion of many 
resins and of resorcin with caustic alkali. It may be prepared 
synthetically by" fusing its dicarboxylic ester (from malonic ester 
and sodio malonic ester at 145° C.) with potash (C. W. Moore, 
Journ. Chem. Soc, 1904, 85, p. 165). It crystallizes in prisms, which 
melt at 218° C. With ferric chloride it gives a dark violet 
coloration. It exhibits tautomerization, since in many of its 
reactions it shows the properties of a hydroxylic substance. 
Rhodizonic acid (dioxydiquinoyl), C 6 H 2 06, is probably the enolic 
form of an oxypentaketo-cyc/o-hexane. It is formed by the 
reduction of triquinoyl by aqueous sulphurous acid, or in the form 
of its potassium salt by washing potassium hexa-oxybenzene with 
alcohol (R. Nietzki, Ber., 1885, 18, pp. 513, 1838). Triquinoyl 
(hexaketo-cycZo-hexane) C606-8H 2 0, is formed on oxidizing rhodi- 
zonic acid or hexa-oxybenzene. Stannous chloride reduces it to 
hexa-oxybenzene, and when boiled with water it yields croconic 
acid (dioxy-cyc/o-pentene-trione). 

Cydo-hexenones.— Two types of ketones are to be noted in this 
group, namely the a/3 and 187 ketones, depending upon the position 
of the double linkage in the molecule, thus : 

.0112:011 ^CH-CH2 v 

H 2 C/ ^CO HC< >C0 

X CH 2 CH 2 / X CH 2 -CH 2 / 

(a/3) _ _ _ (0y) 

These two classes show characteristic differences in properties. 

For example, on reduction with zinc and alcoholic potash, the o/8 

compounds give saturated ketones and also bi-molecular compounds, 

the f)y being unaffected; the ffy series react with hydroxylamine 

in a normal manner, the o/3 yield oxamino-oximes. 

Methyl-i-cydo-hexene-i-one-3, CH 3 -C 6 H70, isobtained by condens- 
ing sodium aceto-acetate with methylene iodide, the ester so formed 
being then hydrolysed. Isocamphorphorone, C 9 Hi 4 0, is trimethyl 
i'6-6.-cyc/o-hexene-l-one 6. Isocamphor, CioHhO, is methyl-i- 
isopropyl-3-cyc/o-hexene-i-one 6. 

Acids. — Hexahydrobenzoic acid, CeHn-Q^H, is obtained by the 
reduction of benzoic acid, or by the condensation of 1-5 dibrompen- 
tane with disodio-malonic ester. It crystallizes in small plates which 
melt at 30-31 ° C. and boil at 232-233° C. (J. C. Lumsden, Journ. 
Chem. Soc, 1905, 87, p. 90). The sulphochloride of the acid on 
reduction with tin and hydrochloric acid gives hexahydrothiophenol, 
CeHnSH, a colourless oil which boils at 158-160° C. (W. Borsche, 
Ber., 1906, 39, p. 392), 

Quinic acid, C 6 H7(OH)4C02H (tetra-oxy-cycfo-hexane carboxylic 
acid), is found in coffee beans and in quinia bark. It crystallizes 
in colourless prisms and is optically active. When heated to about 
250° C. it is transformed into quinide, probably a lactone, which on 
heating with baryta water gives an inactive quinic acid. 

Hexahydrophthalic acids, C 6 Hio(C0 2 H)2 (cyc/o-hexanedicarboxylic 
acids). — Three acids of this group are known, containing the Carb- 
oxyl-groups in the 1-2, 1-3, and 1-4 positions, and each exists in two 
stereo-isomeric forms (cm- and trans-). The anhydride ofthecw-i-2 



32 



POLYMETHYLENES 



A2 and A4 Tetrahydro^- 

-ii Heat 



A I Tetrahydro 



Hydrobromide 
on reduction 



Hexahydro 



Sodium 
amalgam 



A 1* DlHVDRO^- 



acid obtained byheadingthe anhydride of the trans-acid, forms prisms 
which melt at 192° C. When heated with hydrochloric acid it passes 
into the trans-variety. The racemic trans-acid is produced by the 
reduction of the dihydrobromide of A 4 -tetrahydrophthalic acid or 
A 2,6 dihydrophthalic acid. It is split into its active components 
by means of its quinine salt (A. Werner and H. E. Conrad, Ber., 
'899, 3 2 , P' 3°4°)- Hexahydroisophthalic acids (cyc/o-hexane-i-3- 
dicarboxylic acids) are obtained by the action of methylene iodide on 
disodio-pentane tetracarboxylic ester (W. H. Perkin, Journ. Chem. 
Soc, 1 89 1, 59, p. 798); by the action of trimethylene bromide on 
disodio-propane tetracarboxylic ester ; and by the reduction of 
isophthalic acid with sodium amalgam, the tetrahydro acids first 
formed being converted into hydrobromides and further reduced 
(A. v. Baeyer and V. Villiger, Ann., 1893, 276, p. 255). The cis- 
and trans- forms can be separated by means of their sodium salts. 
The trans-acid is a racemic compound, which on heating with acetyl 
chloride gives the anhydride of the CM-acid. 

Hexahydroterephthalic acids (cyc/o-hexane-l-4-dicarboxylic acids). 
These acids are obtained by the reduction of the hydrobromides of 
the di- and tetra-hydroterephthalic acids or by the action of ethylene 
dibromide on disodio-butane tetracarboxylic acid. An important 
derivative is succino-succinic acid, CeHeOjfCQjH^, or cydo-hexane- 
dione-2-5-dicarboxylic acid-i-4, which is obtained as its ester 
by the action of sodium or sodium ethylate on succinic ester (H. 
Fehling, Ann., 1844, 49, p. 192; F. 
Hermann, Ann., 1882, 211, p. 306). 
It crystallizes in needles or prisms, and 
dissolves in alcohol to form a bright 
blue fluorescent liquid, which on the 
addition of ferric chloride becomes 
cherry red. The acid on heating loses 
C0 2 and gives eyc/o-hexanedione-l-4. 

Tetrahydrobenzoic acid (cydo-hsxene- 
i-carboxylic acid-i ), C 6 H 9 -C0 3 H. Three 
structural isomers are possible. The 
A) acid results on boiling the A 2 acid 
with alkalis, or on eliminating hydro- 
bromic acid from i-brom-cycio-hexane- 
carboxylic acid- 1. The A 2 acid is 
formed on the reduction of benzoic acid 
with sodium amalgam. The A 3 acid is 
obtained by eliminating the elements of 
water from 4-oxy-cydo-hexane-l-carb- 
oxylic acid (W. H. Perkin, iun., Journ. 
Chem. Soc, 1904, 85, p. 431). Shikimic 
acid (s^-e-trioxy-A'-tetrahydrobenzoic 
acid) is found in the fruit of Illicium 
religiosum. On fusion with alkalis it 
yields para-oxybenzoic acid, and nas- 
cent hydrogen reduces it to hydro- 
shikimic acid. Sedanolic acid, C12H20O3, 
which is found along with sedanonic 
acid, C12H18O3, in the higher boiling 
fractions of celery oil, is an ortho- 

oxyamyl-A 5 -tetrahydrobenzoic acid, sedanonic acid being ortho- 
valeryl-A^tetrahydrobenzoicacidCG. Ciamician and P. Silber, Ber., 
I 8 97> 3°. PP. 49 2 > 501. I4'9 seq.). Sedanolic acid readily decom- 
poses into water and its lactone sedanolid, CuHigCX, the odorous 
constituent of celery oil. 

Tetrahydrophthalic acids {cyclo - hexene dicarboxylic acids), 
C 6 H 8 (CO_2H) 2 . Of the ortho-series four acids are known. The 
A 1 acid is obtained as its anhydride by heating the A 2 acid to 
220 C, or by distilling hydropyromellitic acid. Alkaline potassium 
permanganate oxidizes it to adipic acid. The A 2 acid is formed 
along with the A 4 acid by reducing phthalic acid with sodium 
amalgam in hot solutions. The A 4 acid exists in cm- and trans- 
forms. The trans- variety is produced by reducing phthalic acid, 
and the CM-acid by reducing A 2 " 4 dihydrophthalic acid. 

In the meta-series, four acids are also known. The A 2 acid is formed 
along with the A 4 (cm) acid by reducing isophthalic acid. The 
trans A 4 acid is formed by heating the CM-acid with hydrochloric 
acid under pressure. The A s acid is formed when the anhydride 
of tetrahydro rimesic acid is distilled (W. H. Perkin, junr., Journ. 
Chem. Soc, 1905, 87, p. 293). 

In the para-series, three acids are known. The A 1 acid is formed 
by the direct reduction of terephthalic acid ; by boiling the A 2 acid 
with caustic soda; and by the reduction (in the heat) of A 1-4 dihydro- 
terephthalic acid. The A 2 acid exists in cm- and trans- forms; these 
are produced simultaneously in the reduction of A 1-3 or A 1-6 dihydro- 
terephthalic acids by sodium amalgam. 

There are five possible dihydrobenzoic acids. One was obtained 
in the form of its amide by the reduction of benzamide in alkaline 
solution with sodium amalgam (A. Hutchinson, Ber., 1891, 24, 
p. 177). The A 1 ' 8 acid is obtained on oxidizing dihydrobenzalde- 
hyde with silver oxide or by the reduction of meta-trimethyl- 
aminobenzoic acid (R. Willstatter, Ber., 1904, 37, p. 1859). 

Of the dihydrophthalic acids, five are known in the ortho-series, 
two of which are stereo-isomers of the cm- and trans-type, and a 
similar number are known in the para-series. The A 1-4 acid is 
obtained as its anhydride by heating A 2-4 dihydrophthalic anhydride 



with acetic anhydride. When boiled with caustic soda it isomerizes 

to a mixture of the A 2 ' 4 and A 2 ' 6 dihydrophthalic acids. The A 2-4 
acid is obtained by boiling the dihydrobromide of the A 2 ' 6 acid with 
alcoholic potash or by continued boiling of the A 2 ' 6 acid with 
caustic soda. 

The A 2 ' 6 acid is formed when phthalic acid is reduced in the cold by 
sodium amalgam or by heating the A 2 ' 4 and A 3 ' 5 acids with caustic 
soda. The irons- modification of A 3 ' 5 acid is produced when phthalic 
acid is reduced by sodium amalgam in the presence of acetic acid. 
When heated for some time with acetic anhydride it changes to the 
CM-form. The /ro?M-acid has been resolved by means of its 
strychnine salts into two opticalry active isomerides, both of which 
readily pass to A 2 ' 6 dihydrophthalic acid (A. Neville, Journ. Chem. 
Soc, 1906, 89, p. 1744). 

Of the dihydroterephthalic acids, the A 1 ' 3 acid is obtained by heat 
ing the dibromide of the A 2 tetrahydro acid with alcoholic potash. It 
cannot be prepared by a direct reduction of terephthalic acid. On 
warming with caustic soda it is converted into the A 1 ' 4 acid. The A 1 ' 4 
acid is also obtained by the direct reduction of terephthalic acid. 
It is the most stable of the dihydro acids. The A 1 ' 6 acid is obtained 
by boiling the cis- and trans- A*' h acids with water, which are obtained 
on reducing terephthalic acid with sodium amalgam in faintly alka- 
line solution. The relationships existing between the various 
hydrophthalic acids may be shown as follows : — 



Sodium amalgam (hot) 



- Phthalic acid • 



Sodium amalgam + acetic acid 



Sodium 



Sodium amalgam (cold) 



T 



amalgam (hot) 



- A 28 Dihydro <~ 



Alkali 



Hydrobromide with 
alcoholic potash 



A 2-4 Dihydro 

Anhydride with 
I acetic anhydride 

A 1-4 Dihydro 



A3-5 Dihydro (trans.) 

J, Acetic anhydridz 
A3- 5 Ddiydro (as.) 



Boil with 



water 



A2-5 D 

Ai-SD 

4 


Sodium amalgam in 
faintly alkaline solution 

* 

EHYDRO 

, Boil with water 

HYDRO 

podium amalgam BqU + NaQR 


Sodium 

amalgam 

(hot) 



A 2 TETRAHYDRO' 



Reduce 



->A 1 Tetrahydro 



Dibromide + 
alcoholic potash 



A i'3 Dihydro ^~ 



Remove H Br from 



Hydrobromide 
on reduction 



-Hexahydro 



dibromide 

Cyclo-heptane Group. 

Cydo-heptane (suberane), C7H14, obtained by the reduction of 
suberyl iodide, is a liquid which boils at 117° C. On treatment 
with bromine in the presence of aluminium bromide it gives chiefly 
pentabromtoluene. When heated with hydriodic acid to 230 C. 
it gives methylhexamethylene. On oxidation with nitric acid 
(sp. gr. 1-4) it yields pimelic acid. Disuberyl, CjH.a-QHu, a thick 
oily liquid, boiling at 290-291 ° C, is obtained by the reduction of 
suberyl bromide. 

Cyclo-heptene, C 7 H 12 , is obtained by the action of alcoholic potash 
on suberyl iodide; and from cyc/o-heptane carboxylic acid, the amide 
of which by the action of sodium hypobromite is converted into 
cya'o-heptanamine, which, in its turn, is destructively methylated 
(R. Willstatter, Ber., 1901, 34, 131). Cydo-heptadiene 1-3, C 7 H 10 , 
is obtained from cyc/o-heptene (Willstatter, loc. cit.). It is identical 
with the hydrotropilidine, which results by the destructive methyla- 
tion of tropane. 

Euterpene (trimethyl-I ^^-cydo-heptadiene I -5), C 10 Hi S is prepared 
from dihydroeucarveol. By the action of hydrobromic acid (in 
glacial acetic acid solution) and reduction of the resulting product 
it yields l-2-dimethyl-4-ethylbenzene (A. v. Baeyer, Ber., 1897, 30, 
P- 2075). Cydo-heptatriene (tropilidine), C 7 H 8 , is formed on dis- 
tilling tropine with baryta; and from cycfo-heptadiene by forming 
its addition product with bromine and heating this with quinoline 
to 150-160° C. (R. Willstatter, loc. cit.). Chromic acid oxidizes it 
to benzoic acid and benzaldehyde. With bromine it forms a di- 
bromide, which then heated to 110° C. decomposes into hydro- 
bromic acid and benzyl bromide. 

Cy do-heptanol, CiH 13 OH, is formed by the reduction of suberone, 
and by the action of silver nitrite on the hydrochloride of cyclo- 
hexanamine (N. L?emjanow, Centralblatt, 1904, i. p. 1214). 

Cydo-heptanone (suberone), C 7 Hi 2 0, is formed on the dis- 
tillation of suberic acid with lime, and from a-brom-cyc/o-heptane 
carboxylic acid by treatment with baryta and subsequent distilla- 
tion over lead peroxide (R. Willstatter, Ber.. 1898, 31, p. 2507). 
It is a colourless liquid having a peppermint odour, and boiling 
at I78-5-I79-5 C. Nitric acid oxidizes it to n-pimelic acid. 



POLYNESIA 



33 



Tropilene, C7H10O, is obtained in small quantities by the distillation 
of a-methyltropine methyl hydroxide, and by the hydrolysis of 18- 
methyltropidine with dilute hydrochloric acid. It is an oily liquid, 
with an odour resembling that of benzaldehyde. It forms a benzai 
compound, and gives an oyxmethylene derivative and cannot be 
oxidized to an acid, reactions which point to it being a ketone con- 
taining the grouping -CH 2 -CO-. It is thus to be regarded as a 
cyc/o-heptene- 1 -one- 7 . 

Cyc\o-heptane carboxylic acid (suberanic acid), C7HH1CO2H, is 
obtained by the reduction of cyc/o-heptene-l-carboxylic acid; 
from brom-cyc/o-heptane by the Grignard reaction ; and by the re- 
duction of hydrotropilidine carboxylic acid by sodium in alcoholic 
solution (R. Willstatter, Ber., 1898, 31. p. 2504). The corresponding 
oxyacid is obtained by the hydrolysis of the nitrile, which is formed 
by the addition of hydrocyanic acid to suberone (A. Spiegel, Ann., 
1882, 211, p. 117). 

Four cyc2o-heptene carboxylic acids are known. Cyc\o-heptene-\- 
carboxylic acid-i is prepared from oxysuberanic acid. This acid 
when heated with concentrated hydrochloric acid to 120-130° C. 
yields a chlor-acid, which on warming with alcoholic potash is trans- 
formed into the cycio-heptene compound. Cyc\o-heptene-2-carboxylic 
acid-i is formed by the reduction of cye/o-heptatriene 246-carb- 
oxylic acid- 1. On boiling with caustic soda it isomerizes to the 
corresponding l-acid. 

Cyclo-heptatriene carboxylic acids, C7H7CO2H. All four are 
known. According to F. Buchner (Ber., 1898, 31, p. 2242) they may 
be represented as follows : — 



CH 2 — 


CH- 


-CH a 


CH 2 


■CH:CH 


CH 2 HO 


NM 


: 8 CHj*-CHj 


CH 


CH 2 — 


-CH = 


= CH 


CH 2 


CHj-CH 








irydo-octadiene 



A.IA5«(. AlAtorji. il,4.6orV i2,4.8orS 

The a-acid (a-isophenylacetic acid) is obtained by the hydrolysis 
of pseudophenylacetamide, formed bv condensing diazoacetic ester 
with benzene, the resulting pseudophenyl acetic ester being then left 
in contact with strong ammonia for a long time. 0-Isophenylacetic 
acid is formed by strongly heating pseudophenylacetic ester in an 
air-free sealed tube and hydrolysing the resulting |8-isophenylacetic 
ester, y-1 sophenylacetic acid is obtained by heating the and 8 
acids for a long time with alcoholic potash (A. Einhorn, Ber., 1894, 
27, p. 2828; E. Buchner, Ber., 1898, 31, p. 2249). 5-Isophenyl- 
acetic acid is obtained by heating the iodmethylate of anhydro- 
ecgonine ester with dilute caustic soda (A, Einhorn, Ber., 1893, 26, 
P- 329). 

Numerous aminc-derivatives of the eycfo-heptane series have been 
prepared by R. Willstatter in the course of his investigations on the 
constitution of tropine (q.v.). Amino-cyc\o-heptane (suberylamine) 
is obtained by the reduction of suberone oxime or by the action of 
sodium hypobromite on the amide of cycloheptane carboxylic acid. 

CycXo-octane Group. 

Few members of this group are known. By the distillation of the 
calcium salt of azelaic acid H. Mayer (Ann., 1893, 275, p. 363) 
obtained azelain ketone, CgH^O, a liquid of peppermint odour. 
It boils at 90-91 ° C. (23 mm.) and is readily oxidized by potassium 
permanganate to oxysuberic acid. It is apparently cycio-octanone 
(see also W. Miller and A. Tschitschkin, Centralblatt, 1899, 2 -> 
p. 181). 

Pseudopelletierine (methyl granatonine), C 9 Hi 6 NO, an alkaloid of 
the pomegranate, is a derivative of cydo-octane, and resembles 
tropine in that it contains a nitrogen bridge between two carbon 
atoms. It is an inactive base, and also has ketonic properties. 
On oxidation it yields methyl granatic ester, which, by the exhaustive 
methylation process, is converted into homopiperylene dicarboxylic 
ester, H0 2 CCH:CH CH 2 CH 2 CH:CH C0 2 H, from which suberic 
acid may be obtained on reduction. When reduced in alcoholic 
solution by means of sodium amalgam it yields methyl granatoline, 
CsHuOH-NCFU; this substance, on oxidation with cold potassium 
permanganate, is converted into granatoline, CsHi 5 NO, which on 
distillation over zinc dust yields pyridine. Methyl granatoline on 
treatment with hydriodic acid and red phosphorus, followed by 
caustic potash, yields methyl granatinine, CgHisN, which when heated 
with hydriodic acid and phosphorus to 240° C. is converted into 
methyl granatanine, C 8 Hi4.NCH 3 , and granatanine, CsHuNH. The 
hydrochloride of the latter base when distilled over zinc dust yields 
a-propyl pyridine. By the electrolytic reduction of pseudopellet- 
ierine, TV- methyl granatanine is obtained, and this by exhaustive 
methylation is converted into A Wei-dimethyl granatanine. This 
latter compound readily forms an iodmethylate, which on treatment 
with silver oxide yields the corresponding ammonium hydroxide. 
The ammonium hydroxide on distillation decomposes into trimefhyl- 
amine, water and cydo-octadienei 3. 



CH 2 CH— CH 2 
CH 2 NMe CO - 
CH3CH— CH 2 
Pseudopelletierine 

xxn. 2 



CH 2 CH— CH 2 

>CH 2 NMe CH 2 

CH 2 CH— CH 2 

iV-methyl 

granatanine 



CH 2 CH— CH 2 

*CH 2 HONMe 2 CH 2 
CH, CH— CH 2 



CH2 *CH — CH2 

CH,NMeCH^ 
CH 2 CH = CH 
A - 4 de.s-methyl 
granatanine 

Qyc\o-octadiene, CsHi 2 , as above prepared, is a strong-smelling oil 
which decolorizes potassium permanganate solution instantaneously. 
It readily polymerizes to a di-cyc/o-octadiene and polymer (C s Hi 2 )„ 
(R. Willstatter, Ber., 1905, 38, pp. 1975, 1984; G. Ciamician and P. 
Silber, Ber., 1893, 26, p. 2750; A. Piccinini, Gazz., 1902, 32, 1 p. 260). 
{}-cyc\o-octadiene has been prepared from methyl granatinine 
iodmethylate. 

Cyclo-octane, CsH 16 is obtained by the reduction of the above 
unsaturated hydrocarbon by the Sabatier and Senderens's method. 
It is a liquid which boils at 146-3-148° C. and possesses a strong 
camphor odour. On oxidation it yields suberic acid (R. Willstatter, 
Ber., 1907, 40, pp. 957). O. Doebner (Ber., 1902, 35, pp. 2129, 
2538; 1903, 36, p. 4318) obtained compounds, which in all probabi- 
lity are cycto-octadienes, by the distillation of /3-vinylacrylic acid, 
sorbic acid, and cinnamenyl acrylic acid with anhydrous baryta. 

Cyclo-nonane Group. 
According to N. Zelinsky (Ber., 1907, 40, p. 780) cyclononanone, 
CgHieO, a liquid boiling at 95-97° C, is formed on distilling sebacic 
acid with lime, and from this, by reduction to the corresponding 
secondary alcohol, conversion of the latter into the iodide, and 
subsequent reduction of this with zinc, cyc\o-nonane, CgHis, a iiquid 
boiling at 1 70-1 72° C. is obtained. 

POLYNESIA, (Gr. ttoKvs, many, and vrjcros, island), a term 
sometimes used to cover the whole of the oceanic islands in 
the central and western Pacific, but properly for the eastern 
of the three great divisions of these islands. The chief groups 
thus included are Hawaii, the Ellice, Phoenix, Union, Manihiki 
and Marquesas groups, Samoa and Tonga, the Cook, Society, 
Tubuai and Tuamotu groups, and many other lesser islands. 
(See Pacific Ocean, section on Island, and separate articles 
on the principal groups, &c.) 

The Polynesian Race. — For the ethnological problems offered 
by Polynesia no thoroughly satisfactory solutions have yet been 
found. By some the term Polynesian has been treated as a 
synonym for Malayo-Polynesian, and has been made to include 
all the brown races of Malaysia, Melanesia, Micronesia and 
Polynesia. Linguistically, physically and mentally this view 
is untenable. Whatever be the origin of the Polynesians, they 
are not Malays, though, themselves of mixed blood, they have 
probably certain racial elements in common with the latter, 
who are undoubtedly hybrids. There is every reason to be- 
lieve that the Polynesians are ethnologically a far older race 
than the Malays, who, as they now exist, are a comparatively' 
modern people; and thus Friedrich Miiller's and D. G. Brinton's 
theory, that they form a branch of the Malays, fails. Joseph 
Deniker declares the Polynesians a separate ethnic group of 
the Indo-Pacific area, and in this view he is followed by A. H. 
Keane, who suggests that they are a branch of the Caucasie 
division of mankind who possibly migrated in the Neolithic 
period from the Asiatic mainland. Of the migration itself no 
doubt is now felt, but the first entrance of the Polynesians into 
the Pacific must have been an event so remote that neither by 
tradition nor otherwise can it be even approximately fixed. 
The journey of these Caucasians would naturally be in stages. 
Their earliest halting place was probably the Malay Archi- 
pelago, where a few of their kin linger in the Mentawi Islands 
on the west coast of Sumatra. Thence at a date within historic 
times a migration eastward took place. The absence of San- 
skrit roots in the Polynesian languages appears to indicate that 
this migration was in pre-Sanskritic times. Whether anything 
like a definite date can be fixed for it may well be questioned. 
Abraham Fornander 1 has, however, with great probability, 
traced back the history of the Hawaiians to the 5th century. 
He has studied the folk-lore of those islands exhaustively, and 
from this source comes to the conclusion that the Polynesian 
migration from the Indian Archipelago may be approximately 
assigned to the close of the 1st or to the 2nd century. The 
traditions of many of the Polynesian peoples tend to make 
Savaii, the largest of the Samoan Islands, their ancestral home 
in the East Pacific, and linguistic and other evidence goes to 
1 An Account of the Polynesian Race (1878), i. 168. 

11 



34 



POLYNESIA 



support the theory that the first Polynesian settlement in the 
East Pacific was in Samoa, and that thence the various branches 
of the race made their way in all directions. Most likely Samoa 
was the first group permanently occupied by them. Owing 
to the admixture of the Polynesians with the Papuans in Fiji 
some authorities have thought the first settlement was in 
those islands, and that the settlers were eventually driven thence 
by the Papuan occupiers. We can, however, account for the 
presence of Polynesian blood in Fiji in another way, viz. by the 
intercourse that has been kept up between the people of Tonga 
and Fiji. If the first resting-place of the Polynesians was in 
that group, there is good reason to believe that Samoa was the 
first permanent home of the race. 

It used to be doubted whether these people could have gone 
from the Indian archipelago so far eastward, because the pre- 
vailing winds and currents are from the east. But it is now 
well known that at times there are westerly winds in the region 
over which they would have to travel, and that there would be no 
insuperable difficulties in the way of such a voyage. The Poly- 
nesians are invariably navigators. There is ample evidence 
that in early times they were much better seamen than they 
are at present. Indeed their skill in navigation has greatly 
declined since they have become known to Europeans. They 
used to construct decked vessels capable of carrying one or two 
hundred persons, with water and stores sufficient for a voyage 
of some weeks duration. These vessels were made of planks 
well fitted and sewn together, the joints being caulked and 
pitched. 1 It is only in recent times that the construction of 
such vessels has ceased. The people had a knowledge of 
the stars, of the rising and setting of the constellations at 
different seasons of the year; by this means they determined 
the favourable season for making a voyage and directed their 
course. 

The Polynesians were by no means a savage people when 
they entered the Pacific. Indeed their elaborate historical 
legends show that they possessed a considerable amount of 
civilization. Those who are familiar with these legends, and 
have studied native manners and customs, see many unmis- 
takable proofs that the Polynesians had, at their migration, 
considerable knowledge and culture, and that the race has 
greatly deteriorated. 

The Polynesians are physically a very fine race. On some 
islands they average 5 ft. 10 in. in height. De Quatrefages, 
in a table giving the stature of different races of men, 2 puts the 
natives of Samoa and Tonga as the tallest people in the world. 
He gives 5 ft. 9-92 in. as their average height. They are well 
developed in proportion to their height. Their colour is a brown, 
lighter or darker generally according to the amount of their 
exposure to the sun — being darker on some of the atolls where 
the people spend much time in fishing, and among fishermen 
on the volcanic islands, and lighter among women, chiefs and 
others less exposed than the bulk of the people. Their hair 
is dark brown or black; smooth and curly, very different from 
the frizzly mop of the Papuan or the lank straight locks of the 
Malay. They have very little beard. Their features are gen- 
erally fairly regular and often beautiful; eyes invariably black, 
and in some persons oblique; jaws not projecting, except in a 
few instances; lips of medium thickness; the noses are naturally 
long, well shaped and arched, but many are artificially flat- 
tened at the bridge in infancy. Their foreheads are fairly high, 
but rather narrow. The young of both sexes are good-looking. 
The men often have more regular features than the women. 
Formerly the men paid more attention to personal appearance 
than the women. Polynesians generally are of singularly 
cleanly habits, love bathing, and have a taste for neatness and 
order. Their clothing is simple: a loin cloth for the men and 
for the women a girdle or petticoat of leaves. Sometimes 
women cover the shoulders, and on great occasions the men 
robe themselves in tapa, bark-cloth. The men are usually 

1 Coco-nut fibre and the gum which exudes from the bread-fruit 
tree are generally used for " caulking " and " pitching " canoes. 
' The Human Species (International Scientific Series), pp. 57-60. 



tattooed in elaborate designs from the navel to the thigh, and 
often around mouth and eyes. 

As a race the Polynesians are somewhat apathetic. An 
enervating climate and lavish natural resources incline them to 
lead easy lives. On the more barren islands, and on those more 
distant from the equator, they show more energy. Under 
certain circumstances they become excitable, and manifest a 
kind of care-for-nothing spirit. As savages they were strict 
in their religious observances and religion came into almost 
every action of life, and they have been, in most instances, easily 
led to accept Christianity. Their essential trait is their per- 
ennial cheerfulness, and their fondness for dance and song and 
every sort of amusement. 3 They are shrewd, intelligent and 
possess much common sense. Where they have from early 
years enjoyed the advantages of a good education, Polynesian 
youths have proved themselves to possess intellectual powers 
of no mean order. They are almost invariably fluent speakers; 
with many of them oratory seems to be a natural gift; it is also 
carefully cultivated. An orator will hold the interest of his 
hearers for hours together at a political gathering, and in his 
speech he will bring in historical allusions and precedents, and 
will make apt quotations from ancient legends in a manner which 
would do credit to the best parliamentary orators. Many of 
them are very brave, and think little of self-sacrifice for others 
where duty or family honour is concerned. 

Polynesian society is divided into the family and the clan. Each 
clan has a name which is usually borne by one of the oldest members, 
who is the chief or head for the time being. This clan system no 
doubt generally prevailed in early times, and was the origin of the 
principal chieftainships. But changes have been made in most of 
the islands. In some the head of one clan has become king over 
several. In many cases large clans have been divided into sections 
under secondary heads, and have even been subdivided. 

As a rule near relations do not intermarry. In some islands this 
rule is rigidly adhered to. There have been exceptions, however, 
especially in the case of high chiefs ; but usually great care is taken 
to prevent the union of those within the prescribed limits of con- 
sanguinity. Children generally dwell with their kin on the father's 
side, but they have equal rights on the mother's side, and sometimes 
they take up their abode with their mother's family. The only 
names used to express particular relationships are father and 
mother, son and daughter, brother and sister. There is usually, 
no distinction between brothers (or sisters) and cousins, all the 
children of brothers and sisters speak of each other as brothers and 
sisters, and they call uncles and aunts fathers and mothers. Above 
the relationship of parents all are simply ancestors, no term being 
used for grandfather which would not equally apply to any more 
remote male ancestor. In the same way there is no distinctive 
term for grandchild. A man speaks of his grandchild as his son 
or daughter, or simply as his child. 4 Polygamy was often practised,, 
especially by chiefs, and also concubinage. In some places a widow 
was taken by the brother of her deceased husband, or, failing the 
brother, by some other relative of the deceased, as an additional wife. 
Divorce was an easy matter, and of frequent occurrence; but as a 
rule, a divorced wife would not marry again without the consent of 
her former husband. An adulterer was always liable to be killed 
by the aggrieved husband, or by some member of his clan. If 
the culprit himself could not be reached, any member of the clan 
was liable to suffer in his stead. In some islands female virtue was 
highly regarded. Perhaps of all the groups Samoa stood highest 
in this respect. There was a special ordeal through which a bride 
passed to prove her virginity, and a proof of her immorality brought 
disgrace upon all her relatives. But in other islands there was much 
freedom in the relations of the sexes. Owing to the almost promis- 
cuous intercourse which prevailed among a portion of the race, in 
some groups titles descended through the mother and not through 
the father. In Hawaii there was a peculiar system of marriage 

3 Wrestling and boxing, a kind of hockey and football, canoe and 
foot races, walking-matches, swimming, archery, cockfighting, 
fishing-matches and pigeon-catching are among their pastimes. 
Of indoor games they have a number, many being of a gambling 
nature. Much time is spent, especially after the evening meal, 
in asking riddles, in rhyming, &c. The recital of songs and myths 
is a common amusement, and on special occasions there is dancing. 
The night-dances were generally accompanied by much indecency 
and immorality. 

4 Dr Lewis H. Morgan, in Ancient Society, -pp. 419-423, makes the 
Polynesians to have distinctive terms for grandfather, grandmother, 
grandson and granddaughter. In this he is mistaken. It is evident 
from his own lists that the Hawaiian kupuna means simply an 
ancestor. In like manner moopUna simply means a descendant 
of any generation after the first. 



POLYNESIA 



35 



relationship," brothers with their wives, and sisters with their 
husbands, possessing each other in common." There also, especially 
in the case of chiefs and chieftainesses, brothers and sisters some- 
times intermarried. But these customs did not prevail in other 
groups. It is almost certain that they did not prevail in Hawaii in 
early times, but that they were the result of that deterioration in the 
race which their traditions and many of their customs indicate. 1 

Women have always occupied a relatively high position among 
the Polynesians. In most groups they have great influence and are 
treated with much respect. In some cases they take hereditary 
titles and hold high offices. As among their congeners in Mada- 
gascar, so also in parts of Polynesia, there may be a queen or a chief- 
tainess in her own right ; and a woman in high position will command 
as much respect, and will exercise as great authority, as a man would 
in the same position. Everywhere infanticide prevailed; in some 
of the smaller islands it was regulated by law in order to prevent 
over- population. It was also a very common practice to destroy 
the foetus, but parents were affectionate towards their children. 
The practice of adopting children was, and still is, common. Often 
there is an exchange made between members of the same clan; 
but sometimes there is adoption from without. Tattooing generally 
prevailed among the men, different patterns being followed in differ- 
ent groups of islands. In some a larger portion of the body is 
tattooed than in others. A youth was considered to be in his 
minority until he was tattooed, and in former times he would have 
no chance of marrying until he had, by submitting to this process, 
proved himself to be a man. Puberty in the. other sex was generally 
marked by feasting, or some other demonstration, among the female 
friends. Old age is generally honoured. Often an inferior chief 
will give up his title to a younger man, yet he himself will lose but 
little by so doing. The neglect of aged persons is extremely rare. 

Property belonging to a clan is held in common. Each clan 
usually possesses land, and over this no one member has an exclusive 
right, but all have an equal right to use it. The chief or recognized 
head of the clan or section alone can properly dispose of it or assign 
its use for a time to an outsider; and even he is expected to obtain 
the consent of the heads of families before he alienates the property. 
Thus land is handed down through successive generations under the 
nominal control of the recognized head of the clan. Changes 
have been made in many islands in this respect; but there can be 
little reason to doubt that the joint ownership of property in clans 
was common among the entire race in former times. 

In early times the head of each clan was supreme among his 
own people, but in all matters he had associated with him the 
principal men or heads of families in the clan. Their united 
authority extended over all the members and the possessions of the 
clan, and they were independent of every other clan. There are in 
some places vestiges of this primitive state of society still remaining ; 
the transition to a limited or to a despotic monarchy may be traced 
by means of the ancient legends in some islands, and in others it is 
a matter of recent history. One clan being more numerous and 
stronger than another, and its chief being ambitious, it is easy to 
see how by conquering a neighbouring clan he increased the import- 
ance of his clan and extended his own power. In some of the islands 
this transition process has hardly yet developed into an absolute 
monarchy. We may even see two or three stages of the progress. 
In one instance a certain clan has the right to nominate the principal 
chief over an entire district; though it is known as the ruling clan, 
its rule is mainly confined to this nomination, and to decision for or 
against war. In all other respects the district enjoys the privilege 
of self-government. In another case the nominal king over a dis- 
trict, or over an entire island, can be elected only from among the 
members of a certain clan, the monarchy being elective within that 
alone; but this king has little authority. In other cases a more 
despotic monarchy has grown up — the prowess of one man leading 
to the subjugation of other clans. Even in this case the chiefs or 

1 Morgan has founded one of his forms of family — the consanguine 
— on the supposed existence in former times among the Malays and 
Polynesians of the custom of " intermarriage of brothers and sisters, 
own and collateral, in a group." All the evidence he finds in support 
of this is (i) the existence of the custom above mentioned in Hawaii; 
and (2) the absence of special terms for the relationship of uncle, 
aunt and cousin, this indicating, he thinks, that these were regarded 
as fathers, mothers, brothers and sisters. He admits that " the 
usages with respect to marriage which prevailed when the system 
was formed may not prevail at the present time." But he adds, 
. " To sustain the deduction it is not necessary that they should " 
(Ancient Society, p. 408). Morgan has given special terms for grand- 
father and grandmother, because it would prove too much to show 
that the people had no grandfathers, &c. But these terms are used 
for ancestors of any generation. The terms used for grandchildren, 
in like manner, are used for any generation of descendants. He 
says (p. 406) the terms of husband and wife are used in common by 
a group of sisters or brothers, but the fact is that the words used for 
husband and wife in Hawaii simply mean male and female. In 
some islands there are terms used for wife in the most strict sense. 
The word wife is not used more exclusively among us than among 
some Polynesian people. 



heads of clans sometimes still hold their property and rule over their 
own people, only rendering a kind of feudal service and paying 
tribute to the king. 

The Polynesians are exceedingly fond of rank and of titles. Much 
deference is paid to chiefs and to persons of rank; and special 
terms are generally employed in addressing these. Every part of a 
chief's body and all his belongings have names different from those 
employed for common people. The grade of rank which a person 
occupies will often be indicated by the language in which he is 
addressed. Thus, in Samoa there are four different terms for to 
come: sau is for a common man; maliu mai is a respectful term 
for a person without a title; susu mai for a titled chief; and afio 
mai for a member of the royal family. In addressing chiefs, or 
others to whom one wishes to be respectful, the singular number 
of the personal pronoun is rarely used ; the dual is employed instead 
— the dual of dignity or of respect. 

Offices and titles are seldom hereditary in our sense of the term, 
as descending from father to son. They are rather elective within 
the limits of the clan, or the division of a clan. A common practice 
is for the holder of a high titlt to nominate a successor; and his 
nomination is generally confirmed by the chiefs, or heads of house- 
holds, with whom the right of election rests. In ancient times the 
authority of a high chief or king did not usually extend to any 
details of government. But in Hawaii there are traditions of a wise 
king who interested himself in promoting the social well-being of 
the people, and made good laws for their guidance. 2 Usually all 
matters affecting a district or an island were settled by the chiefs 
of the district, while those of a single village were settled by a 
council consisting of the chiefs and heads of households in the village. 
In some islands each clan, or each village, would feel itself at liberty 
to make war on another clan or village without consulting the views 
of any higher authority. Indeed the rule was for each clan or dis- 
trict to settle its own affairs. In the case of offences against 
individuals, either the person injured, or another member of his 
elan, would avenge the injury done. For most offences there was 
some generally recognized punishment — such as death for murder 
or adultery; but often vengeance would fall upon another person 
instead of the wrongdoer. In avenging wrong, a member of the 
village or of the clan to which the offender belonged would serve 
equally well to satisfy their ideas of justice if the culprit himself 
could not be easily reached. Sometimes all the members of the 
family, or of a village, to which a culprit belonged would flee from their 
homes and take refuge in another village, or seek the protection of a 
powerful chief. In some places, in cases of crime, the members of 
the family or village would convey the culprit bound — sometimes 
even carrying him like a pig that is to be killed — and place him with 
apologies before those against whom he had transgressed. The 
ignominy of such a proceeding was generally considered sufficient 
atonement for the gravest offences. There were slaves in many 
islands, either persons conquered in war, or those who had been 
condemned to lose their personal liberty on account of evil conduct. 
Pottery was not manufactured by the Polynesians: a fact which, 
it has been argued, goes far to prove the remoteness of the Poly- 
nesian migration from the Malay Archipelago, where there is not a 
single tribe which does not possess the art. It may, however, be 
that, moving among small coral islands for scores of generations and 
thus without materials, they lost the art. Those of them who 
possessed pottery obtained it from the Papuans. In most of their 
manufactures they were, however, in advance of the Papuans. 
They made use of the vegetable fibres abounding in the islands, the: 
women manufacturing cloth, chiefly from the bark of the paper 
mulberry (Morus papyrifera), but also in some islands from the 
bark of the bread-fruit tree and the hibiscus. This in former 
times furnished them with most of their clothing. They also made 
various kinds of mats, baskets and fans from the leaves of the pan- 
danus, the bark of the hibiscus, from species of bohmeria or other 
Urticaceous plants. Some of their mats are very beautifully made, 
and in some islands they are the most valuable property the people 
possess. The people also use the various fibre-producing plants for 
the manufacture of ropes, coarse string and fine cord, and for making 
fishing nets. The nets are often very large, and are netted with a 
needle and mesh as in hand-netting among ourselves. 

The Polynesians, who have always been entirely without metals, 
are clever workers in wood. Canoe and house building are trades 
usually confined to certain families. The large canoes in which they 
formerly made long voyages are no longer built, but various kinds 
of smaller canoes are made, from the commonest, which is simply 
a hollowed-out tree cut into form, to the finely shaped one built 
upon a keel, the joints of the various pieces being nicely fitted, and 
the whole stitched together with cord made from the husk of coco- 
nuts. Some of the larger canoes are ornamented with rude carving; 
and in some islands they are somewhat elaborately decorated with 
inlaid mother-of-pearl. The houses are generally well and elabor- 
ately made, but nearly all the ornamentation is put on the inside of 
the roof. 

They manufacture several wooden utensils for household use, 

2 See a remarkable example in Fornander's Account of the Poly- 
| nesian Race, ii. 89. 



36 



POLYNESIA 



such as dishes or deep bowls, head-rests and stools. Having no | 
metal or other vessels in which to boil water, all cooking is done by 
baking, generally in holes in the ground. They also make wooden j 
gongs, or drums. They used to make wooden fishhooks, clubs, | 
spears and bows. They still make wooden fishspears and carved and 
inlaid combs. They employ the bamboo for making drums and 
flutes. Formerly knives were made of bamboo, which is still some- 
times used for that purpose. In the manufacture of these things 
they employed adzes made of stone, shell or hard wood, and a wooden 
drill pointed with stone, shell or bone. They made mother-of-pearl 
fishhooks, and they still use a part of those old hooks — or artificial 
bait — in combination with steel hooks, the native-made portion 
being generally shaped like a small fish. For water-vessels, &c, 
they employ gourds and large coco-nut shells, in preparing which 
they pour in water and allow the pulp or the kernel to decay, so that 
it may be removed without breaking the rind or shell. Their drink- 
ing cups are made of half a coco-nut shell. Sharks' teeth, shells 
and bamboo were formerly generally used as cutting instruments 
for shaving and surgical operations. They employ vegetable dyes 
for painting their bark-cloth, calabashes, &c. In some islands they 
also use a red earth for this purpose. Their cloth is generally 
ornamented with geometrical patterns. Any drawings of animals, 
&c, which they make are exceedingly inartistic, and no attempt 
is made at perspective. Their musical instruments are few and rude 
— consisting of the drums and flutes already mentioned, and shell 
trumpets. 

The Polynesians were all polytheists. Without doubt many of 
their gods are deified men ; but it is clear that some are the forces 
of Nature personified, while others appear to represent human 
passions which have become identified with particular persons who 
have an existence in their historical myths. 1 But the conception 
which they had of Tangaloa (Taaroa and Kanaloa in some islands) 
is of a higher order. Among the Tahitians he was regarded as 
" the first and principal god, uncreated and existing from the 
beginning, or from the time he emerged from po, or the world of 
darkness." 2 " He was said to be the father of all the gods, and 
creator of all things, yet was scarcely reckoned an object of worship." 3 
Dr Turner says, " the unrestricted, or unconditioned, may fairly 
be regarded as the name of this Samoan Jupiter." 4 

The worship of certain of the great gods was common to all the 
people in a group of islands. Others were gods of villages or of 
families, while others were gods of individuals. The gods of clans 
were probably the spirits of the ancestors in their own line. In 
some islands, when the birth of a child was expected, the aid of the 
gods of the family was invoked, beginning with the god of the father. 
The god prayed to at the instant of birth became the god of the 
child. In other places the name of the child's god was declared 
when the umbilical cord was severed. The gods were supposed to 
dwell in various animals, in trees, or even in inanimate objects, as a 
stone, a shell, &c. In some islands idols bearing more or less resem- 
blance to the human shape were made. But in all cases the material 
objects were regarded simply as the abodes of the immaterial spirits 
of the gods. 

Their temples were either national, for a single village, or for 
the god of a family. They were sometimes large stone enclosures 
(marae), sometimes a grove, or a house. The principal priests were 
a particular order, the priesthood being hereditary. In some cases, 
however, the father of a family was priest in his own household and 
presented offerings and prayers to the family god. 

In some islands human sacrifices were of "frequent occurrence; in 
others they were offered only on very rare and exceptional occasions, 
when the demand was made by the priests for something specially 
valuable. The usual offerings to the gods were food. The system 
of taboo was connected with their religious rites. There were two 
ways by which things might become taboo: (i) by contact with 
anything belonging to the god, as his visible representation or his 
priest. Probably it was thought that a portion of the sacred essence 
of the god, or of a sacred person, was directly communicable to 
objects which they touched. (2) Things were made taboo by being 
dedicated to the god ; and it is this form of taboo which is still kept up. 
If, e.g., any one wishes to preserve his coco-nuts from being taken, 
he will put something upon the trees to indicate that they are sacred 
or dedicated. They cannot then be used until the taboo is removed. 
Disease and death were often connected with the violation of taboo, 
the offended gods thus punishing the offenders. Disease was 
generally attributed to the anger of the gods. Hence offerings, &c, 
were made to appease their anger. The first-fruits of a crop were 
usually dedicated to the gods to prevent them from being angry; 
and new canoes, fishing-nets, &c, were dedicated by prayers and 
offerings, in order that the gods might be propitious to their owners 
in their use 

J The following books may be consulted on this subject: Rev. 
W. W. Gill's Myths and Songs from the South Pacific; Dr Turners 
Samoa; and Mr Shortland's Maori Religion and Mythology; Sir 
George Grey, Polynesian Mythology. 

* Polynesian Researches i. 323. 

* Tahitian Dictionary. 

* Samoa, p. 5.J. 



The Polynesians invariably believe in the existence of the spirit 
of man after the death of the body. Their traditions on the condi- 
tion of the dead vary considerably in different groups ; yet there is a 
general agreement upon main points. Death is caused by the 
departure of the spirit from the body. The region of the dead is 
subterranean. When the spirit leaves the body it is conveyed by 
waiting spirits to the abode of spirits. In most islands the place 
of descent is known. It is generally towards the west. In some 
traditions there is a distinction between chief and common people 
in the spirit world. In others all are much alike in condition. Some 
traditions indicate a marked distinction between the spirits of 
warriors and those of others: the former go to a place where they 
are happy and are immortal, while the latter are devoured by the 
gods and are annihilated. In some, however, the spirits are said to 
live again after being eaten. Some speak of the abode of spirits 
as being in darkness ; but usually the condition of things is similar 
to that which exists upon earth. Amongst all the people it is 
believed that the spirits of the dead are able to revisit the scenes of 
their earthly life. The visits are generally made in the night, and 
are often greatly dreaded, especially when there may be any supposed 
reason for spite oh the part of the dead towards living relatives. 
Some writers have connected Polynesian cannibalism with religion. 
In the Cook and Society Islands, when a human being was offered 
as a sacrifice, the priest presented an eye of the victim to the king, 
who either ate it or pretended to do so. Probably the earliest 
human sacrifices were the bodies of enemies slain in battle. As 
it was supposed by some that the spirits of the dead were eaten by 
the gods, the bodies of those slain in battle may have been eaten by 
their victors in triumph. Mr Shortland appears to think that 
cannibalism among the Maories of New Zealand may have thus 
originated. 6 Among the Polynesians generally it appears to have 
been the practice at times to eat a portion of a slain enemy to 
make his degradation the greater. But where cannibalism was 
practised as a means of subsistence, it probably originated in times 
of actual want, such as may have occurred during the long voyages 
of the people. 

The Polynesian race has been continuously, and in some 
places rapidly, decreasing since their first contact with Euro- 
peans. Doubts have been thrown on the current statements 
regarding the rate of decrease, which some good authorities 
believe to be not so great as is commonly represented. They 
hold that former estimates of the number of inhabitants in the 
various insular groups were mere guesswork. Thus it is pointed 
out that Cook's estimate of 240,000 for the Society Archipelago 
(Tahiti) was at the time reduced by his associate, Forster, to 
150,000, so that the 300,000 credited by him to the Sandwich 
Islands should also be heavily discounted. That is probably 
true, and it may be admitted that, as a rule, the early calcula- 
tions erred on the side of excess. But when full allowance is 
made for all such exaggerations, the following facts will show 
that the decrease has been excessive. The Tahitians, 150,000 
in 1774, fell from 17,000 in 1880 to 10,300 in 1899; and in this 
group, while the pure stock appears to be dying out, there is 
a small increase amongst the half-breeds. When New Zealand 
was occupied (1840) -the Maori were said to number 120,000, 
and were doubtfully stated to be still 56,000 in 1857; since then 
the returns of the 1881 and 1891 censuses gave 44,000 and 40,000 
respectively. During the last two decades of the 19th century 
the decrease has been from 30,000 to 17,500 in Tonga; from 
11,500 to 8400 in the Cook group; from 8000 to 3600 in Wallis; 
from 1600 to 100 in Manahiki; from 1400 to 1000 in Tubuai; 
and from 600 to 100 in Easter Island. A general decline seems 
thus to be placed beyond doubt, though it may be questioned 
whether it is to be attributed to a decayed vitality, as some 
hold, or to external causes, as is the more general opinion. The 
prevalence of elephantiasis and the occurrence of leprosy, for 
instance, in Hawaii, would seem to point at least in some places 
to a racial taint, due perhaps to the unbridled licentiousness of 
past generations. On the other hand, such a decrease as has 
occurred in Tahiti and Tonga, can be accounted for only by an" 
accumulation of outward causes, such as wars, massacres, and 
raidings for the Australian and South American labour mar- 
kets before this traffic was suppressed or regulated. Other 
destructive agencies were epidemics, such especially as measles 
and small-pox, which swept away 30,000 Fijians in 1875; the 
introduction of strong drinks, including, besides vile spirits, 
a most pernicious concoction brewed in Tahiti from oranges; 

5 Maori Religion and Mythology, p. 26. 



31 MlffOEYP^iPOLYPHEMUS 



the too sudden adoption of European clothing, rendering the 
body supersensitive to changes of temperature; lastly, the action 
of over-zealous missionaries in suppressing the dances, merry- 
making and free joyous life of pagan times, and the preaching 
of a sombre type of Christianity, with deadening effects on the 
buoyant temperament of these children of Nature. Most of 
these abuses have been checked or removed, and the results 
may perhaps be detected in a less accelerated rate of decline, 
which no longer proceeds in geometric proportion, and seems 
even almost arrested in some places, as in Samoa and New 
Zealand. If such be indeed the case, perhaps the noblest of all 
primitive races may yet be saved from what at one time seemed 
inevitable extinction; and the Maori, the Samoans, and Tahi- 
tians may, like the Hawaiians, take their place Reside the 
Europeans as free citizens of the various states of which they 
are now subjects. 

Authorities— Jean L. A. de Quatrefages, Les Polynisiens et leur 
migrations (Paris, 1866); G. Turner, Nineteen Years in Polynesia 
(London 1861); Pierre Adolphe Lesson, Les Polynisiens, leur 
origxne, &c. Paris, 1 880-1 884); Henri Mager, Le Monde polynesien 
(Pans, 1902); Maximilien Albert H. A. Le Grand, Au pays des 
Unaques (Paris, 1893); Sir George Grey, Polynesian Mythology 
(London, 1855); T. A. Moerenhout, Voyages aux ties du Grand 
Ocean, &c (Pans, 1837); Abraham Fornander, An Account of the 
Polynesian Race (1878). The account given above reproduces the 
main descriptive passages in the Rev. S. J. Whitmee's article in the 
9th ed of the Ency. Brit. 

POLYP, the name given by zoologists to the form of animal 
especially characteristic of the subphylum Cnidaria of the 
Coelentera (q.v.). In the subdivision Anthozoa, comprising the 
sea-anemones and corals, the individual is always a polyp; in 
the Hydrozoa, however, the individual may be either a polyp or a 
medusa (q.v.). 

A good example of a polyp may be seen in a common 
sea-anemone or in the well-known fresh-water polyp, Hydra 
(fig. 1). The body may be roughly compared in structure to 

a sac, the wall of which is 



37 




composed of two layers of 
cells. The outer layer is 
known technically as the 
ectoderm, the inner layer 
as the endoderm. Between 
ectoderm and endoderm is 
a supporting layer of struc- 
q V tureless gelatinous substance 
/ termed mesogloea, secreted 
by the cell-layers of the 
body-wall; the mesogloea 
may be a very thin layer, or 
may reach a fair thickness, 
and then sometimes contains 
skeletal elements formed by 
cells which have migrated 
into it from the ectoderm. 
The sac-like body built up 
in this way is attached 
usually to some firm object 
by its blind end, and bears 
_ rr , at the upper end the mouth 

i-ic. 1— Hydra viri dis, the fresh- surrounded by a circle of 
waterpolyp. The animal is attached tent!lr ^ JZh W 1 ■ 
to the stem of a plant, and is repre- tentacles - *<ach tentacle is 
sented with the base of attachment a gl°ve-finger-like outpush- 
uppermost; the mouth, not actually ing of the whole wall of the 
seen in the drawing, is at the lower sac and contains typically 

T^2c^LSiZ:°0^ d a Potion of its Z,mll 
te, testis. ' cavity, so that primarily the 

tentacles are hollow; but in 
some cases the tentacle may become solid by obliteration of its 
cavity. The tentacles are organs which serve both for the tactile 
sense and for the capture of food. By means of the stinging 
nettle-cells or nematocysts with which the tentacles are thickly 
covered, living organisms of various kinds are firmly held and at 
the same time paralysed or killed, and by means of longitudinal 
muscular fibrils formed from the cells of the ectoderm the 



tentacles are contracted and convey the food to the mouth 
By means of circularly disposed muscular fibrils formed from 
the endoderm the tentacles can be protracted or thrust out 
after contraction. By muscle-fibres belonging to the same two 
systems the whole body may be retracted or protruded. 

We can distinguish therefore in the body of a polyp the 
column, circular or oval in section, forming the trunk, resting 
on a base or foot and surmounted by the crown of tentacles 
which enclose an area termed the peristome, in the centre of which 
again is the mouth. As a rule there is no other opening to the 
body except the mouth, but in some cases excretory pores are 
known to occur in the foot, and pores may occur at the tips of 
the tentacles. Thus it is seen that a polyp is an animal of very 
simple structure. 

The name polyp was given to these organisms from their 
supposed resemblance to an octopus (Fr. poulpe) with its 
circle of writhing arms round the mouth. This comparison 
though far-fetched, is certainly more reasonable than the common 
name coral-insects " applied to the polyps which form coral 
It cannot be too emphatically stated that a coral-polyp is as 
far removed in organization from either an octopus or an 
insect as it is from man himself. 

The external form of the polyp varies greatly in different 
cases. In the first place the column may be long and slender 
or may be, on the contrary, so short in the vertical direction that 
the body becomes disk-like. The tentacles may number many 
hundreds or may be very few, in rare cases only one or two or 
even absent altogether; they may be long and filamentous,' or 
short and reduced to mere knobs or warts; they may be simple 
and unbranched, or they may be feathery in pattern. All these 
types are well illustrated by different species of British sea- 
anemones. The mouth may be level with the surface of the 
peristome, or may be projecting and trumpet-shaped. As regards 
internal structure, polyps exhibit two well-marked types of 
organization, each characteristic of one of the two classes 
Hydrozoa and Anthozoa. ' 

It is an almost universal attribute of polyps to possess the 
power of reproducing themselves non-sexually by the method 
of budding. This mode of reproduction may be combined 
with sexual reproductiveness, or may be the sole method by 
which the polyp produces offspring, in which case the polyp 
is entirely, without sexual organs. In many cases the buds 
formed do not separate from the parent but remain in con- 
tinuity with it, thus forming colonies or stocks, which may 
reach a great size and contain a vast number of individuals. 
Slight differences in the method of budding produce great varia- 
tions in the form of the colonies, which may be distinguished 
in a general way as spreading, massive or arborescent. The 
reef-building corals are polyp-colonies, strengthened by the 
formation of a firm skeleton. For further details of colony- 
formation the reader is referred to the articles Anthozoa 
and Hydromedusae. 

For figures of polyps see P. Gosse, A History of the British Sea- 
Anemones and Corals (London, i860); A. Andres, " Le Attinie," in 
tauna and Flora des Golf es von Neapel, ix. 1 (Leipzig, 1884)- G T 
Allman, A Monograph of the Gymnoblastic or Tubularian Hydroids 
(Ray Society, 1871-1872). (E. A.M.) 

POLYPERCHON (incorrectly Polysperchon), one of Alex- 
ander's generals, and the successor of Antipater as regent in 
Macedonia in 319 B.C. He was driven out by Cassander in 
317 b.c. (See Phocion.) 

POLYPHEMUS, in Greek mythology, the most famous of the 
Cyclopes, son of Poseidon and the nymph Thoosa. He dwelt 
in a cave in the south-west corner of Sicily, and was the owner 
of large flocks and herds. He was of gigantic stature, with 
one eye in the middle of his forehead, a consumer of human 
flesh, without respect for the laws of God or man. Odysseus, 
having been cast ashore on the coast of Sicily, fell into the hands 
of Polyphemus, who shut him up with twelve of his companions 
in his cave, and blocked the entrance with an enormous rock. 
Odysseus at length succeeded in making the giant drunk, blinded' 
him by plunging a burning stake into his eye while he lay 
asleep, and with six of his friends (the others having been 



38 



POLYPODIUM^-POLYTEGHNIC 



devoured by Polyphemus) made his escape by clinging to the 
bellies of the sheep let out to pasture. Euripides in the Cyclops 
essentially follows the Homeric account. A later story asso- 
ciates Polyphemus with Galatea (see Acis). 

Homer, Odyssey, ix. ; Ovid, Metam. xiii. 749; Theocritus xi. 
See W. Grimm, Die Sage von Polyphem. (1857); G. R. Holland, 
in Leipziger Studien (1884), vii. 139-312. 

POLYPODIUM, in botany, a large genus of true ferns (q.v.), 
widely distributed throughout the world, but specially developed 
in the tropics. The name is derived from Gr. irokvs, many, 
and irdbtov, a little foot, on account of the foot-like appear- 
ance of the rhizome and its branches. The species differ greatly 
in size and general appearance and in the character of the frond ; 
the sori or groups of spore-cases {sporangia) are borne on the 
back of the leaf, are globose and naked, that is, are not covered 
with a membrane (indusium) (see fig. 1). The common poly- 
pody (fig. 2) (P. mlgare) is widely diffused in the British Isles, 
where it is found on walls, 
banks, trees, &c. ; the creep- 
ing, densely-scaly rootstock 
bears deeply pinnately cut 
fronds, the fertile ones bear- 
ing on the back the bright 
yellow naked groups of 
sporangia (sori). It is also 
known as adder's foot, 
golden maidenhair and 
wood-fern, and is the oak- 
fern of the old herbals. 





Fig. 1. — Portion of a pinna Fig. 2.— Poly podium vulgare, 

of leaf of Polypodium bearing common polypody (about | nat. 
sori, s, on its back. size). 

1. Group of spore-cases (sorus) on 
back of leaf. 

There are a large number of varieties, differing chiefly 
in the form and division of the pinnae; var. cambricum (origin- 
ally found in Wales) has the pinnae themselves deeply cut 
into narrow segments; var. cornubiense is a very elegant plant 
with finely-divided fronds; var. cristatum is a handsome variety 
with fronds forking at the apex and the tips of all the pinnae 
crested and curled. P. dryopteris, generally known as oak- 
fern, is a very graceful plant with delicate fronds, 6 to 12 in. 
long, the three main branches of which are themselves pinnately 
divided; it is found in dry, shady places in mountain districts 
in Great Britain, but is very rare in Ireland. P. phegopteris 
(beechfern) is a graceful species with a black, slender root-stock, 
from which the pinnate fronds rise on long stalks, generally 
about 12 in. long, including the stalk; it is characterized by 
having the lower pinnae of the frond deflexed; it is generally 
distributed in Britain, though not common. Many other 
species from different parts of the world are known in green- 
house cultivation. 

POLYPUS, a term signifying a tumour which is attached by 
a narrow neck to the walls of a cavity lined with mucous 



membrane. A polypus or polypoid tumour may belong to any 
variety of tumour, either simple or malignant. The most com- 
mon variety is a polypus of the nose of simple character and 
easily removed. Polypi are also met with in the ear, larynx, 
uterus, bladder, vagina, and rectum. (See TuMoufc.) 

POLYTECHNIC (Gr. xo\i>5, many, and r'txvn, an art), a 
term which may be held to designate any institution formed 
with a view to encourage or to illustrate various arts and sciences. 
It has, however, been used with different applications in several 
European countries. In France the first icole polytechnique 
was founded by the National Convention at the end of the 18th 
century, as a practical protest against the almost exclusive 
devotion to literary and abstract studies in the places of higher 
learning. The institution is described as one " ou l'on instruit 
les jeunes gens, destines a entrer dans les ecoles speciales 
d'artillerie, du genie, des mines, des ponts et chaussees, cre6 en 
1794 sous le nom d'ecole centrale des travaux publiques, et 
en 1795 sous celui qu'elle porte aujourd'hui " (Littri). In Ger- 
many there are nine technical colleges which, in like manner, 
have a special and industrial rather than a general educational 
purpose. In Switzerland, the principal educational institution, 
which is not maintained or administered by the communal 
authorities, but is non T local and provided by the Federal govern- 
ment, is the Polytechnikum at Zurich. In all the important 
towns of the Federation there are trade and technical schools 
of a more or less special character, adapted to the local indus- 
tries; e.g. schools for silk-weaving, wood-carving, watchmaking, 
or agriculture. But the Zurich Polytechnikum has a wider and 
more comprehensive range of work. It is a college designed 
to give instruction and practical training in those sciences which 
stand in the closest relation to manufactures and commerce 
and to skilled industry in general and its work is of university 
rank. 

To the English public the Word polytechnic has only recently 
become familiar, in connexion with some London institutions of 
an exceptional character. In the reign of William The First 
IV. there was an institution in London called after Polytechnics 
the name of his consort-^" The Adelaide Gallery " to England. 
—and devoted rather to the display of new scientific inven- 
tions and curiosities than to research or to the teaching of 
science. It enjoyed an ephemeral popularity, and was soon 
imitated by an institution called the Polytechnic in Regent 
Street, with a somewhat more pretentious programme, a diving- 
bell, electrical and mechanical apparatus, besides occasional 
illustrated lectures of a popular and more or less recreative 
character. In the popular mind this institution is inseparably 
associated with " Professor " Pepper, the author of The Boy's 
Playbook of Science and of Pepper's Ghost. Both of these 
institutions, after a few years of success, failed financially; and 
in 1880 Mr Quintin Hogg, an active and generous philan- 
thropist, purchased the disused building in Regent Street, and 
reopened it on an altered basis, though still retaining the name 
of Polytechnic, to which, however, he gave a new significance. 
He had during sixteen years been singularly successful in 
gathering together young shopmen and artisans in London in 
the evenings and on Sunday for religious and social intercourse, 
and in acquiring their confidence. But by rapid degrees his 
enterprise, which began as an evangelistic effort, developed into 
an educational institution of a novel and comprehensive char- 
acter, with classes for the serious study of science, art, and 
literature, a gymnasium, library, reading circles, laboratories 
for physics and chemistry, conversation and debating clubs, 
organized country excursions, swimming, rowing, and natural 
history societies, a savings bank, and choral singing, besides 
religious services, open to all the members, though not obli- 
gatory for any. The founder, who from the first took the 
closest personal interest in the students, well describes his own 
aims: " What we wanted to develop our institute into was a 
place which should recognize that God had given man more than 
one side to his character, and where we could gratify any reason- 
able taste, whether athletic, intellectual, spiritual or social. 
I The success of this effort was remarkable. In the first winter 



POLYTECHNIC 



39 



6800 members joined, paying fees of 3s. per term, or 10s. 6d. per 
year; and the members steadily increased, until in 1900 they 
reached a total of 15,000 The average daily attendance is 
4000; six hundred classes in different grades and subjects are 
held weekly; and upwards of forty clubs and societies have been 
formed in connexion with the recreative and social departments. 

The precedent thus established by private initiative has since 
been followed in the formation of the public institutions which, 
Later under the name of " Polytechnics," have become 

institutions so prominent and have exercised such beneficent 
of this influence among the working population of London. 
class - The principal resources for the foundation and 

maintenance of these institutions have been derived from two 
funds — that administered under the City Parochial Charities 
Act of 1883, and that furnished by the London County Council, 
at first under the terms of the Local Taxation (Customs and 
Excise) Act of 1890, and the Technical Instruction Act 1889, 
but since the 1st of May 1904 under the Education Act 1902, 
as applied to London by the act of 1903. More detailed refer- 
ence to these two acts seems to be necessary in this place. 

The royal commission of inquiry into the parochial char- 
ities of London was appointed in 1878, mainly at the instance 
The city °^ ^ r J ames Bryce, and under the presidency of 
Parochial the Duke of Northumberland. Its report appeared 
Charities i n 1880, giving particulars of the income of the 
Act ~ parishes, and revealing the fact that the funds had 

largely outgrown the original purposes of the endowments, 
which were ill adapted to the modern needs of the class for 
whose benefit they were intended. The act of parliament of 
1883 was designed to give effect to the recommendations of 
the commissioners It provided that while five of the largest 
parishes were to retain the management of their own charitable 
funds, the endowments of the remaining 107 parishes in the 
city should be administered by a corporate body, to be en- 
titled " the Trustees of the London Parochial Charities" (other- 
wise known in relation to the polytechnics as " the Central 
Governing Body"), this body to include five nominees of the 
Crown and four of the corporation of London. The remaining 
members were to be chosen under a subsequent scheme of the 
charity commission, which added four nominees of the Lon- 
don County Council, two of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, 
and one each appointed by the university of London, Univer- 
sity College, King's College, the City and Guilds institute, and 
the governing bodies of the Bishopsgate and the Cripplegate 
foundations. For the purpose of framing the scheme, a special 
commissioner, Mr James Anstie, Q.C., was temporarily attached 
to the charity commission, and it thus became the duty of the 
commission to prepare a statement of the charity property 
possessed by the 107 parishes, distinguishing between the secular 
and the ecclesiastical parts of the endowments. The annual 
income derived from the ecclesiastical fund was £35,000, and 
that from the secular portion of the fund £50,000. The 
scheme assigned capital grants amounting to £15.5,000 to the 
provision of open spaces, and £149,500 to various institutions, 
including free libraries in Bishopsgate and Cripplegate, the 
People's Palace, the Regent Street and Northampton Institutes, 
and the Victoria Hall. A capital sum of £49,355 out of the 
ecclesiastical fund. was devoted to the repair of city churches; 
and the balance of the annual income of this fund, after 
allowances for certain vested interests, was directed to be paid 
to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. This balance has varied by 
slight increases from year to year, and amounted in 1906 to 
£20,875. The remaining fund thus set free for secular purposes 
was by the scheme largely devoted to the erection and main- 
tenance of polytechnic institutions, or " industrial institutes," 
as they were at first called. It was the opinion of Mr Anstie 
and his fellow-commissioners that in this way it would be possible 
to meet one of the most urgent of the intellectual needs of the 
metropolis, and to render service nearly akin to the original 
purposes of the obsolete charitable endowments. For the year 
1906-1907 the grants made to the polytechnics and kindred 
institutions (the Working Men's College, College for Working 



Women, &c.) by the Central Governing Body amounted to 
£39,140, and the total amount contributed by the Central 
Governing Body since its creation amounts to £543,000. 

The general scope and aims of the institutions thus con- 
templated by the commissioners are defined in the A Typlcal 
" general regulations for the management of an Indus- Scheme 
trial institute," which are appended as a schedule to underthe 
the several schemes, and which run as follows: — Act ' 

The object of this institution is the promotion of the industrial 
skill, general knowledge, health and well-being of young men and 
women belonging to the poorer classes by the following means: — 

i. Instruction in — 

a. The general rules and principles of the arts and sciences 

applicable to any handicraft, trade or business. 

b. The practical application of such general rules and 

principles in any handicraft, trade or business. 

c. Branches or details of any handicraft, trade or business, 

facilities for acquiring the knowledge of which cannot 
usually be obtained in the workshop or other, place 
of business. 

The classes and lectures shall not be designed or arranged so as 
to be in substitution for the practical experience of the workshop 
or place of business, but so as to be supplementary thereto. 

ii. Instruction suitable for persons intending to emigrate. 

iii. Instruction in such other branches and subjects of art, 
science, language, literature and general knowledge as may be 
approved by the governing body. 

iv. Public lectures or courses of lectures, musical and other 
entertainments and exhibitions. 

v. Instruction and practice in gymnastics, drill, swimming and 
other bodily exercises. 

vi. Facilities for the formation and meeting of clubs and societies. 

vii. A library, museum and reading room or rooms. 

Within the limits prescribed, the governing body may from time 
to time, out of the funds at their disposal, provide and maintain 
buildings and grounds, including workshops and laboratories suit- 
able for all the purposes herein specified, and the necessary furniture, 
fittings, apparatus, models and books, and may provide or receive 
by gift or on loan works of art or scientific construction, or objects 
of interest and curiosity, for the purpose of the institute, and for 
the purpose of temporary exhibition. 

Other provisions in the scheme require: (1) that the educa- 
tional benefits of the institute shall be available for both sexes 
equally, but that common rooms, refreshment rooms, gymnasia 
and swimming-baths may be established separately, under such 
suitable arrangements as may be approved by the governing 
body; (2) that the fees and subscriptions shall be so fixed as to 
place the benefits of the institute within the reach of the poorer 
classes; (3) that no intoxicating liquors, smoking or gambling 
shall be allowed in any part of the building; (4) that the build- 
ings, ground and premises shall not be used for any political, 
denominational or sectarian purpose, although this rule shall 
not be deemed to prohibit the discussion of political subjects 
in any debating society approved by the governing body; (5) 
t!hat no person under the age of sixteen or above twenty-five 
shall be admitted to membership except on special grounds, 
and that the number thus specially admitted shall not exceed 
5 % of the total number of members. 

These and the like provisions have formed the common basis 
for all the metropolitan polytechnics. In 1890 a large sum 
was placed by the Local Taxation (Customs and 
Excise) Act at the disposal of the county and county n f^iBoard 
borough councils for the general purposes of tech- of the 
nical education, and in 1893 the London County London 
Council determined to devote a considerable portion S!""'« 
of this revenue to the further development and sus- 
tentation of polytechnics. While the funds granted by : the 
Central Governing Body may be employed in aid of the social 
and recreative as well as the educational purposes of the 
various institutes, it is a statutory obligation that the sums 
contributed by the London County Council should be applied 
to educational work only. 

- Dr William Garnett, the educational adviser of the London 
County Council, has, in a published lecture delivered before 
the international congress on technical education in June 
1897, thus described the conditions under which the council 
offers financial help to the London polytechnics: — 



+0 



POLYTECHNIC 



The objects which the technical education board has had in 
view in its dealings with the polytechnics have been : — 

1 . To allow to the several governing bodies the greatest possible 
freedom in the conduct of social, recreative and even religious 
work within the provisions of the schemes of the Charity Com- 
missioners. 

2. To secure to each polytechnic the services of an educational 
principal, who should be responsible to his governing body for 
the organization and conduct of the whole of the work of the 
institution. 

3. To provide in each polytechnic a permanent staff of teachers, 
who should be heads of their respective departments and give 
their whole time to the work of the institution, and thus to 
establish a corporate or collegiate life in the polytechnic. 

4. To ensure that all branches of experimental science are taught 
experimentally, and that the students have the opportunity of 
carrying out practical laboratory work, at an inclusive fee not 
exceeding ten shillings for any one subject. 

5. To provide efficient workshop instruction in all practical trade 
subjects. 

6. To secure that the number of students under the charge of 
any one teacher in laboratory or workshop classes, or in other 
classes in which personal supervision is of paramount importance, 
shall not exceed a stated limit (fifteen in the workshop, or twenty 
in the laboratory). 

7. To exclude from classes students who, for want of preliminary 
training, are incapable of profiting by the instruction provided; 
and to this end to restrict the attendance at workshop classes to 
those who are actually engaged in the trades concerned, and have 
thus opportunities of acquiring the necessary manual dexterity in 
the performance of their daily duties. 

8. To furnish an adequate fixed stipend for all teachers, in place 
of a contingent interest in fees and grants. 

9. To encourage private subscriptions and donations. 

10. To establish an efficient system of inspection. 

11. To facilitate the advertisement of polytechnic classes, and 
especially to invite the co-operation of trade societies in. supporting 
their respective classes. 

12. To encourage the higher development of some special branch 
of study in each polytechnic. 

13. To utilize the polytechnic buildings as far as possible in the 
daytime by the establishment of technical day schools, or otherwise. 

14. To secure uniformity in the keeping of accounts. 

The regulations under which the council has 
attempted to secure its objects by means of 
grants have been changed from time to time as 
the work of the polytechnics has developed, 
but they provide that the council's aid should 
be partly in the form of a fixed grant to each 
institution, partly a share of the salaries of the 
principal and the permanent teachers, partly 
a grant on attendance, the scale depending on 
the subject and character of the instruction, and 
partly a subsidy (15%) on voluntary contri- 
butions. In addition to the annual grants for 
maintenance, substantial grants for building 
and equipment are made from time to time. 

The scale of grants adopted by the council for the 
session 1907-1908 was the following: — 

i. A fixed grant assigned to each polytechnic. 

ii. Three-fourths of the salary of the principal 
(subject to certain conditions). 

iii. Fifty per cent, of the salaries of heads of approved 
departments. 

iv. Ten per cent, of the salaries of other teachers. 

v. Fifteen per cent, on (voluntary) annual subscriptions or 
donations. 

vi. Attendance grants on evening classes varying from id. to 
6d. per student-hour (subject to certain conditions of minimum 
attendance, eligibility, &c). 

vii. Special grants not exceeding £50 for courses of lectures on 
particular subjects required or approved by the council. 

viii. Special grants towards any departments which the council 
may desire to see established or maintained. 

ix. Equipment grants and building grants in accordance with 
the special requirements of the institutions. 

The above grants are independent of any contributions which 
the council may make towards secondary day schools or day 
schools of domestic economy or training colleges of domestic economy 
in the polytechnics. 

With a view to a due division of labour, and also to the co- 
operation of the public bodies concerned, the "London Poly- 
technic Council" was created in 1894. It was composed of 



representatives of the Central Governing Body, the technical 
education board of the London County Council, and the 
City and Guilds of London Institute, and its duty was to consult 
as to the appropriation of funds, the organiza- London 
tion of teaching, the holding of needful examina- Polytechnic 
tions, and the supervision of the work generally. CouacU - 
After ten years of work the London polytechnic council 
was dissolved in the summer of 1904 in consequence of the 
abolition of- the technical education board of the London 
County Council, when the council became responsible for all 
grades of education. A statement below shows the number 
and names of the several institutions, and the extent to which 
they have been severally aided by the Central Governing Body 
and the London County Council. 

The " People's Palace" owes its origin in part to the popu- 
larity of a novel by Sir Walter Besant, entitled All Sorts and 
Conditions of Men, in which the writer pointed out The 
the sore need of the inhabitants of East London People's 
for social improvement and healthy recreation, Palace. 
and set forth an imaginary picture of a " Palace of Delight," 
wherein this need might be partly satisfied. Much public 
interest was awakened, large subscriptions were given, and 
the Central Governing Body aided the project; but the 
munificence of the drapers' company in setting aside £7000 a 
year for its permanent maintenance released the London County 
Council from any obligation to make a grant. Apart from the 
social and recreative side of this popular institution, the edu- 
cational section, under the name of the East London Technical 
College, steadily increased in numbers and influence under the 
fostering care of the drapers' company and has now been re- 
cognized as a "school" of the university of London under 
the title of " The East London College" and is being utilized 
by the London County Council in the same way as other " schools 
of the university." 



Grants to the London Polytechnics during the Session 1906-1907. 







Central Governing Body. London County Council. 




Under 
Scheme. 


Voluntary 
Grants. 


Buildings 

and 

Equipment. 


Main- 
tenance. 


Battersea Polytechnic 
Birkbeck College . . 
Borough Road Polytechnic 
City of London College . 
East London College . 
Northampton Institute . 
Northern Polytechnic 
Regent Street Polytechnic 
South-Western Polytechnic 
Woolwich Polytechnic 
Sir John Cass's Institute . 




2,500 
1,000 
2,500 
1,000 
3,500 
3,350 
1,500 
3,500 
1,500 

nil 

nil 


1,701 
1,005 

1,563 
901 

224 

1,555 
2,183 
3,9i6 
2,091 
1,000 
50 


1,545 
445 
820 

515 
nil 

3,415 
2,660 

965 
1,275 
2,525 

5IO 


4,760 
3,450 
5,285 

3,725 
nil 

4,525 
4,H5 
7,665 
6,265 

5,495 
2,400 


Total .... j 


f 


20,350 


16,189 


14,675 


47,715 



In the above table the grants are given to the nearest pound. 
Up to July 1907 the total expenditure of the council upon the 
polytechnics, apart from the day schools, training colleges, &c, 
conducted in them, was about £525,000, almost exactly the 
same as that of the Central Governing Body. The voluntary 
grants from the central governing body include a contribution 
towards a compassionate fund, and a pension fund based on 
endowment assurances for all permanent officers of the poly- 
technics in receipt of salaries of not less than £106 a year. 

The grants received from the board of education amount 
to about £30,000 a year, while the fees of students and members 
produce about £45,000. Voluntary subscriptions, including 
those from city companies and other sources of income, pro- 
duce about £30,000 in addition, so that out of a total expendi- 
ture of about £200,000 a year the council now contributes 30%, 
the Central Governing Body 18%, fees 22^%, the board 



of education 

15% 



15% and city companies and other subscribers 



POLYTECHNIC 



4 1 



The Goldsmiths' Institute at New Cross owed its existence 
and its annual maintenance to the generous initiative of the 
ancient city gild whose name it bore. It was therefore entirely 
independent of pecuniary subsidy from any other public body. 
In the year 1900 the number of class entries to this institute 
was 7574. In 1904 the goldsmiths' company presented the 
premises, together with an annual subsidy, to the university of 
London for the purposes of a training college for teachers, so 
that from that date it ceased to be one of the London poly- 
technics, although, pending the provision of other premises, many ' 
of the technical evening classes have been continued under 
the London County Council by permission of the university 
with the approval of the company. The clothworkers' com- 
pany has also contributed £18,000 to the Northern Polytechnic 
at Holloway. 

In all these institutions the general aims have been practically 
the same, although special features have been differentiated 
Aims and in order to meet the local needs and the wishes of 
Methods, the inhabitants. In all there are laboratories and 
lecture rooms, trade classes, art studios, gymnasia, provision 
for manual training and domestic economy and applied science. 
In nearly all, at first, mechanical and manual instruction 
were the prominent objects in view, partly owing to the 
conditions under which grants were made by the science 
and art department. But of late increased attention has been 
paid year by year to literary and humaner studies, and to 
general mental cultivation, pursued pari passu with technical 
and scientific training. The aid of the London organization for 
university extension, now a department of the university, 
has been especially serviceable in providing courses of lectures 
and classes in literary subjects at nearly all the polytechnics. 
As subsidiary to their main work, some of them have estab- 
lished junior continuation schools, with a view to provide 
suitable instruction for scholars who have left the public ele- 
mentary schools and are not yet prepared to enter the technical 
and trade classes. Although the workshops and the classes for 
artisans are used chiefly in the evenings, there is an increasing 
number of day students : e.g. at the Northampton Polytechnic 
Institute in Clerkenwell there is a very important day school 
of engineering conducted on the "sandwich system, " the 
students entering engineering works for the summer months 
and returning to the polytechnic for the winter session; at the 
Battersea Polytechnic there is a very important training col- 
lege for teachers of domestic economy; at Regent Street there 
are day schools in engineering, architecture, photo-process and 
carriage-building; at the South- Western Polytechnic there are 
important schools of mechanical and electrical engineering and 
a training college for women teachers of physical exercises; 
at the Northern Polytechnic, as at Battersea, there is a training 
college for teachers of domestic economy, and there are 
departments of commerce and of physics and chemistry, while 
the Woolwich Polytechnic receives in the daytime, by special 
arrangement with the war office, a large number of engineering 
apprentices employed in the arsenal. In short, the schemes of 
the several institutions are so elastic that the governing bodies 
are at liberty to open any classes or to try any educational or 
recreative experiment for which they can find a genuine local 
demand. The total number of scholars in the polytechnics 
and their branch institutions is variously estimated at from 
40,000 to 50,000. and the total number of regular scholars in the 
evening schools of the council does not exceed 100,000. These 
figures may be usefully compared with the census returns, 
which show that within the metropolitan area there are 
704,414 persons between the ages of thirteen and twenty- 
one. It is a noteworthy fact that, whereas in the population 
statistics for the whole of England and Wales the number 
at each year of age is regularly diminished by death from 
eight years onwards, there is a steady increase in London, 
year by year, from fourteen up to the age of thirty. This fact 
is owing to the constant immigration of young men and women 
from the provinces to the metropolis. The census commis- 
sioners in their report for 1901 (p. 15) computed that more than 



one-third of the population of London were not natives. They 
show also that, if all England and Wales be taken together, 
the number of persons between twenty and twenty-one is less 
by 12-8% than the number between thirteen and fourteen; 
but that, taking London alone, the number of persons between 
twenty and twenty-one is greater by 14-4% than the number 
between thirteen and fourteen. Hence, the proportion of the 
inhabitants who are of an age to benefit by polytechnics and 
continuation schools is in London exceptionally large. It 
would not be right for Londoners to complain that there is thus 
cast upon them the duty of providing suitable instruction for so 
many immigrants, for if the great city drains the rural districts 
of some of their best brain and muscle, she gains much from 
their industry and productive power. The figures, however, 
point to the necessity for taking every means possible to 
raise the standard, both physical and intellectual, of the 
London boy. The immigration into London of youths and 
young men means to a great extent the substitution of the 
provincially trained improver or artisan for the less fit London 
boy, who consequently falls into the ranks of the unskilled, 
then of the unemployed and ultimately of the unemployable. 
But it follows from the particulars thus given that neither 
the supply of suitable provision for mental improvement and 
rational recreation for the wage-earning classes, nor the demand 
for such provision on the part of the workers themselves is 
commensurate with the moral and intellectual needs of a com- 
munity of nearly seven millions of people (four and a half 
millions within the administrative county). The provision in 
evening schools, institutes, classes and polytechnics is still in 
some respects far inferior to that which is to be found in most 
German and Swiss towns, and needs to be greatly increased. 
In matters relating to the higher life, demand does not always 
precede supply; it is simply which is needed not only to satisfy 
the public demand, but to create it. As new and well-devised 
opportunities for mental culture are placed within reach, 
they will be more and more appreciated, new and healthier 
appetites will be stimulated, the art of employing leisure 
wisely and happily will be more systematically studied, and the 
polytechnics will become still more important centres of 
civilizing and educating influence than they have hitherto 
been. 

In particular, the reconstituted university of London has 
been placed in new and most helpful relation to the best of the 
polytechnics. By the statvites the senate of the university is 
empowered to include in the list of " schools of the university " 
all institutions which are duly equipped and able to furnish 
suitable instruction of an advanced and scholarly type; and 
also to recognize all thoroughly qualified professors in their 
several faculties and subjects as " teachers of the university," 
although some of their classes may meet in the evening only, 
and no student is to be prevented from taking a degree as an 
internal student of the university solely because he can attend 
classes only in the evening. There is thus a way open for the 
due recognition of the polytechnics as part of the teaching 
machinery of the university, and for the admission of the best 
students as undergraduates, with all the rights of internal 
students. The great possibilities of the metropolitan univer- 
sity under its new conditions were at first hardly revealed or 
accurately foreseen. But there were during the session 1906-1907 
no less than eighty-six recognized " teachers of the university " 
on the staffs of the London polytechnics and more than 750 
students who were working for London University degrees 
in the polytechnic classes. There is no reason to fear that 
the recreative, social, manual and industrial training, to which 
at first the special attention of the founder of the Regent Street 
Polytechnic was directed, will suffer from a fuller expansion 
of the academic and literary side of " polytechnic " life. Rather 
it may be hoped that the due co-ordination of the practical with 
the purely intellectual purposes of these institutions will serve 
to give to all the students, whatever their future destination 
may be, a truer and broader conception of the value of mental 
culture for its own sake. 



42 



POLYXENA— PQLYZOA 



See also a paper by Mr Sidney Webb, The London Polytechnic 
Institutes, in the second volume of special reports on educational 
subjects (1898) issued by the Education Department; the Report 
of the Central Governing Body of the London Parochial Charities; 
the Annual Reports of the London County Council; the Polytechnic 
Magazine, published from time to time at the institute in Regent 
Street; and various memoirs and papers contained in the Proceed- 
ings of the International Congress on Technical Education (1897), 
especially two — -that by Mr Quintin Hogg, detailing his own early 
experience in founding the first polytechnic, and that of Dr William 
Garnett, then secretary of the Technical Education Board. 

(J. G. F.;W. G.) 
POLYXENA, in Greek legend, daughter of Priam, king of 
Troy, and Hecuba. She had been betrothed to Achilles, who 
was slain by Paris in the temple of Apollo Thymbraeus, where 
the marriage was to have been celebrated (Hyginus, Fab. no). 
The shade of Achilles afterwards appeared to the returning 
Greeks in the Thracian Chersonese and demanded the sacrifice 
of Polyxena, who was put to death by Neoptolemus, son of 
Achilles, on his father's grave (Ovid, Metam. xiii. 440 sqq.). 
The tragic story is the subject of the Hecuba of Euripides, the 
Troades of Seneca and the Polyxena of Sophocles, of which only 
a few fragments remain. According to Philostratus {Heroica, 
20, 18), Polyxena fled to the Greeks after the murder of Achilles 
and committed suicide on his tomb. 

POLYZOA, in zoology, a term (introduced by J. V. Thompson, 
1830) synonymous with Bryozoa (Ehrenberg, 183 1) for a group 
commonly included with the Brachiopoda in the Molluscoidea 
(Milne Edwards, 1843). The correctness of this association is 
questionable, and the Polyzoa are here treated as a primary 
division or phylum of the animal kingdom. They may be 
defined as aquatic animals, forming colonies by budding; with 
ciliated retractile tentacles and a U-shaped alimentary canal. 
The phylum is subdivided as follows. 

Class I. Entoprocta (Nitsche). Lophophore circular, in- 
cluding both mouth and anus. Tentacles infolded, during 
retraction, into a vestibule which can be 
closed by a sphincter. Body-wall not 
calcified, body-cavity absent. Definite 
excretory organs present. Reproductive 
organs with ducts leading to the vesti- 
bule. Zooids possessing a high degree 
of individuality. Loxosoma Pedicellina 
(fig. 1), Urtatella. 

Class II. Ectoprocta (Nitsche). 
Lophophore circular or horseshoe 
shaped, including the mouth but not 
the anus. Tentacles retractile into an 
introvert (" tentacle-sheath "). Body- 
wall membranous or calcified, body- 
cavity distinct. Specific excretory 
organs absent, with the doubtful excep- 
tion of the Phylactolaemata. Repro- 
ductive organs not continuous with ducts. 
Zooids usually connected laterally with 
their neighbours. 

Order 1. Gymnolaemata (Allman). — 

Lophophore circular, with no epistome. 

Fig. 1. — Part of the Body-cavities of zooids not continuous 

creeping stolon, with with one another. Body-wall not muscular. 

zooids, of Pedicellina Sub-order 1. Trepostomata (Ulrich); 

belgica. Fossil. — Zooecia, long and coherent, pris- 

a, c, Stalks of zooids matic or cylindrical, with terminal orifices, 

of different ages; b, their wall thin and simple in structure 

DU d. proximally, thickened and complicated 

distally. Cavity of the zooecium subdivided 

by transverse diaphragms, most numerous in the distal portion. 

Orifices of the zooecia often separated by pores (mesopores). 

Sub-order 2. Cryptostomata (Vine); Fossil. — Zooecia usually 
short. Orifice concealed at the bottom of a vestibular shaft, sur- 
rounded by a solid or vesicular calcareous deposit. 

Sub-order 3. Cyclostomata (Busk). — rZooecia prismatic or 
cylindrical, with terminal, typically circular orifice, not protected 
by any special organ. The ovicells are modified zooecia, and 
contain numerous embryos which in the cases so far investigated 
arise by fission of a primary embryo developed from an egg. Crisia 
(fig. 2), Tubuliportt, Hornera, Lichenopora. 
Suborder A. Ctbwostomata (Busk). — Zooecia with soft uncalci- 



fied 1 walls, the external part of the introvert being closed during 
retraction by a membranous collar. Zooecia either arising from 
a stolon, without lateral connexion with one another, or laterally 
united to form sheets. Alcyonidium, Flustrella, Bowerbankia 
(fig- 3) > Farrella, Victorella, Paludicella. 




(After van Beneden. ) 




(After Hincks.) 

Fig. 2. — Part of a Branch of Crisia eburnea. 
g, zooecia ; x, imperfectly developed ovicell. 

Sub-order 5. Cheilostomata (Busk). — Zooecia with more or 
less calcified walls. Orifice closed by a lid-like operculum. Poly- 
morphism usually occurs, certain individuals having the form of 

avicularia or vibracula. The 
ovicells commonly found as 
globular swellings surmounting 
;' the orifices are not direct 
modifications of zooecia, and 
each typically contains a single 
egg or embryo. Membranipora, 
Flustra, Onychocella, Lunu- 
lites, Steganoporella, Scrupo- 
cellaria, Menipea, Caberea, 
;// Bicellaria, Bugula, Beania, 





(After Hincks.) (After Hincks.) 

Fig. 3.— Part of a branch of Fig. 4. — Zooecia of Umbonula 
Bowerbankia pustulosa, showing pavonella, showing a pair of 
the thread-like stolon from which minute avicularia on either side 
arise young and mature zooecia. of the orifice of each zooecium. 
The tentacles are expanded in 
some of the latter. 

Membraniporella, Cribrilina, Ccllaria, Micropora, Selenaria, Um- 
bonula (fig. 4), Lepralia, Schizoporella, Cellepora, Mucronella, 
Smittia, Retepora, Catenicella, Microporella, Adeona, 

Order 2. Phylactolaemata (Allman).— Lophophore horse-shoe 
shaped, or in Fredericella circular. Mouth guarded by an epistome. 
Body-cavities of zooids continuous with one another. Body-wall 
uncalcified and muscular. Reproduction sexual and by means of 
" statoblasts," peculiar internal buds protected by a chitinous shell. 
Fredericella, Plumatella (fig. 5), Lophopus, Crislatella, Pectinatella. 

Hatschek (1888) treated the Entoprocta as a division of his 
group Scolecida, characterized by the possession of a primary 
body-cavity and of protonephridia; while he placed the Ecto- 
procta, with the Phoronida and Brachiopoda, in a disfinct group, 
the Tentaculata. Against this view may be urged the essential 
similarity between the processes of budding in Entoprocta and 
Ectoprocta (cf. Seeliger, Zeitschr. wiss. Zool. xlix. 168; 1., 560), 
and the resemblances in the development of the two classes. 

Of the forms above indicated there is no palaeontological evidence 
with regard to the Entoprocta. The Trepostomata are in the 
main Palaeozoic, although Heteropora, of which recent species exist, 
is placed by Gregory in this division. The Cryptostomata are also 
Palaeozoic, and include the abundant and widely-distributed 
genus Fenestella. The Cyclostomata are numerous in Palaeozoic 
rocks, but attained a specially predominant position in the Creta- 
ceous strata, where they are represented by a profusion of genera 
and species; while they still survive in considerable numbers at 
the present day. The Ctenostomata are ill adapted for preserva- 
tion as fossils, though remains referred to this group have been 

1 Calcareous spicules have been described by Lomas in Alcyoni- 
dium gelatinosum. 



POLYZOA 



43 




(After AUman.) 

Fig. 5. — Zooid 
Plumatella, with ex- 
panded tentacles. 
a. Anus : 



lopho- 



shaped 

phore ; 
Ectocyst ; 
Caecum of stomach. 



described from Palaeozoic strata. They constitute a small proportion 
of the recent Polyzoa. The Cheilostomata are usually believed to 
have made their appearance in the Jurassic period. They are the 
dominant group at the present day, and 
are Represented by a large number of 
genera and species. The Phylactolaemata 
are a small group confined to fresh water, 
and possess clear indications of adaptation 
to that habitat. The fresh-water fauna 
also contains a representative of the 
Entoprocta (Urnatella), two or three 
Ctenostomes, such as Victorella and Palu- 
dicella, and one or two species of Cheilo- 
stomata. With these exceptions, the 
existing Polyzoa are marine forms, occur- 
ring from between tide-marks to abyssal 
depths in the ocean. 

The Polyzoa are colonial animals, the 
colony (zoarium) originating in most 
cases from a free-swimming larva, which 
attaches itself to some solid object and 
becomes metamorphosed into the primary 
individual, or " ancestrula." In the 
Phylactolaemata, however, a new colony 
may originate not only from a larva, but 
also from a peculiar form of bud known 
as a statoblast, or by the fission of a 
fully-developed colony. The ancestrula 
inaugurates a process of budding, con- 
of tinued by its progeny, and thus gives 
rise to the mature colony. In Loxosoma 
the buds break off as soon as they become 
mature, and a colonial form is thus hardly 
br, Tentacles, arranged assumed. In other Entoprocta the buds 
on a horseshoe retain a high degree of individuality, a 
thread-like stolon giving off the cylindrical 
stalks, each of which dilates at its end 
into the body of a zooid. In some of the 
Ctenostomata the colony is similarly 
constituted, a branched stolon giving 
off the zooids, which are not connected with one another. In 
the majority of Ectoprocta there is no stolon, the zooids growing 
out of one another and being usually apposed so as to form con- 
tinuous sheets or branches. In the encrusting type, which is 
found in a large proportion of the genera, the zooids are usually 
in a single layer, with their orifices facing away from the sub- 
stratum; but in certain species the colony becomes multilaminar 
by the continued superposition of new zooids over the free surfaces 
of the older ones, whose orifices they naturally occlude. The 
zoarium may rise up into erect growths composed of a single layer 
of zooids, the orifices of which are all on one surface, or of two layers 
of zooids placed back to back, with the orifices on both sides of 
the fronds or plates. The rigid Cheilostomes which have this 
habit were formerly placed in the genus Eschara, but the bilaminar 
type is common to a number of genera, and there can be no doubt 
that it is not in itself an indication of affinity. The body-wall is 
extensively calcified in the Cyclostomata and in most Cheilo- 
stomata, which may form elegant network-like colonies, as in the 
unilaminar genus Retepora, or may consist of wavy anastomosing 
plates, as in the bilaminar Lepralia foliacea of the British coasts, 
specimens of which may have a diameter of many inches. In 
other Cheilostomes the amount of calcification may be much less, 
the supporting skeleton being largely composed of the organic 
material chitin. In Flustra and other forms belonging to this 
type, the zoarium is accordingly flexible, and either bilaminar 
or unilaminar. In many calcareous forms, both Cheilostomes and 
Cyclostomes, the zoarium is rendered flexible by the interposition 
of chitinous joints at intervals. This habit is characteristic of the 
genera Crista, Cellaria, Catenicella and others, while it occurs in 
certain species of other genera. The form of the colony may thus 
be a good generic character, or, on the contrary, a single genus or 
even species may assume a variety of different forms. While 
nearly all Polyzoa are permanently fixed to one spot, the colonies 
of Cristatella and Lophopus among the Phylactolaemata can crawl 
slowly from place to place. 

Anatomy. — The zooids of which the colonies of Ectoprocta are 
composed consist of two parts: the body-wall and the visceral 
mass (figs. 6, 9). These were at one time believed to represent 
two individuals of different kinds, together constituting a zooid. 
The visceral mass was accordingly termed the " polypide " and 
the body-wall which contains it the " zooecium." This view 
depended principally on the fact that the life of the polypide and 
of the zooecium are not coextensive. It is one of the most re- 
markable facts in the natural history of the Polyzoa that a single 
zooecium may be tenanted by several polypides, which successively 
degenerate. The periodical histolysis may be partly due to the 
absence of specific excretory organs and to the accumulation of 
pigmented excretory substances in the wall of the alimentary 
canal. On the degeneration of the polypide, its nutritive material 
is apparently absorbed for the benefit of the zooid, while the pig- 



mented substances assume a spheroidal form, which either remains 
as an inert " brown body" in the body-cavity or is discharged to 
the exterior by the alimentary canal of the new polypide. This 
is formed as a two-layered " polypide-bud," which usually develops 
from the inner side of the zooecial wall, and soon occupies the place 
of the previous polypide. The inner layer of the polypide-bud 
gives rise to the structures usually regarded as ectodermic and 
endodermic, the outer layer to the mesodermic organs. 

The polypide consists of a " lophophore " bearing a series of 
ciliated tentacles by which Diatoms and other microscopic bodies 
are collected as food, of a U-shaped alimentary canal, and of a 
central nervous system. While the mouth is invariably encircled 
by the bases of the tentacles, the anus lies within the series in the 
Entoprocta and outside it in the Ectoprocta. The lophophore is 
a simple circle in all Polyzoa except in the Phylactolaemata, where 
it typically has the form of a horse shoe outlined by the bases of 
the tentacles. In Fredericella belonging to this order it is, however, 
circular, but the systematic position of the genus is sufficiently 
indicated by its possession of an " epistome," a lip-like structure . 
guarding the anal side of the mouth in all Phylactolaemata and 
absent throughout the Gymnolaemata. The cavities of the hollow 
tentacles open into a circular canal which surrounds the oesophagus 
at the base of the lophophore. This is continuous with the general 
body-cavity in the Phylactolaemata, while in the Gymnolaemata 
it develops in the bud as a part of the body-cavity, from which 
it becomes completely separated. In the Entoprocta the tentacles 
are withdrawn by being infolded into the " vestibule," a depression 
of the oral surface which can be closed by a sphincter muscle. In 
the Ectoprocta they are retractile into an introvert, the " tentacle- 
sheath " (fig. 9), the external opening of which is the " orifice " of 
the zooecium. In the Cyclostomata, further distinguished by the 
cylindrical or prismatic form of their highly calcified zooecia, the 
orifice is typically circular, without any definite cjosing organ. 
In the Cheilostomata it is closed by a chitinous (rarely calcareous) 
" operculum " (fig. 9, C), while in the Ctenostomata it is guarded 
by a delicate membrane similar to a piece of paper rolled into a 
longitudinally creased cylinder. During retraction this " collar " 
lies concealed in the beginning of the introvert. It becomes visible 
when the polypide begins to 
protrude its tentacles, making 
its appearance through the 
orifice as a delicate hyaline 
frill through which the ten- 
tacles are pushed. 

In the Phylactolaemata the 
outermost layer of the body- 
wall is a flexible, uncalcified 
cuticle or " ectocyst," be- 
neath which follow in suc- 
cession the ectoderm, the 
muscular layers and the 
coelomic epithelium. In a 
few Gymnolaemata the ec- 
tocyst is merely chitinous, 
although in most cases the 
four vertical walls and the 
basal wall of the zooecium 
are calcareous. The free 
(frontal) wall may remain 
membranous and uncalcified, 
as in Membranipora (figs. 
8 A, 9 A), but in many 
Cheilostomes the frontal 
surface is protected by a cal- 
careous shield, which grows 
from near the free edges of 
the vertical walls and com- 
monly increases in thickness 
as the zooecium grows older 
by the activity of the " epi- 
theca," a layer of living 
tissue outside it. The body- 
wall is greatly simplified in 
the Gymnolaemata, in cor- 
relation with the functional 
importance of the skeletal 
part of the wall. Even the 
ectoderm can rarely be recog- 
nized as an obvious epithe- 
lium except in regions where 
budding is taking place, while 
muscular layers are always 
absent and a coelomic epi- 
thelium can seldom be ob- 
served. The body-cavity is, 
however, traversed by mus- 
cles, and by strands of meso- 
dermic " funicular tissue,' 




(After AUman.) 

Fig. 6. — Zooid of Palvdicella 
articulata (= ehrenbergi). 
a, Anus. 

br, Expanded tentacles. 
i, Ectocyst. 

in, r' , Parietovaginal muscles. 
mr, Retractor muscle. 
0, Ovary. 
oe, Oesophagus. 
v. Caecum of stomach, 

testis. 
Funiculi. 



I, 

X, X' 



usually irregular, but sometimes constituting definite funiculi (fig. 
6, x, x'). This tissue is continuous from zooecium to zooecium 



44 



POLYZOA 




through perforated " ro6ette-plates " in the dividing walls. In 
the Phylactolaemata a single definite funiculus passes from the body- 
wall to the apex of the stomach. This latter organ is pigmented 
in all Polyzoa, and is produced, in the Ectoprocta, beyond the 
point where the intestine leaves it into a conspicuous caecum 
(fig. 6, v). The nervous system is represented by a ganglion 
situated between the mouth and the anus. The ovary (o) and 
the testis (t) of Ectoprocta are developed on the body-wall, on the 
stomach, or on the funiculus. Both kinds of reproductive organs 
may occur in a single zooecium, and the reproductive elements pass 
when ripe into the body-cavity. Their mode of escape is unknown 
in most cases. In some Gymnolaemata, polypides which develop 
an ovary possess a flask-shaped " intertentacular organ," situated 
between two of the tentacles, and affording a direct passage into the 
introvert for the eggs or even the spermatozoa developed in the same 
zooecium. In other cases the reproductive cells perhaps pass out by 
the atrophy of the polypide, whereby the body-cavity may become 
continuous with the exterior. The statoblasts of the Phylactolaemata 
originate on the funiculus, and are said to be derived partly from an 
ectodermic core possessed by this organ and partly from its external 
mesoderm (Braem), the former giving rise to the chitinous envelope 
and to a nucleated layer (fig. 7, ect), which later invaginates to form 
the inner vesicle of the polypide-bud. The mesodermic portion 
becomes charged with a yolk-like material (y), and, on the germina- 
tion of the statoblast, gives rise to the outer layer (mes) of the bud. 
The production of a polypide by the statoblast thus differs in no 
essential respect from the formation of a polypide in an ordinary 
zooecium. The statoblasts require a period of rest before germina- 
tion, and Braem has shown that their property of floating at the 
surface may be beneficial to them by exposing them to the action 
„, of frost, which in some 

cases improves the ger- 
minating power. The 
occurrence of Phylac- 
tolaemata in the tropics 
would show, however, 
without further evidence, 
that frost is not a factor 
essential for germination. 
The withdrawal of the 
extended polypide is 
effected by the contrac- 
tion of the retractor 
muscles (fig. 6, mr), and 
must result in an in- 
crease in the volume of 
the contents of the body- 
cavity. The alternate 
increase and diminution 
of volume is easily under- 
stood in forms with flex- 
ible zooecia. Thus in the 
Phylactolaemata the con- 
traction of the muscular 
body-wall exerts a pressure on the fluid of the body-cavity and is 
the cause of the protrusion of the polypide. In the Gymno- 
laemata protrusion is effected by the contraction of the parietal 
muscles, which pass freely across the body-cavity from one part 
of the body-wall to another. In the branching Ctenostomes the 
entire body-wall is flexible, so that the contraction of a parietal 
muscle acts equally on the two points with which it is connected. 
In encrusting Ctenostomes and in the Membranipora-like Cheilo- 
stomes (figs. 8 A, 9 A) the free surface or frontal wall is the only 

one in which any consider- 
able amount of movement 
can take place. The parie- 
tal muscles (p.m.), which 
pass from the vertical walls 
to the frontal wall, thus 
act by depressing the latter 
and so exerting a pressure 
on the fluid of the body- 
Fig. 8. — Diagrammatic Transverse cavity. In Cheilostomata 
Sections. w 'th a rigid frontal wall 

A, of Membranipora; B, of an J ull ^ n sh ° wed th . at P ro " 
immature zooecium of CribrUina; trusion and retraction were 
p.m., Parietal muscles. rendered possible by the 

existence 01 a compensa- 
tion-sac," in communication with the external water. 

In its most fully-developed condition (fig. 9, C) the compensation- 
sac (c.s.) is a large cavity which lies beneath the calcified frontal 
wall and opens to the exterior at the proximal border of the oper- 
culum (fig. 10). It is joined to the rigid body-wall by numerous 
muscle-fibres, the contraction of which must exert a pressure on 
the fluid of the body-cavity, thereby protruding the polypide. 
The exchange of fluid in the sac may well have a respiratory signifi- 
cance, in addition to its object of facilitating the movements of 
the tentacles. 

The evolution of the arrangements for protruding the polypide 
seems to have proceeded along several distinct lines: (i.) In certain 



sp 
(After Braem.) 

Fig. 7. — Section of a Germinating 
Statoblast of Cristatella mucedo. 
ann, Chitinous annulus, containing air- 
cavities which enable the stato- 
blast to float. 
Thickened part of the ectoderm, 
which will give rise to the inner 
layer of the polypide- bud. 
, Mesoderm, forming the outer layer 
of the bud. 
Anchoring spines of the statoblast. 
The yolk-like mesodermic mass. 



ect. 



sp, 




species of Membranipora the " frontal membrane," or membranous 
free-wall, is protected by a series of calcareous spines, which start 
from its periphery and arch inwards. In CribrUina similar spines 





Fig. 10. — Zooecium 
of CribrUina, showing 
the entrance to the 



Fig. 9. — Diagrammatic Longitudinal Sections of Cheilostomatous 

Zooecia. 

A, Membranipora (after Nitsche) ; B, CribrUina; C, Some 
of the Lepralioid forms, b.c, Body-cavity, cr., Cryptocyst. t.s., 
Compensation-sac. f.m., Frontal membrane. 0., Orifice, through 
which the tentacles are protruded, op., Operculum, p.m., Parietal 
muscles, t.s.. Tentacle-sheath. 

are developed in the young zooecium, but they soon unite with one 

another laterally, leaving rows of pores along the sutural lines 

(fig. 10). The operculum retains its 

continuity with the frontal membrane 

(fig. 9, B) into which the parietal muscles 

are still inserted. As indications that 

the conditions described in Membranipora 

and CribrUina are of special significance 

may be noted the fact that the ancestrula 

of many genera which have well-developed 

compensation-sacs in the rest of their 

zooecia is a Membranipora-\ike individual 

with a series of marginal calcareous spines, 

and the further fact that a considerable 

proportion of the Cretaceous Cheilos- 

tomes belong either to the Membrani- 

poridae or to the Cribrilinidae. (ii.) In 

Scrupocellaria, Menipea and Caberea a 

single, greatly dilated marginal spine, the 

" scutum " or " fornix," may protect the 

frontal membrane. (iii.) In Umbonula 

the frontal membrane and parietal 

muscles of the young zooecium are like compensation - sac on 

those of Membranipora, but they become the P roxln »I side of the 

covered by the growth, from the proximal °P er cuIum (op). 

and lateral sides, of a calcareous lamina covered externally 

by a soft membrane. The arrangement is perhaps derivable 

from a CribrUina-like condition in which the outer layer of the 

spines has become membranous while the spines themselves are 
laterally united from the first, (iv.) In the Microporidae and 
Steganoporellidae the body-cavity becomes partially subdivided 
by a calcareous lamina (" cryptocyst," Jullien) which grows from 
the proximal and lateral sides in a plane parallel to the frontal 
membrane and not far below it. The parietal muscles are usually 
reduced to a single pair, which may pass through foramina 

' ("opesiules ") in the cryptocyst to reach their insertion. There is 
no compensation-sac in these families, (v.) Many of the Lepralioid 
forms offer special difficulties, but the calcareous layer of the frontal 
surface is probably a cryptocyst (as in fig. 9, C), the compensation- 
sac being developed round its distal border. The " epitheca " 
noticed above is in this case the persistent frontal membrane, 
(vi.) In Microporella the opening of the compensation-sac has 
become separated from the operculum by calcareous matter, and 
is known as the " median pore." Jullien believed that this pore 
opens into the tentacle-sheath, but it appears probable that it really 
communicates with the compensation-sac and not with the tentacle- 
sheath. The mechanism of protrusion in the Cyclostomata is a 
subject which requires further examination. 

The most singular of the external appendages found in the 
Polyzoa are the avicularia and vibracula of the Cheilostomata. 
The avicularium is so called from its resemblance, in its most 
highly differentiated condition, to the head of a bird. In Bugula, 
for instance, a calcareous avicularium of this type is attached by 
a narrow neck to each zooecium. The avicularium can move as 
a whole by means of special muscles, and its chitinous lower jaw 



POLYZOA 



45 



or " mandible " can be opened and closed. It is regarded as a 
modified zooecium, the polypide of which has become vestigial, 
although it is commonly represented by a sense-organ, bearing 
tactile hairs, situated on what may be termed the palate. The 
operculum of the normal zooecium has become the mandible, 
while the occlusor muscles have become enormous. In the vibra- 
culum the part representing the zooecium is relatively smaller, 
and the mandible has become the " seta," an elongated chitinous 
lash which projects far beyond the zooecial portion of the structure. 
In Caberea, the vibracula are known to move synchronously, but 
co-ordination of this kind is otherwise unknown in the Polyzoa. 
The avicularia and vibracula give valuable aid to the systematic 
study of the Cheilostomata. In its least differentiated form the 
avicularium occupies the place of an ordinary zooecium (" vicarious 
avicularium "), from which it is distinguished by the greater 
development of the operculum and its muscles, while the polypide 
is normally not functional. Avicularia of this type occur in the 
common Flustra foliacea, in various species of Membranipora, and 
in particular in the Onychocellidae, a remarkable family common 
in the Cretaceous period and still existing. In the majority of 
Cheilostomes, the avicularia are, so to speak, forced out of the 
ordinary series of zooecia, with which they are rigidly connected. 
There are comparatively few cases in which, as in Bugula, they are 
mounted on a movable joint. Although at first sight the arrange- 
ment of the avicularia in Cheilostomes appears to follow no general 
law some method is probably to be made out on closer study. 
They occur in particular in relation with the orifice of the zooecium, 
and with that of the compensation-sac. This delicate structure 
is frequently guarded by an avicularium at its entrance, while 
avicularia are also commonly found on either side of the operculum 
■ or in other positions close to that structure. It can hardly be doubted 
that the function of these avicularia is the protection of the ten- 
tacles and compensation-sac. The suggestion that they are concerned 
in feeding does not rest on any definite evidence, and is probably 
erroneous. But avicularia or vibracula may also occur in other 
places — on the backs of unilaminar erect forms, along the sutural 
lines of the zooecia and on their frontal surface. These are probably 
important in checking overgrowth by encrusting organisms, and 
in particular by preventing larvae from fixing on the zoarium. 
Vibracula are of less frequent occurrence than avicularia, with which 
they may coexist as in Scrupocellaria, where they occur on the 
backs of the unilaminar branches. In the so-called Selenariidae, 
probably an unnatural association of genera which have assumed 
a free discoidal form of zoarium, they may reach a very high degree 
of development, but Busk's suggestion that in this group they 
" may be subservient to locomotion " needs verification. 

Development and Affinities. — It is generally admitted that the 
larva of the Entoprocta (fig. 11) has the structure of a Trocho- 

sphere. This appears to indicate 
that the Polyzoa are remotely 
allied to other phyla in which 
this type of larva prevails, and 
in particular to the Mollusca and 
Chaetopoda, as well as to the 
Rotifera, which are regarded as 
persistent Trochospheres. The 
praeoral portion (lower in fig. n) 
constitutes the greater part of 
the larva and contains most of 
the viscera. It is terminated by 
a well-developed structure (/g) 
corresponding with the apical 
sense-organ of ordinary Trocho- 
spheres, and an excretory organ 
(nph) of the type familiar in 
these larvae occurs on the ventral 
side of the stomach. The central 
nervous system (x) is highly 
developed, and in Loxosoma bears 
a pair of eyes. The larva swims 
by a ring of cilia, which corre- 
sponds with the praeoral circlet 
of a Trochosphere. The oral 
surface, on which are situated 
the mouth (in) and anus (a), is 
relatively small . The apical sense- 
organ is used for temporary attach- 
ment to the maternal vestibule in 
which development takes place, 
but permanent fixation is effected 
by the oral surface. This is followed by the atrophy of many of the 
larval organs, including the brain, the sense-organ and the ciliated 
ring. The alimentary canal persists and revolves in the median 
plane through an angle of 180 , accompanied by part of the larval 
vestibule, the space formed by the retraction of the oral surface. 
The vestibule breaks through to the exterior, and the tentacles, 
which have been developed within it, are brought into relation 
with the external water. 

In the common and widely-distributed Cheilostome, Membrani- 




( After Ha tschek.) 

Fig. ii. — Larva of Pedicellina. 

a. Anus. 

/g, Apical sense-organ. 

kg, Intestine. 

/, Ventral wall of stomach. 

m, Mouth. 

nph, Excretory organ. 

x, Brain. 



pora pilosa, the pelagic larva is known as Cyphonautes, and it has 
a structure not unlike that of the larval Pedicellina. The principal 
differences are the complication of the ciliated band, the absence of 
the excretory organ, the great lateral compression of the body, 
the possession of a pair of shells protecting the sides, the presence 
of an organ known as the " pyriform organ," and the occurrence 
of a sucker in a position corresponding with the depression seen 
between (m) and (a) in fig. II. Fixation takes place by means of 
this sucker, which is everted for the purpose, part of its epithelium 
becoming the basal ectoderm of the ancestrula. The pyriform 
organ has probably assisted the larva to find an appropriate place 
for fixation (cf. Kupelwieser, 18); but, like the alimentary canal 
and most of the other larval organs, it undergoes a process of histo- 
lysis, and the larva becomes the ancestrula, containing the primary 
brown body derived from the purely larval organs. The polypide is 
formed, as in an ordinary zooecium after the loss of its polypide, 
from a polypide-bud. 

The Cyphonautes type has been shown by Prouho (24) to occur 
in two or three widely different species of Cheilostomata and Cteno- 
stomata in which the eggs are laid and develop in the external 
water. In most Ectoprocta, however, the development takes place 
internally or in an ovicell, and a considerable quantity of yolk is 
present. The alimentary canal, which may be represented by a 
vestigial structure, is accordingly not functional, and the larva 
does not become pelagic. A pyriform organ is present in most 
Gymnolaemata as well as the sucker by which fixation is effected. 
As, in the case of Cyphonautes, the larval organs degenerate and 
the larva becomes the ancestrula from which a polypide is developed 
as a bud. In the Cyclostomata the primary embryo undergoes 
repeated fission without developing definite organs, and each of 
the numerous pieces so formed becomes a free larva, which possesses 
no alimentary canal. Finally, in the Phylactolaemata, the larva 
becomes an ancestrula before it is hatched, and one or several 
poly pides, may be present when fixation is effected. 

The development of the Ectoprocta is intelligible on the hypo- 
thesis that the Entoprocta form the starting-point of the series. 
On the view that the Phylactolaemata are nearly related to Phoronis 
(see PhorOnidea), it is extremely difficult to draw any conclusions 
with regard to the significance of the facts of development. If the 
Phylactolaemata were evolved from the type of structure repre- 
sented by Phoronis or the Pterobranchia (g.».), the Gymnolaemata 
should be a further modification of this type, and the comparative 
study of the embryology of the two orders would appear to be 
meaningless. It seems more natural to draw the conclusion that 
the resemblances of the Phylactolaemata to Phoronis are devoid 
of phylogenetic significance. 

Bibliography. — For general accounts of the structure and 
development of the Polyzoa the reader's attention is specially 
directed to 12, 14, 6, 25, I, 2, 17, 26, 18, 23, 3, in the list given below; 
for an historical account to I ; for a full bibliography of the group, 
to 22; for fresh-water forms, to 1-3, 7-10, 17; for an indispensable 
synonymic list of recent marine forms, to 15; for Entoprocta, to 
10, 11, 24; for the classification of Gymnolaemata, to 21, 14, 4, 
13, 20; for Palaeontology, to 27, 22. 

References to important works on the species of marine Polyzoa 
by Busk, Hincks, Jullien, Levinsen, MacGillivray, Nordgaard, 
Norman, Waters and others are given in the Memoir (22) by Nickles 
and Bassler. (1) Allman, " Monogr. Fresh-water Polyzoa," Ray 
Soc. (1856). (2) Braem, " Bry. d. sflssen Wassers," Bibl. Zool. 
Bd. ii. Heft 6 (1890). (3) Braem, " Entwickel. v. Plumatella," 
ibid., Bd. x. Heft 23 (1897). (4) Busk, " Report on the Polyzoa," 
" Challenger " Rep. pt. xxx. (1884), 50 (1886). (5) Caldwell, " Phoro- 
nis," Proc. Roy. Soc. (1883), xxxiv. 371. (6) Calvet, " Bry. Ecto- 
proctes Marins," Trav. Inst. Montpellier (new series), Mem. 
8 (1900). (7) Cori, " Nephridien d. Cristatella," Zeitschr. wiss. Zool. 
(1893), l v - 626. (8) Davenport, " Cristatella," Bull. Mus. Harvard 
( 1 890-1 891), xx. 101. (9) Davenport, " Paludicella," ibid. (1891-1892), 
xxii. 1. (10) Davenport, " Urnatella," ibid. (1893), xxiv. 1. (11) 
Ehlers, " Pedicellineen," Abh. Ges. Gbttingen (1890), xxxvi. (12) 
Harmer, " Polyzoa," Cambr. Nat. Hist. (1896), ii. 463; art. " Poly- 
zoa," Ency. Brit. (10th ed., 1902), xxxi. 826. (13) Harrr.er, 
" Morph. Cheilostomata," Quart. Journ. Mic. Sci. (1903), xlvi. 
263. (14) Hincks, " Hist. Brit. Mar. Pol." (1880). (15) Jelly, 
" Syn. Cat. Recent Mar. Bry." (1889). (16) Jullien and Calvet, 
" Bryozoaires," Res camp. sci. prince de Monaco (1903), xxiii. (17) 
Kraepelin, " Deutsch. Susswasser-Bry.," Abh, . Ver. Hamburg 
(1887), x.; (1892), xii. (18) Kupelwieser, " Cyphonautes," Zoologica 
(1906), Bd. xix. Heft 47. (19) Lankester, art, " Polyzoa," 
Ency. Brit. (9th ed., 1885), xix. 429, (20) Levinsen, " Bryozoa," 
Vid. Medd. Naturh. Foren. (Copenhagen, 1902). (21) MacGillivray, 
" Cat. Mar. Pol. Victoria," P. Roy. Soc. Victoria (1887), xxiii. 187. 
(22) Nickles and Bassler, " Synopsis Amer. Foss. Bry.," Bull. 
US. Geol. Survey (1900), No. 173. (23) Pace, " Dev. Flustrella," 
Quart. Journ. Mic. Soc. (1906), 50, pt. 3, 435. (24) Prouho, " Loxo- 



" Fossil Polyzoa," in Zittel's Text-book of Palaeontology, Eng. ed. 
(1900), i. 257. (S. F. H.) 



4 6 



POMADE— POMEGRANATE 



POMADE, or Pomatum, a scented ointment, used formerly 
for softening and beautifying the skin, as a lip-salve, &c, but 
now principally applied to the hair. It was made originally 
from the juice of apples (Lat. pomum), whence the name. 

POMANDER (from Fr. pomme d'ambre, i.e. apple of amber), 
a ball made of perfumes, such as ambergris (whence the name), 
musk, civet, &c, and formerly worn or carried in a case, also 
known by the same name, as a protection against infection in 
times of pestilence or merely as a useful article to modify bad 
smells. The globular cases which contained the " pomanders " 
were hung from a neck-chain or attached to the girdle, and were 
usually perforated and made of gold or silver. Sometimes they 
contained several partitions, in each of which was placed a 
different perfume. There is an early Spanish pomander set 
with emeralds, and a fine 16th-century one, dredged from the 
Thames, in the British Museum. 

POMBAL, SEBASTIAO JOSE DE CARVALHO E MELLO, 
Marquess of (1699-1782), Portuguese statesman, was born 
at Soure near Pomba, on the 13th of May 1699. He was the 
son of Manoel de Carvalho e Athayde, a country gentleman 
(fidalgo) and of his wife D. Theresa Luiza de Mendonca e Mello. 
He studied law at Coimbra University, served for a short time 
as a private in the army, and afterwards lived the life of a man 
about town in Lisbon, sharing in the diversions of the " Mohocks " 
who then infested the streets. In 1733 he abducted and married 
D. Theresa de Noronha, a widow belonging to one of the most 
distinguished families in Portugal. He then retired to Soure, 
where, on the recommendation of Cardinal de Motta, King John 
V. commissioned him to write a series of biographical studies. 
In 1739 he was sent as Portuguese ambassador to London, where 
he remained until 1745. He was then transferred to Vienna. 
His first wife having died on the 7th of January 1739, he married, 
on the 18th of December 17451 Leonora Ernestine Daun, 
daughter of General Count Daun. In 1749 he was recalled to 
take up the post of secretary of state for foreign affairs and war. 
The appointment was ratified on the 3rd of August 1 7 50, by King 
Joseph, who had succeeded John V. in that year. Carvalho's 
career from 1750 to 1777 is part of the history of Portugal. 
Though he came into power only in his 51st year, without 
previous administrative experience, he was able to reorganize 
Portuguese education, finance, the army and the navy. He also 
built up new industries, promoted the development of Brazil 
and Macao, and expelled the Jesuits. His complete ascendancy 
over the mind of, King Joseph dates from the time of the great 
Lisbon earthquake (Nov. 1, 1755)- Though the famous words 
" Bury the dead and feed the living " were probably not spoken 
by him, they summarize his action at this time of calamity. 
In June 1759 his suppression of the so-called " Tavora plot " 
gained for him the title of count of Oeyras; and in September 
1770 he was made marquess of Pombal. His severe adminis- 
tration had made many enemies, and his life had been attempted 
in 1769. Soon after the death of King Joseph, in 1777, Pombal 
was dismissed from office; and he was only saved from impeach- 
ment by the death of his bitterest opponent, the queen-mother, 
Mariana Victoria, in January 1781. On the 16th of August a 
royal decree forbade him to reside within twenty leagues of the 
court. He died at Pombal on the 8th of May 1782. 

See, in addition to the works dealing with the period 1 750-1 777 
and quoted under Portugal: History; S.J. CM. (Pombal), Rela^ao 
abremada, &c. (Paris, 1758) ; Memoirs of the Court of Portugal, &c. 
(London, 1765); Anecdotes du ministere de Pombal (Warsaw, 1781); 
Administration du marquis de Pombal (4 vols., Amsterdam, 1787); 
Cartas . . . do marques de Pombal (3 vols., Lisbon, 1820-1824) ; 
J. Smith, Count of Carnota, Memoirs of the Marquess of Pombal, 
&c. (London, 1843) ; F. L. Gomes, Le Marquis de Pombal, &c. 
(Paris, 1869); B. Duhr (S.J.), Pombal, &c. (Freiburg im Breisgau, 
1891) ; C. J. de Merrezes, Os Jesuitas e marques de Pombal (Oporto, 
1893). See also articles in the Revue des deux monies for September 
1870; the Revue bleue for September 1889, and the Revue, historique 
for September 1895 and January 1896. 

POMEGRANATE. The pomegranate {Punica Granatum) is 
of exceptional interest by reason of its structure, its history, and 
its utility. It forms a tree of small stature, or a bush, with 
opposite or alternate, shining, lance-shaped leaves, from the 



axils of some of which proceed the brilliant scarlet flowers. 
These are raised on a short stalk, and consist of a thick fleshy 
cylindrical or bell-shaped calyx-tube, with five to seven short 
lobes at the top. From the throat of the calyx proceed five to 




Fig. 1. — Pomegranate, Punica Granatum, flowering branch, half 
natural size. 

1, Flower cut lengthwise; the 3, Same cut across, showing 

petals have been removed. seeds. 

2, Fruit, about one-third natural 4, Seed, natural size. 

size. 

seven roundish, crumpled, scarlet or crimson petals, and below 
them very numerous slender stamens. The pistil consists of two 
rows of carpels placed one above another, both rows embedded 
in, and partially inseparate from, the inner surface of the calyx- 
tube. The styles are confluent into one slender column. The 
fruit, which usually attains the size of a large orange, consists 





(After Eichler, from Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Botanik, by permission of Gustav 
Fischer. ) 

Fig. 2. — Punica Granatum. 

A, Floral diagram. B, Longitudinal section of the ovary. 

of a hard leathery rind, enclosing a quantity of pulp derived 
from the coats of the numerous seeds. This pulp, filled as it is 
with refreshing acid juice, constitutes the chief value of the tree. 
The more highly cultivated forms contain more of it than the 
wild or half-wild varieties. The great structural peculiarity 
consists in the presence of the two rows of carpels one above 
another (a state of things which occurs exceptionally in apples 
and oranges), and in the fact that, while in the lower series the 
seeds are attached to the inner border or lower angle of the cavity, 
they occupy the outer side in the upper series, as if during growth 
the upper whorl had become completely bent over. 

By Bentham and Hooker the Punica is included as an anoma- 
lous genus in the order Lythraceae; others consider it more 
nearly allied to the myrtles; while its peculiarities are so great as, 
in the opinion of many botanists, to justify its inclusion in a 



POMERANIA 



47 



separate order, Punicaceae. Not only is the fruit valuable in 
hot countries for the sake of its pulp, but the rind and the bark 
and the outer part of the root (containing the alkaloid pelle- 
tierine) are valuable as astringents. The bark of the root is 
likewise valued as an anthelmintic in cases of tape-worm. 

The tree is wild in Afghanistan, north-western India, and the 
districts south and south-west of the Caspian, but it has been so 
long cultivated that it is difficult to say whether it is really 
native in Palestine and the Mediterranean region. It has been 
cited as wild in northern Africa, but this appears to be a mistake. 
Professor Bayley Balfour met with a wild species, heretofore un- 
known, in the island of Socotra, the flowers of which have only 
a single row of carpels, which suggests the inference that it may 
have been the source of the cultivated varieties. But, on the other 
hand, in Afghanistan, where Aitchison met with the tree truly 
wild, a double row of carpels was present as usual. The antiquity 
of the tree as a cultivated plant is evidenced by the Sanskrit 
name Dddimba, and by the references to the fruit in the Old 
Testament, and in the Odyssey, where it is spoken of as cultivated 
in the gardens of the kings of Phaeacia and Phrygia. The fruit 
is frequently represented on ancient Assyrian and Egyptian 
sculptures, and had a religious significance in connexion with 
several Oriental cults, especially the Phrygian cult of Gybele 
(Arnob. v. 5 seq.; see also Baudissin, Studien, ii. 207 seq.). It 
was well known to the Greeks and Romans, who were acquainted 
with its medicinal properties and its use as a tanning material. 
The name given by the Romans, malum punicum, indicates that 
they received it from Carthage, as indeed is expressly stated 
by Pliny ; and this circumstance has given rise to the notion that 
the tree was indigenous in northern Africa. ■ On a review of the 
whole evidence, botanical, literary and linguistic, Alphonse de 
Candolle (Origin of Cultivated Plants) pronounces against its 
African origin, and decides in favour of its source in Persia and 
the neighbouring countries. According to Saporta, the pomegra- 
nate existed in a fossil state in beds of the Pliocene epoch near 
Meximieux in Burgundy. The pomegranate is sometimes met 
with in cultivation against a wall in England, but it is too tender 
to withstand a severe winter. The double-flowered varieties 
are specially desirable for the beauty and long duration of their 
flowers. 

POMERANIA (German, Pommern), a territory of Germany 
and a maritime province of Prussia, bounded on the N. by the 
Baltic, on the W. by Mecklenburg, on the S. by Brandenburg, 
and on the E. by West Prussia. Its area is 11,630 sq. m., and 
the population in 1905 was 1,684,125, showing a density of 145 
inhabitants to the square mile. The province is officially divided 
into the three districts of Stralsund, Stettin and Koslin, but more 
historical interest attaches to the names of Vorpommern and 
Hinterpommern, or Hither and Farther Pomerania, the former 
being applied to the territory to the west, and the latter to that 
to the east of the Oder. Pomerania is one of the flattest parts 
of Germany, although east of the Oder it :s traversed by a range 
of low hills, and there are also a few isolated eminences to the 
west. Off the west coast, which is very irregular, lie the islands of 
Rugen, Usedom and Wollin; the coast of Farther Pomerania is 
smooth in outline and is bordered with dunes, or sandbanks. 
Besides the Oder and its affluents, the chief of which are the 
Peene, the ticker and the Ihna, there are several smaller rivers 
flowing into the Baltic; a few of these are navigable for ships, 
but the greater number only carry rafts. Many of them end in 
small lakes, which are separated from the sea by narrow strips 
of land, through which the water escapes by one or more outlets. 
The interior of the province is also thickly sprinkled with lakes, 
the combined area of which is equal to about one-twentieth of 
the entire surface. 

The soil of Pomerania is for the most part thin and sandy, 
but patches of good land are found here and there. About 55% 
of the whole is under tillage, while 16% consists of meadow and 
pasture and 21% is covered by forests. The principal crops are 
potatoes, rye and oats, but wheat and barley are grown in the 
more fertile districts; tobacco, flax, hops and beetroot are also 
cultivated. Agriculture is still carried on in a somewhat 



primitive fashion, and as a rule the livestock is of an inferior 
quality, though the breed of horses, of a heavy build and mostly 
used in agriculture, is held in high esteem. Large flocks of sheep 
are kept, both for their flesh and their wool, and there are in the 
province large numbers of horned cattle and of pigs. Geese 
and goose feathers form lucrative articles of export. Owing 
to the long line of coast and the numerous lakes, fishing forms an 
important industry, and large quantities of herrings, eels and 
lampreys are sent from Pomerania to other parts of Germany. 
With the exception of the almost inexhaustible layers of peat, 
the mineral wealth of the province is insignificant. Its industrial 
activity is not great, but there are manufactures of machinery, 
chemicals, paper, tobacco and sugar; these are made chiefly 
in or near the large towns, while linen-weaving is practised as a 
domestic industry. Ship-building is carried on at Stettin and at 
several places along the coast. The commerce of Pomerania 
is in a flourishing condition, its principal ports being Stettin, 
Stralsund and Swinemiinde. Education is provided for by a 
university at Greifswald and by numerous schools. The province 
sends 14 members to the German Reichstag, and 26 to the Prussian 
house of representatives. The heir to the Prussian crown bears 
the title of governor of Pomerania. 

History. — In prehistoric times the southern coast of the Baltic 
seems to have been occupied by Celts, who afterwards made way 
for tribes of Teutonic stock. These in their turn migrated to 
other settlements and were replaced, about the end of the 5th 
century of our era, by Slavonic tribes, the Wilzi and the Pomerani. 
The name of Pomore, or Pommern, meaning " on the sea," was 
given to the district by the latter of the tribes about the time of 
Charlemagne, and it has often changed its political and geo- 
graphical significance. Originally it seems to have denoted the 
coast district between the Oder and the Vistula, a territory 
which was at first more or less dependent on Poland, but which, 
towards the end of the 1 2th century, was ruled by two native 
princes, who took the title of duke about n 70 and admitted the 
authority of the German king in 1181. Afterwards Pomerania 
extended much farther to the west, while being correspondingly 
curtailed on the east, and a distinction was made between 
Slavinia, or modern Pomerania, and Pomerellen. The latter, 
corresponding substantially to the present province of West 
Prussia, remained subject to Poland until 1309, when it was 
divided between Brandenburg and the Teutonic Order. 
Christianity was introduced in the 12th century, a bishopric 
being founded in the Island of Wollin, and its advance went 
rapidly hand in hand with the Germanizing of the district. 

The history of Pomerania, as distinct from that of Pomerellen, 
consists mainly of an almost endless succession of divisions of 
territory among the different lines of the ducal house, and of 
numerous expansions and contractions of territory through 
constant hostilities with the elector of Brandenburg, who 
claimed to be the immediate feudal superior of Pomerania, 
and with other neighbouring rulers. The names of Vorpom- 
mern and Hinterpommern were at first synonymous with 
Pomerania proper, or Slavinia and Pomerellen, but towards 
the close of the 14th century they were transferred to the two 
duchies into which the former was divided. In 1625 the 
whole of Pomerania became united under the sway of Duke 
Bogislaus XIV., and on his death without issue, in 1637, Branden- 
burg claimed the duchy by virtue of a compact made in 1571. 
In the meantime, however, Pomerania had been devastated 
by the Thirty Years' War and occupied by the Swedes, who had 
taken possession of its towns and fortresses. At the peace of 
Westphalia they claimed the duchy, in opposition to the elector 
of Brandenburg, and the result was that the latter was obliged to 
content himself with eastern Pomerania (Hinterpommern), and 
to see the western part (Vorpommern) awarded to Sweden. In 
1720, by the peace of Stockholm, Swedish Pomerania was cur- 
tailed by extensive concessions to Prussia, but the district to the 
west of the Peene remained in the possession of Sweden until the 
general European settlement of 1815. Then Sweden assigned 
her German possessions to Denmark in exchange for Norway, 
whereupon Prussia, partly by purchase and partly by the cession 



.8 



POMEROY— POMONA 



of the duchy of Lauenburg, finally succeeded in uniting the whole 
of Pomerania under her rule. 

For the history, see J. Bugenhagen, Pomerania, edited by O. 
Heinemann (Stettin, 1900) ; von Bohlen, Die Erwerbung Pommerns 
durch die Hohenzollern (Berlin, 1865) ; H. Berghaus, Landbuch des 
Herzogtums Pommern (Berlin, 1 865-1 876); the Codex Pomeraniae 
diplomaticus, edited by K. F. VV. Hasselbach and J. G. L. Kose- 
garten (Greifswald, 1862); the Pommersches Urkundenbuch, edited 
by R. Klempin and others (Stettin, 1 868-1 896); W. von Sommer- 
feld, Geschichte der Germanisierung des Herzogtums Pommern 
(Leipzig, 1896) ; F. W. Barthold, Geschichte von Riigen und Pommern 
(Hamburg, 1839-1845); K. Mass, Pommersche Geschichte (Stettin, 
1899); M. VVehrmann, Geschichte von Pommern (Gotha, 1904-1906); 
and Uecker, Pommern in Wort und Bild (Stettin, 1904). See also 
the publications of the Gesellschaft fur pommersche Geschichte und 
Altertumskunde. 

POMEROY, a village and the county-seat of Meigs county, 
Ohio, U.S.A., on the Ohio river, about 85 m. S.S.E. of Columbus. 
Pop. (1890) 4726; (1900) 4639, including 453 foreign-born and 
280 negroes; (1910) 4023. Pomeroy is served by the Hocking 
Valley and (across the river) Baltimore & Ohio railways, by 
inter-urban electric railway, and by passenger and freight boats 
to the leading river ports. It occupies a strip of ground between 
the river and a range of steep hills. Bituminous coal and salt 
abound in the district, and there are deposits of building stone, 
fireclay and glass sand. The first settlement here was established 
in 1816, coal mining was begun three years later,;and in 1827 a 
town was laid out and named Nyesville. There was little pro- 
gress, however, until 1833, when Samuel W. Pomeroy (in whose 
honour the present name was adopted) formed a company, 
which began mining coal on a large scale. Pomeroy was incor- 
porated as a village and was made the county-seat in 1841. In 
1850 the first of several salt wells, from 1000 to 1200 ft. in 
depth, was operated. 

POMFRET, JOHN (1667-1702), English poet, son of Thomas 
Pomfret, vicar of Luton, was born in 1667. He was educated 
at Bedford grammar school and at Queens' College, Cambridge. 
He became rector of Maulden, Bedfordshire, in 1695, and of 
Millbrook in the same county in 1702. Dr Johnson says that 
the bishop of London refused to sanction preferment for him 
because in his Choice he declared that he would have no wife, 
although he expressed a wish for the occasional company of a 
modest and sprightly young lady. The poet was married in real 
life all the same, and — while waiting to clear up the misunder- 
standing with the bishop — he died in November 1702. The 
Choice or Wish: A Poem written by a Person of Quality (1700) 
expresses the epicurean desires of a cultivated man of Pomfret's 
time. It is smoothly written in the heroic couplet, and was widely 
popular. His Miscellany Poems were published in 1702. 

POMMEL (through O. Fr. pomel, from a diminutive pomellus of 
Lat. pomum, fruit, apple), any rounded object resembling an 
apple, e.g. the rounded termination of a saddle-bow; in archi- 
tecture, any round knob, as a boss, finial, &c. ; more particularly 
the rounded end to the hilt of a sword, dagger or other hand 
weapon, used to prevent the hand from slipping, and as a balance 
to the blade. " Pommel " is also a term used of a piece of 
grooved wood used in graining leather. This word may be 
the same in origin, or more probably from Fr. paumelle, from 
paume, the hand, palm. 

POMMER, or Bombard (Fr. hautbois; Ital. bombardo, bomhar- 
done), the alto, tenor and basses of the shawm or Schalmey 
family, and the forerunners respectively of the cor-anglais, 
bassoon or fagotto, and double bassoon or contrafagotto. The 
main difference to the casual observer between the medieval 
instruments and those of our orchestra which were evolved from 
them would be one of size. In the Pommers no attempt had 
been made to bend the tube, and its length, equal to that of an 
open organ pipe of the same pitch, was outstretched in all its 
unwieldiness in an oblique position in front of the performer. 
The great contrabass Pommer was 9 ft. long without the 
crook and reed, which, however, were bent downwards. It had 
five open fingerholes and five keys working inside a perforated 
case; in order to bring the holes within reach of the finger, they 
were cut obliquely through the tube. The compass extended 



from F below 8 ft. C to EorF in the bass stave, two octaves in all. 
The other members of the family were the bass Pommer, from 
8 ft. C to middle C, corresponding to the modern bassoon or 
fagotto; the tenor or basset Pommer, a fifth higher in pitch; the 
alto pommer or nicolo, a fourth or a fifth above the tenor; and 
the high alto, or Klein Alt Pommer, an octave higher than the 
tenor, corresponding approximately to the cor-anglais. 

For the history of the Pommer family see Oboe and Bassoon. 

(K.S.) 

POMONA, an old Italian goddess of fruit and gardens. Ovid 
{Mel. xiv. 623) tells the story of her courtship by the silvan 
deities and how Vertumnus, god of the turning year, wooed 
and won her. Corresponding to Pomona there seems to have 
been a male Italian deity, called Pomunus, who was perhaps 
identical with Vertumnus. Although chiefly worshipped in the 
country, Pomona had a special priest at Rome, the fiamen Pomo- 
nalis, and a sacred grove near Ostia, called the Pomonal. She 
was represented as a beautiful maiden, with fruits in her bosom 
and a pruning-knife in her hand. 

POMONA, a city of Los Angeles county, in southern Cali- 
fornia, U.S.A., about 33 m. E. of the city of Los Angeles. Pop. 
(1890) 3634; (1900) 5526 (567 foreign-born) ; (1910) 10,207. It is 
served by the Southern Pacific, the San Pedro, Los Angeles & 
Salt Lake, and the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe railways, 
and by an inter-urban electric line. The city is about 850 ft. 
above sea-level, and has a Carnegie library and several parks, 
including Ganesha park (45 acres), which commands a fine view. 
At Claremont, about 3 m. north, is Pomona College (1888, co- 
educational), which in 1908 had 34 instructors and 488 students. 
Pomona is in the midst of a prosperous fruit region, devoted 
especially to the growing of oranges. Orchards of oranges, 
lemons, apricots, peaches and prunes surround the city for miles, 
and some olives are grown; alfalfa and sugar-beets are raised in 
large quantities in the immediate neighbourhood. Pomona was 
settled by a colony of fruit-growers in 1875, and was chartered 
as a city in 1888. 

POMONA, or Mainland, the 'central and^ largest island of 
the Orkneys, Scotland. Pop. (1901), 16,235. It is 25 m. long 
from N.W. to S.E. and 15 m. broad from E. to W.; area, 190 
sq. m.; but where the coast is cut into, on the N. by Kirkwall 
Bay and on the S. by Scapa Flow, the land is less than 2 m. across. 
Consequently, the portion of the island to the west of the waist 
of Pomona is sometimes described as the West Island, and the 
portion to the East as the East Island. The west coast is 
almost unbroken, the bays of Birsay and Skaill being the only 
bays of any importance. The east and south shores, on the 
other hand, are extensively carved out. Thus on the east 
side are found Eynhallow Sound, Wood Wick, the bays of 
Isbister, Firth, Kirkwall, and Inganess and Dee Sound, and on 
the south Holm Sound, Scapa Bay, Swanbister Bay and Bay 
of Ireland. The highest points of the watershed from Costa 
Head to the Scapa shore are Milldoe (734 ft.) to the north-east 
of Isbister and Wideford Hill (740 ft.) to the west of Kirkwall. 
There are also a few eminences towards the south-west, Ward 
Hill (880 ft.) in the parish of Orphir being the highest peak in 
the island. There are numerous lakes, some of considerable 
size and most of them abounding with trout. Loch Harray is 
45 m. long by from J m. to about 2 m. wide, and Loch Stenhess 
3 1 m. long by from J to 2 J m. wide. Lochs Swannay, Board- 
house and Hundland are situated in the extreme north, while 
Loch Kirbister lies near the south coast and Loch Tankerness 
adjoins Deer Sound. Off the east coast lie the islands of Rpusay, 
Egilshay, Viera, Eynhallow, Gairsay and Shapinshay, and off 
the south Copinshay and Lamb Holm. The hilly country is 
mostly moorland, and peat-mosses are met with in some of the 
low-lying land, but many of the valleys contain fertile soil, and 
there are productive tracts on the eastern and northern seaboard. 
Kirkwall, the capital of the Orkneys, and Stromness are the only 
towns. 

In Harray, the only parish in the Orkneys not trenched at 
some point by the sea, Norse customs have survived longer than 
elsewhere in the group save in North Ronaldshay. In Deerness 



POMPADOUR, MARQUISE DE 



49 



the most easterly parish in Pomona, were buried 200 Covenanters, 
taken prisoners at the battle of Bothwell Brig. They were 
carried to Barbados, to be sold as slaves for the plantations, 
when the ship foundered in Deer Sound, and all were drowned. 
In Sandside Bay, in the same parish, the fleet of Malcolm 
Canmore was defeated by that of Jarl Thorfinn; and at 
Summersdale, towards the northern base of the hills of Orphir, 
Sir James Sinclair, governor of Kirkwall, vanquished Lord 
Sinclair and 500 Caithness men in 1529. 

The antiquities of Pomona are of great interest. The examples 
of Pictish remains include brocks or round towers, chambered 
mounds, or buildings of stone covered in with earth, and weems, 
or underground dwellings afterwards roofed in. At Saverock, 
on the west wing of Kirkwall Bay, a good specimen of an earth- 
house will be found, and at Quanterness, 1 m. to the west of it, a 
chambered mound, containing seven rooms with beehive roofs. 
Farther west and 5 m. by road north-east of Stromness, and 
within a mile of the stone circles of Stenness, stands the great 
barrow or chambered mound of Maeshowe. The tumulus has 
the form of a blunted cone, is 36 ft. high, 300 ft. in circum- 
ference and 92 ft. in diameter, and at a distance of 90 ft. from 
its base is encircled by a moat 40 ft. wide and from 4 ft. to 8 ft. 
deep. The ground-plan shows that it was entered from the west 
by a passage, 54 ft. long, from 2 ft. to 3 ft. wide and from 25 ft. 
to 4§ ft. high, which led to a central apartment about 15 ft. 
square, the walls of which ended in a beehive roof, the spring 
of which began at a height of 13 ft. from the floor. This room 
and the passage are built of undressed blocks and slabs of sand- 
stone. About the middle of each side of the chamber, at a 
height of 3 ft. from the floor, there is an entrance to a small 
cell, 3 ft. high, 45 ft. wide and from 5! ft. to 7 ft. long. Mr 
James Farrer explored the mound in 1861, and discovered on the 
Walls and certain stones rude drawings of crosses, a winged 
dragon, and a serpent curled round a pole, besides a variety of 
Runic inscriptions. One of these inscriptions stated that the 
tumulus had been rifled by Norse pilgrims (possibly crusaders) 
on their way to Jerusalem under Jarl Rognvald in the 12th 
century. There can be little doubt but that it was a 
sepulchral chamber. Joseph Anderson ascribes it to the Stone 
Age (that is, to the Picts), and James Fergusson to Norsemen of 
the 10th century. 

The most interesting of all those links with a remote past are 
the stone circles forming the Ring of Brogar and the Ring of 
Stenness, often inaccurately described as the Stones of Stenness. 
The Ring of Brogar is situated to the north-west and the Ring of 
Stenness to the south-east of the Bridge of Brogar, as the narrow 
causeway of stone slabs is called which separates Loch Harray 
from Loch Stenness. The district lies some 43 m. north-east 
of Stromness. The Ring of Brogar, once known as the Temple 
of the Sun, stands on a raised circular platform of turf, 340 ft. 
in diameter, surrounded by a moat about 6 ft. deep, which in 
turn is invested by a grassy rampart. The ring originally 
comprised 60 stones, set up at intervals of 17 ft. Only 13 are 
now erect. Ten, still entire, lie prostrate, while the stumps of 
13 others can yet be recognized. The height of the stones 
varies from 9 ft. to 14 ft. The Ring of Stenness — the Temple 
of the Moon of local tradition — is of similar construction to the 
larger circle, except that its round platform is only 104 ft. in 
diameter. The stones are believed to have numbered 12, 
varying in height from 15 ft. to 17 ft. but only two remain up- 
right. In the middle of the ring may be seen the relic of what 
was probably the sacrificial altar. The Stone of Odin, the 
great monolith, pierced by a hole at a height of 5 ft. from the 
ground, which figures so prominently in Scott's Pirate, stood 
1 50 yds. to the north of the Ring of Stenness. The stones of 
both rings are of the native Old Red Sandstone. 

POMPADOUR, JEANNE ANTOINETTE POISSON LE NOR- 
MANT D'ETIOLES, Marquise de (1721-1764), mistress of 
Louis XV., was born in Paris on the 29th of December 1721, and 
baptized as the legitimate daughter of Francois Poisson, an 
officer in the household of the duke of Orleans, and his wife, 
Madeleine de la Motte, in the church of St Eustache; but she 



was suspected, as well as her brother, afterwards marquis of 
Marigny, to be the child of a very wealthy financier and farmer- 
general of the revenues, Le Normant de Tournehem. He at 
any rate took upon himself the charge of her education; and, as 
from the beauty and wit she showed from childhood she seemed 
to be born for some uncommon destiny, he declared her " un 
morceau de roi," and specially educated her to be a king's 
mistress. This idea was confirmed in her childish mind by the 
prophecy of an old woman, whom in after days she pensioned 
for the correctness of her prediction. In 1741 she was married 
to a nephew of her protector and guardian, Le Normant d'Etioles, 
who was passionately in love with her, and she soon became a 
queen of fashion. Yet the world of the financiers at Paris was 
far apart from the court world, where she wished to reign; 
she could get no introduction at court, and could only try to 
catch the king's eye when he went out hunting. But Louis XV. 
was then under the influence of Mme de Mailly, who carefully 
prevented any further intimacy with " la petite Etioles," and 
it was not until after her death that the king met the fair queen 
of the financial world of Paris at a ball given by the city to the 
dauphin in 1744, and he was immediately subjugated. She at 
once gave up her husband, and in 1745 was established at 
Versailles as " maltresse en titre." Louis XV. bought her the 
estate of Pompadour, from which she took her title of marquise 
(raised in 1752 to that of duchess). She was hardly established 
firmly in power before she showed that ambition rather than 
love had guided her, and began to mix in politics. Knowing 
that the French people of that time were ruled by the literary 
kings of the time, she paid court to them, and tried to play the 
part of a Maecenas. Voltaire was her poet in chief, and the 
founder of the physiocrats, Quesnay, was her physician. In the 
arts she was even more successful; she was herself no mean etcher 
and engraver, and she encouraged and protected Vanloo, Boucher, 
Vien, Greuze, arid the engraver Jacques Guay. Yet this policy 
did not prevent her from being lampooned, and the famous 
poissardes against her contributed to the ruin of many wits 
suspected of being among the authors, and notably of the Comte 
de Maurepas. The command of the political situation passed 
entirely into her hands; she it was who brought Belle-Isle into 
office with his vigorous policy; she corresponded regularly with 
the generals of the armies in the field, as her letters to the Comte 
de Clermont prove; and she introduced the Abbe de Bernis into 
the ministry in order to effect a very great alteration of French 
politics in 1756. The continuous policy of France since the days 
of Richelieu had been to weaken the house of Austria by alliances 
in Germany; but Mme de Pompadour changed this hereditary 
policy because Frederick the Great wrote scandalous verses on 
her; and because Maria Theresa wrote her a friendly letter she 
entered into an alliance with Austria. This alliance brought oh 
the Seven Years' War, with all its disasters, the battle of Rosbach 
and the loss of Canada; but Mme de Pompadour persisted 
in her policy, and, when Bernis failed her, brought Choiseul 
into office and supported hini in all his great plans, the 
Pacte de Famille, the suppression of the Jesuits, and the 
peace of Versailles. But it was to internal politics that 
this remarkable woman paid most attention; no one obtained 
office except through her; in imitation of Mme de Maintenon, 
she prepared all business for the king's eye with the 
ministers, and contrived that they should meet in her room; 
and she daily examined the letters sent through the post 
office with Janelle, the director of the post, office. By this 
continuous labour she made herself indispensable to Louis. 
Yet, when after a year or two she had lost the heart 
of her lover, she had a difficult task before her; to maintain 
her influence she had not only to save the king as much trouble 
as possible, but to find him fresh pleasures. When he first 
began to weary of her she remembered her talent for acting 
and her private theatricals at Etioles, and established the 
" theatre des petits cabinets,'" in which she acted with the greatest 
lords about the court for the king's pleasure in tragedies and 
comedies, operas and ballets. By this means and the " concerts 
spirituels " she kept in favour for a time; but at last she found a 



5c 



POMPEII 



surer way, by encouraging the king in his debaucheries, and Louis 
wept over her kindness to his various mistresses. Only once, 
when the king was wounded by Damiens in 1757, did she receive 
a serious shock, and momentarily left the court; but on his 
recovery she returned more powerful than ever. She even 
ingratiated herself with the queen, after the example of 
Mme de Maintenon, and was made a lady-in-waiting; but the 
end was soon to come. " Ma vie est un combat," she said, 
and so it was, with business and pleasure she gradually grew 
weaker and weaker, and when told that death was at hand she 
dressed herself in full court costume, and met it bravely on the 
15th of April 1764, at the age of forty-two. 

See Capefigue, Madame la marquise de Pompadour (1858); 
E. and J. de Goncourt, Les Mattresses de Louis XV., vol. ii. (i860); 
and Campardon, Madame de Pompadour et la cour de Louis XV. 
au milieu du dix-huitieme siicle (1867). Far more valuable are 
Malassis's two volumes of correspondence, Correspondance de Madame 
de Pompadour avec son pere M. Poisson, et son frere M. de Vandieres, 
&c. (1878), and Bonhomme, Madame de Pompadour, general d'armbe 
(1880), containing her letters to the Comte de Clermont. For her 
artistic and theatrical tastes see particularly J. F. Leturcq, Notice 
sur Jacques Guay, graveur sur pierres fines du roi Louis XV.: 
Documents inidits emanant de Guay et notes sur les Ceuvres de gravure 
en taille douce et en pierres durs de la marquise de Pompadour (1873) ; 
and Adolphe Jullien, Histoire du ihedtre de Madame de Pompadour, 
dit Theatre des Pettis Cabinets (1874). See also P. de Nolhac, La 
Marquise de Pompadour (1903). 

POMPEII, 1 an ancient town of Campania, Italy, situated near 
the river Sarnus, nearly 2 m. from the shore of the Bay of 
Naples, almost at the foot of Mt Vesuvius. Of its history before 
79 b.c. comparatively little is recorded; but it appears that it 
had a population of a very mixed character, and passed succes- 
sively into the hands of several different peoples, each of which 
contributed an element to its composition. Its foundation was 
ascribed by Greek tradition to Heracles, in common with the 
neighbouring city of Herculaneum, but it is certain that it was 
not a Greek colony, in the proper sense of the term, as we know 
to have been the case with the more important cities of Cumae 
and Neapolis. Strabo (v. 4, 8), in whose time it was a populous 
and flourishing place, tells us that it was first occupied by the 
Oscans 2 (to whom we must attribute the Doric temple in the 
Foro Triangolare) , afterwards by the Tyrrhenians (i.e. Etruscans) 
and Pelasgians, and lastly, by the Samnites. The conquest of 
Campania by the last- mentioned people is an undoubted historical 
fact, and there can be no doubt that Pompeii shared the fate of 
the neighbouring cities on this occasion, and afterwards passed 
in common with them under the yoke of Rome. But its name 
is only once mentioned during the wars of the Romans with 
the Samnites and Campanians in this region of Italy, and then 
only incidentally (Liv. ix. 38), when a Roman fleet landed near 
Pompeii in 309 B.C. and made an unsuccessful marauding 
expedition up the river valley as far as Nuceria. 3 At a later 
period, however, it took a prominent part in the outbreak of the 
nations of central Italy, known as the Social War (91-89 B.C.), 
when it withstood a long siege by Sulla, and was one of the last 
cities of Campania that were reduced by the Roman arms. The 
inhabitants were admitted to the Roman franchise, but a military 
colony was settled in their territory in 80 B.C. by Sulla (Colonia 
Cornelia Veneria Pompeianorum), and the whole population 
was rapidly Romanized. The municipal administration here, 
as elsewhere, was in the hands of two duoviri iure dicundo and 
two aediles, the supreme body being the city council (decuriones) . 
Before the close of the republic it became a resort of the Roman 
nobles, many of whom acquired villas in the neighbourhood. 
Among them was Cicero, whose letters abound with allusions 
to his Pompeian villa. The same fashion continued under the 
empire, and there can be no doubt that, during the first century 
of the Christian era, Pompeii had become a flourishing place 

1 The etymology of the name is uncertain ; the ancients derived 
it from pompa or ici/iira (Gr. send), in allusion to the journey of 
Heracles with the oxen of Geryon, but modern authorities refer 
it to the Oscan pompa (five). 

2 For the Oscan incriptions found in Pompeii see below ad fin. 

* Pompeii was attacked as a member of the Nucerine League. 
See Conway, Italic Dialects, p. 51 ; J. Beloch, Campanien, 2nd ed., 
P- '239- 



with a considerable population. Two events only are recorded 
of its history during this period. In a.d. 59 a tumult took place 
in the amphitheatre between the citizens and visitors from the 
neighbouring colony of Nuceria. Many were killed and wounded 
on both sides. The Pompeians were punished for this violent 
outbreak by the prohibition of all theatrical exhibitions for 
ten years (Tacitus, Ann. xiv. 17). A characteristic, though 
rude, painting, found on the walls of one of the houses gives a 
representation of this event. 

Four years afterwards (a.d. 63) an earthquake, which affected 
all the neighbouring towns, vented its force especially upon 
Pompeii, a large part of which, including most of the public 
buildings, was either destroyed or so seriously damaged as to 
require to be rebuilt (Tac. Ann. xv. 22; Seneca, Q.N. vi. 1). 
From the existing remains it is clear that the inhabitants were 
still actively engaged in repairing and restoring the ruined edifices 
when the whole city was overwhelmed by the great eruption 
of a.d. 79. Vesuvius (q.v.), the volcanic forces of which had been 
slumbering for unknown ages, suddenly burst into violent 
eruption, which, while it carried devastation all around the 
beautiful gulf, buried the two cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii 
under dense beds of cinders and ashes. It is singular that, while 
we possess a detailed description of this famous eruption in two 
letters of the younger Pliny (Epist. vi. 16, 20), he does not even 
notice the destruction of Pompeii or Herculaneum, though his 
uncle perished in the immediate neighbourhood of the former 
city. But their fate is noticed by Dio Cassius, and its circum- 
stances may be gathered with certainty from the condition in 
which the city has been found. These were such as to conduce to 
its preservation and interest as a relic of antiquity. Pompeii was 
merely covered with a bed of lighter substances, cinders, small 
stones and ashes, which fell in a dry state, while at Herculaneum 
the same substances, being drenched with water, hardened into 
a sort of tufa, which in places is 65 ft. deep. The whole of this 
superincumbent mass, attaining to an average thickness of from 
18 to 20 ft., was the product of one eruption, though the materials 
may be divided generally into two distinct strata, the one 
consisting principally of cinders and small volcanic stones 
(called in Italian lapilli), and the other and uppermost layer of 
fine white ash, often consolidated by the action of water from 
above so as to take the moulds of objects contained in it (such 
as dead bodies, woodwork, &c), like clay or plaster of Paris. 
It was found impossible to rebuild the town, and its territory 
was joined to that of Nola. But the survivors returned to the 
spot, and by digging down and tunnelling were able to remove 
all the objects of value, even the marble facing slabs of the large 
buildings. 

In the middle ages, however, the very site was forgotten. 
Two inscriptions were found in making an underground aqueduct 
across the site in 1 594-1600, but it was not until 1748 that a more 
careful inspection of this channel revealed the fact that beneath 
the vineyards and mulberry grounds which covered the site 
there lay entombed ruins far more accessible, if not more inter- 
esting, than those of Herculaneum. It was not till 1763 that 
systematic excavations were begun; and; though they were 
carried on during the rest of the 18th century, it was only in 
the beginning of the 19th that they assumed a regular character; 
the work, which had received a vigorous stimulus during the 
period of the French government (1806-1814), was prosecuted, 
though in a less methodical manner, under the rule of the Bour- 
bon kings (1815-1861). Since 1861 it has been carried on under 
the Italian government in a more scientific manner, on a system 
devised by G. Fiorelli (d. 1896), according to which the town is 
for convenience divided into nine regions — though this rests 
on a misconception, for there is really no street between the 
Capua and the Nocera gates — and the results have been of the 
highest interest, though the rate of progress has been very 
slow. 

The town was situated on rising ground less than a mile from 
the foot of Vesuvius. This eminence is itself due to an outflow 
of lava from that mountain, during some previous eruption in 
prehistoric times, for we know from Strabo that Vesuvius had 



POMPEII 



5i 



been quiescent ever since the first records of the Greek settle- 
ments in this part of Italy. Pompeii in ancient times was a 
prosperous seaport town situated close to the seashore, from 
which it is now nearly 2 m. distant, and adjoining the mouth 
of the river Sarnus or Sarno, which now enters the sea 
nearly 2 m. from its site. The present course of this stream is 
due in part to modern alteration of its channel, as well as to the 
effects of the great eruption. The prosperity of Pompeii was 
due partly to its commerce, as the port of the neighbouring 
towns, partly to the fertility of its territory, which produced 
strong wine, olive oil (a comparatively small quantity), and 
vegetables; fish sauces were made here. Millstones and pumice 
were also exported, but for the former the more gritty lava of 
Rocca Monfina was later on preferred. 

The area occupied by the ancient city was of an irregular 
oval form, and about 2 m. in circumference. It was sur- 
rounded by a wall, which is still preserved for more than 
two-thirds of its extent, but no traces of this are found on the 
side towards the sea, and there is no doubt that on this side 
ft had been already demolished in ancient times, so as to give 
room for the free extension of houses and other buildings in 
that direction. 1 These walls are strengthened at intervals by 
numerous towers, occupying the full width of the wall, which 
occur in some parts at a distance of only about 100 yds., but in 
general much less frequently. They are, however, of a different 
style of construction from the walls, and appear to have been 
added at a later period, probably that of the Social War. Similar 
evidences of the addition of subsequent defences are to be traced 
also in the case of the gates, of which no less than eight are found 
in the existing circuit of the walls. Some of these present a 
very elaborate system oi defence, but it is evident from the 
decayed condition of others, as well as of parts of the walls and 
towers, that they had ceased to be maintained for the purposes 
of fortification long before the destruction of the city. The 
names by which the gates and streets are known are entirely of 
modern origin. 

The general plan of the town is very regular, the streets being 
generally straight, and crossing one another at right angles 
or nearly so. But exceptions are found on the west in the street 
leading from the Porta Ercolanese (gate of Herculaneum) to 
the forum, which, though it must have been one of the principal 
thoroughfares in the city, was crooked and irregular, as well as 
very narrow, in some parts not exceeding 12 to 14 ft. in width, 
including the raised footpaths on each side, which occupy a 
considerable part of the space, so that the carriage-way could 
only have admitted of the passage of one vehicle at a time. 
The explanation is that it follows the line of the demolished 
city wall. Another exception is to be found in the Strada 
Stabiana (Stabian Street) or Cardo, which, owing to the existence 
of a natural depression which affects also the line of the street 
just east of it, is not parallel to the other north and south streets. 
The other main streets are in some cases broader, but rarely 
exceed 20 ft. in width, and the broadest yet found is about 32, 
while the back streets running parallel to the main lines are only 
about 14 ft. (It is to be remembered, however, that the standard 
width of a Roman highroad in the neighbourhood of Rome itself 
is about 14 ft.) They are uniformly paved with large poly- 
gonal blocks of hard basaltic lava, fitted very closely together, 
though now in many cases marked with deep ruts from the passage 
of vehicles in ancient times. They are also in all cases bordered 
by raised footways on both sides, paved in a similar manner; 
and for the convenience of foot-passengers, which was evidently 
a more important consideration than the obstacle which the 
arrangement presented to the passage of vehicles, which indeed 
were probably only allowed for goods traffic, these are connected 
from place to place by stepping-stones raised above the level of 
the carriage-way. In other respects they must have resembled 
those of Oriental cities — the living apartments all opening 
towards the interior, and showing only blank walls towards 

1 It consisted of two parallel stone walls with buttresses, about 
15 ft. apart and 28 in. thick, the intervening space being filled 
with earth, and there being an embankment on the inner side. 



the street; while the windows were generally to be found only 
in the upper storey, and were in all cases small and insignificant, 
without any attempt at architectural effect. In some instances 
indeed the monotony of their external appearance was broken 
by small shops, occupying the front of the principal houses, 
and let off separately; these were in some cases numerous enough 
to form a continuous facade to the street. This is seen especially 
in the case of the street from the Porta Ercolanese to the forum 
and the Strada Stabiana (or Cardo), both of which were among 
the most frequented thoroughfares. The streets were also 
diversified by fountains, small water-towers and reservoirs 
(of which an especially interesting example was found in 1902 
close to the Porta del Vesuvio) and street shrines. The source 
of the water-supply is unknown. 

The first-mentioned of the two principal streets was crossed, a 
little before it reached the forum, by the street which led directly 
to the gate of Nola (Strada delle Terme, della Fortuna, and di 
Nola). Parallel to this last to the south is a street which runs 
from the Porta Marina through the forum, and then, with a 
slight turn, to the Sarno gate, thus traversing the whole area of 
the city from east to west (Via Marina, Strada dell' Abbondanza, 
Strada dei Diadumeni). These two east and west streets are 
the two decumani. 

The population of Pompeii at the time of its destruction 
cannot be fixed with certainty, but it may very likely have ex- 
ceeded 20,000. It was of a mixed character; both Oscan 
and Greek inscriptions are still found up to the last, and, though 
there is no trace whatever of Christianity, evidences of the 
presence of Jews are not lacking — such are a wall-painting, 
probably representing the Judgment of Solomon, and a scratched 
inscription on a wall, " Sodoma, Gomora." It has been estimated, 
from the number of skeletons discovered, that about 2000 
persons perished in the city itself in the eruption of a.d. 79. 

Almost the Whole portion of the city which lies to the west of 
the Strada Stabiana, towards the forum and the sea, has been 
more or less completely excavated. It is over one-half of the 
whole extent, and that the most important portion, inasmuch as 
it includes the forum, with the temples and public buildings 
adjacent to it, the thermae, theatres, amphitheatre, &c. The 
greater part of that on the other side of the Strada Stabiana 
remains still unexplored, with the exception of the amphi- 
theatre, and a small space in its immediate neighbourhood. 

The forum at Pompeii was, as at Rome itself and in all 
other Italian cities, the focus and centre of all the life and 
movement of the city. Hence it was surrounded on all sides 
by public buildings or edifices of a commanding character. 
It was not, however, of large size, as compared to the open 
spaces in modern towns, being only 467 ft. in length by 126 in 
breadth (excluding the colonnades). Nor was it accessible to 
any description of wheeled carriages, and the nature of its 
pavement, composed of broad flags of travertine, shows that it 
was only intended for foot-passengers. It was adorned with 
numerous statues, some of the imperial family, others of dis- 
tinguished citizens. Some of the inscribed pedestals of the latter 
have been found. It was surrounded on three sides by a series 
of porticos supported on columns; and these porticos were 
originally surmounted by a gallery or upper storey, traces of the 
staircases leading to which still remain, though the gallery 
itself has altogether disappeared. It is, however, certain 
from the existing remains that both this portico and the adjacent 
buildings had suffered severely from the earthquake of 63, and 
that they were undergoing a process of restoration, involving 
material changes in the original arrangements, which was 
still incomplete at the time of their final destruction. The 
north end of the forum, where alone the portico is wanting, is 
occupied in great part by the imposing temple of Jupiter, Juno 
and Minerva being also worshipped here. It was raised on a 
podium 10 ft. high, and had a portico with six Corinthian 
columns in front. This magnificent edifice had, however, been 
evidently overthrown by the earthquake of 63, and is in its 
present condition a mere ruin, the rebuilding of which had not 
been begun at the time of the eruption, so that the cult of 



52 



POMPEII 



the three Capitoline divinities was then carried on in the so- 
called temple of Zeus Milichius. On each side of it were two 
arches, affording an entrance into the forum, but capable of 
being closed by gates. On the east side of the forum were four 
edifices; all of them are of a public character, but their names and 
attribution have been the subject of much controversy. The 
first (proceeding from the north), once known as the Pantheon, 
is generally regarded as a macellum or meat-market, consisting 
of a rectangular court surrounded by a colonnade, with a twelve- 
sided roofed building (tholus) in the centre. On the south side 



and Q. Catulus (78 B.C.), and therefore belongs to the Oscai 
period of the city, before the introduction of the Roman colony. 
It was an oblong edifice divided by columns into a central hall 
and a corridor running round all the four sides with a tribunal 
opposite the main entrance; and, unlike the usual basilicae, it 
had, instead of a clerestory, openings in the walls of the corridor 
through which light was admitted, it being almost as lofty as 
the nave. The temple was an extensive edifice, having a com- 
paratively small cella; raised upon a podium, and standing in 
the midst of a wide space surrounded by a portico of columns, 




Porta di Capua 



POMPEII 



Yards 
50 100 150 



1. Temple of Jupiter 8. Basilica 

2. Macellum 9. Temple of Apollo 

3. Sanctuary of Lares 10. Temple of Hercules 7 

4. Temple of Vespasian 11. Temple of I sis 

5. Building of Eumachia 12. Temple of Zeus Miliclti-js 
S.Comitium? 13. Temple of Fortuna Augusta 

'.Curia ate. 14. Temple of Venus Pompeiana 



iRedrawn by permission from Baedeker's Southern Italy.) 

were shops, and in the centre of the east side a chapel for the 
worship of the imperial house. Next to this comes the sanctuary 
of the Lares of the city, a square room with a large apse; and 
beyond this, as Mau proves, the small temple of Vespasian. 
Beyond this again, bounded on the south by the street known 
as the Strada dell' Abbondanza, is a large and spacious edifice, 
which, as we learn from an extant inscription, was erected by a 
priestess named Eumachia. Its purpose is uncertain — possibly 
a cloth-exchange, as the fullers set up a statue to Eumachia here. 
It is an open court, oblong, surrounded on all four sides by a 
colonnade; in front is a portico facing the forum, and on the 
other three sides theie is a corridor behind the colonnade with 
windows opening on it. On the south side of the Strada dell' 
Abbondanza was a building which Mau conjectures to have been 
the Comitium. At the south end of the forum are three halls 
side by side, similar in plan with a common facade— the central 
one, the curia or council chamber, the others the offices respec- 
tively of the duumvirs and aediles, the principal officials of the 
city; while the greater part of the west side is occupied by two 
large buildings — a basilica, which is the largest edifice in 
Pompeii, and the temple of Apollo, which presents its side to 
the forum, and hence fills up a large portion of the surrounding 
space. The former, as we learn from an inscription scratched 
on its walls, was anterior in date to the consulship of M. Lepidus 



finurv Walker sc. 



outside which again is a wall, bounding the sacred enclosure. 
Between this temple and the basilica the Via Marina leads ofl 
direct to the Porta Marina. 

Besides the temples which surrounded the forum, the remains 
of five others have been discovered, three of which are situated 
in the immediate neighbourhood of the theatres. Of these by 
far the most interesting, though the least perfect, is one which 
is commonly known as the temple of Hercules (an appellation 
wholly without foundation), and which is not only by far the 
most ancient edifice in Pompeii, but presents us with all the 
characters of a true Greek temple, resembling in its proportions 
that of the earliest temple of Selinus, and probably of as remote 
antiquity (6th century B.C.) . Unfortunately only the foundation 
and a few Doric capitals and other architectural fragments 
remain; they were coated with stucco which was brightly painted. 
In front of the temple is a monument which seems to have been 
the tomb of the founder or founders of the city; so that for a time 
this must have been the most important temple. The period 
of its destruction is unknown, for it appears certain that it cannot 
be ascribed wholly to the earthquake of 63. On the other hand 
the reverence attached to it in the later periods of the city is 
evidenced by its being left standing in the midst of a triangular 
space adjoining the great theatre, which is surrounded by a 
portico, so as to constitute a kind of forum (the so-called Fore 



POMPEII 



53 



Triangolare). Not far off, and to the north of the great theatre, 
stood a small temple, which, as we learn from the inscription 
still remaining, was dedicated to Isis, and was rebuilt by a certain 
Popidius Celsinus at the age of six (really of course by his parents), 
after the original edifice had been reduced to ruin by the great 
earthquake of 63. Though of small size, and by no means re- 
markable in point of architecture, it is interesting as the only 
temple that has come down to us in a good state of preservation 
of those dedicated to the Egyptian goddess, whose worship became 
so popular under the Roman Empire. The decorations were of 
somewhat gaudy stucco. The plan is curious, and deviates 
much from the ordinary type; the internal arrangements are 
adapted for the performance of the peculiar rites of this deity. 
Close to this temple was another, of very small size, commonly 
known as the temple of Aesculapius, but probably dedicated to 
Zeus Milichius. More considerable and important was a temple 
which stood at no great distance from the forum at the point 
where the so-called Strada di Mereurio was crossed by the wide 
line of thoroughfare (Strada della Fortuna) leading to the gate 
of Nola. We learn from an inscription that this was dedicated 
to the Fortune of Augustus (Fortuna Augusta), and was erected, 
wholly at his own cost, by a citizen of the name of M. Tullius. 
This temple appears to have suffered very severely from ' the 
earthquake, and at present affords little evidence of its original 
architectural ornament; but we learn from existing remains 
that its walls were covered with slabs of marble, and that the 
columns of the portico were of the same material. The fifth 
temple, that of Venus Pompeiana, lay to the west of the basilica; 
traces of two earlier periods underlie the extant temple, which 
was in progress of rebuilding at the time of the eruption. Before 
the earthquake of 63 it must have been the largest and most 
splendid temple of the whole city. It was surrounded by a 
large colonnade, and the number of marble columns in the whole 
block has been reckoned at 296. 

All the temples above described, except that ascribed to Her- 
cules, which was approached by steps on all four sides, agree in 
being raised on an elevated podium or basement — an arrange- 
ment usual with all similar buildings of Roman date. Neither 
in materials nor in style does their architecture exceed what 
might reasonably be expected in a second-rate provincial town; 
and the same may be said in general of the other public buildings. 
Among these the most conspicuous are the theatres/of which there 
were two, placed, as was usual in Greek towns, in close juxta- 
position with one another. The largest of these which was partly 
excavated in the side of the hill, was a building of considerable 
magnificence, being in great part cased with marble, and fur- 
nished with seats of the same material, which have, however, 
been almost wholly removed. Its internal construction and 
arrangements resemble those of the Roman theatres in general, 
though with some peculiarities that show Greek influence, and 
we learn from an inscription that it was erected in Roman times 
by two members of the same family, M. Holconius Rufus and 
M. Holconius Celer, both of whom held important municipal 
offices at Pompeii during the reign of Augustus. It appears, 
however, from a careful examination of the remains that their 
work was only a reconstruction of a more ancient edifice, the date 
of the original form of which cannot be fixed; while its first 
alteration belongs to the " tufa " period, and three other periods 
in its history can be traced. Recent investigations in regard to 
the vexed question of the position of the actors in the Greek 
theatre have as yet not led to any certain solution. 1 The smaller 
theatre, which was erected, as we learn from an inscription, by 
two magistrates specially appointed for the purpose by the 
decuriones of the city, was of older date than the large one, and 
must have been constructed a little before the amphitheatre, soon 
after the establishment of the Roman colony under Sulla. We 
learn also that it was permanently covered, and it was probably 
used for musical entertainments, but in the case of the larger 
theatre also the arrangements for the occasional extension of an 
awning (velarium) over the whole are distinctly found. The 

1 See A. Mau, Pompeii in Leben und Kunst (Leipzig, 1908), pp. 150 
sqq. 



smaller theatre is computed to have been capable of containing 
fifteen hundred spectators, while the larger could accommodate 
five thousand. 

Adjoining the theatres is a large rectangular enclosure, sur- 
rounded by a portico, at first the colonnade connected with the 
theatres, and converted, about the time of Nero, into the barracks 
of the gladiators, who were permanently maintained in the city 
with a view to the shows in the amphitheatre. This explains 
why it is so far from that building, which is situated at the 
south-eastern angle of the town, about 500 yds. from the 
theatres. Remains of gladiators' armour and weapons were 
found in some of the rooms, and in one, traces of the stocks used 
to confine insubordinate gladiators. The amphitheatre was 
erected by the same two magistrates who built the smaller 
theatre, C. Quinctius Valgus a nd M. Porcius (the former the father- 
in-law of that P. Servilius Rullus, in opposition to whose bill 
relating to the distribution of the public lands Cicero made his 
speech, De lege agraria), at a period when no permanent edifice 
of a similar kind had yet been erected in Rome itself, and is 
indeed the oldest structure of the kind known to us. But apart 
from its early date it has no special interest, and is wholly wanting 
in the external architectural decorations that give such grandeur 
of character to similar edifices in other instances. Being in 
great part excavated in the surface of the hill, instead of the 
seats being raised on arches, it is wanting also in the picturesque 
arched corridors which contribute so much to the effect of those 
Other ruins. Nor are its dimensions (460 by 345 ft.) such as to 
place it in the first rank of structures of this class, nor are there 
any underground chambers below the arena, with devices for 
raising wild beasts, &c. But, as we learn from the case of their 
squabble with the people of Nuceria, the games celebrated in 
the amphitheatre on grand occasions would be visited by large 
numbers from the neighbouring towns. The seating capacity 
was about 20,000 2 (for illustration see Amphitheatre). 

Adjoining the amphitheatre was found a large open space, 
nearly square in form, which has been supposed to be a forum 
boarium or cattle-market, but, no buildings of interest being 
discovered around it, the excavation was filled up again, and 
this part of the city has not been since examined. Between 
the entrance to the triangular forum (so-called) and the temple 
of Isis is the Palaestra, an. area surrounded by a colonnade; 
it is a structure of the pre-Roman period, intended for boys, not 
men. 

Among the more important public buildings of Pompeii 
were the public' baths {thermae). Three different establishments 
of this character have been discovered, of which the first, exca- 
vated in 1824, the baths near the forum, built about 80 B.C., was 
for a long time the only one known. Though the smallest of 
the three, it is in some respects the most complete and interesting; 
and it was until of late years the principal source from which we 
derived our knowledge of this important branch of the economy 
of Roman life. At Pompeii the baths are so well preserved as 
to show at a glance the purpose of all the different parts — while 
they are among the most richly decorated of all the buildings 
in the city. We trace without difficulty all the separate apart- 
ments that are described to us by Roman authors — the apody- 
terium, frigidarium, tepidarium, caldarium, &c. together with the 
apparatus for supplying both water and heat, the places for de- 
positing the bather's clothes, and other minor details (see Baths). 
The greater thermae (the so-called " Stabian " baths), which 
were originally built in the 2nd century B.C., and repaired about 
80 B.C., are on a much more extensive scale than the others, 
and combine with the special purposes of the building a palaestra 
in the centre and other apartments for exercise or recreation. 
The arrangements of the baths themselves are, however, almost 
similar to those of the lesser thermae. In this case an inscription 
records the repair and restoration of the edifice after the 
2 The interest taken by the Pompeians in the sports of the 
amphitheatre is shown by the contents of the numerous painted 
and scratched inscriptions relating tc them which have been found 
in Pompeii — notices of combats, laudatory inscriptions, including 
even references t6 the admiration which gladiators won from the 
fair sex, &c. 1 



54 



POMPEII 



earthquake of 63. It appears, however, that these two establish- 
ments were found inadequate to supply the wants of the in- 
habitants, and a third edifice of the same character, the so- 
called central baths, at the corner of the Strada Stabiana and the 
Strada di Nola, but on a still more extensive scale, intended 
for men only, while the other two had separate accommodation 
for both sexes, was in course of construction when the town was 
overwhelmed. 

Great as is the interest attached to the various public buildings 
of Pompeii, and valuable as is the light that they have in some 
instances thrown upon similar edifices in other ruined cities, 
far more curious and interesting is the insight afforded us by 
the numerous private houses and shops into the ordinary life 
and habits of the population of an ancient town. The houses 
at Pompeii are generally low, rarely exceeding two storeys in 
height, and it appears certain that the upper storey was generally 
of a slight construction, and occupied by small rooms, serving 
as garrets, or sleeping places for slaves, and perhaps for the 
females of the family. From the mode of destruction of the city 
these upper floors were in most cases crushed in and destroyed, 
and hence it was long believed that the houses for the most 
part had but one storey; but recent researches have in many 
cases brought to light incontestable evidence of the existence of 
an upper floor, and the frequent occurrence of a small staircase 
is in itself sufficient proof of the fact. The windows, as already 
mentioned, were generally small and insignificant, and contri- 
buted nothing to the external decoration or effect of the houses, 
which took both light and air from the inside, not from the 
outside. In some cases they were undoubtedly closed with 
glass, but its use appears to have been by no means generaL 
The principal living rooms, as well as those intended for the 
reception of guests or clients, were all on the ground floor, the 
centre being formed by the atrium, or hall, which was almost 
always open above to the air, and in the larger houses was gener- 
ally surrounded with columns. Into this opened other rooms, 
the entrances to which seem to have been rarely protected by 
doors, and could only have been closed by curtains. At the 
back was a garden. Later, under Greek influences, a peristyle 
with rooms round it was added in place of the garden. We notice 
that, as in modern Italy until quite recent years, elaborate 
precautions were taken against heat, but none against cold, 
which was patiently endured. Hypocausts are only found in 
connexion with bathrooms. 

All the apartments and arrangements described by Vitruvius 
and other ancient writers may be readily traced in the houses 
of Pompeii, and in many instances these have for the first time 
enabled us to understand the technical terms and details trans- 
mitted to us by Latin authors. We must not, however, hastily 
assume that the examples thus preserved to us by a singular 
accident are to be taken as representing the style of building 
in all the Roman and Italian towns. We know from Cicero 
that Capua was remarkable for its broad streets and widespread 
buildings, and it is probable that the Campanian towns in 
general partook of the same character. At Pompeii indeed 
the streets were not wide, but they were straight and regular, 
and the houses of the better class occupied considerable spaces, 
presenting in this respect no doubt a striking contrast, not only 
with those of Rome itself, but with those of many other Italian 
towns, where the buildings would necessarily be huddled to- 
gether from the circumstances of their position. Even at 
Pompeii itself, on the west side of the city, where the ground 
slopes somewhat steeply towards the sea, houses are found which 
consisted of three storeys or more. 

The excavations have provided examples of houses of every 
description, from the humble dwelling-place of the artisan or 
proletarian, with only three or four small rooms, to the stately 
mansions of Sallust, of the Faun, of the Golden Cupids, of the 
Silver Wedding, of the Vettii, of Pansa, 1 &c. — the hist of which 
is among the most regular in plan, and may be taken as an almost 

1 It may be observed that the names given in most cases to the 
houses are either arbitrary or founded in the first instance upon 
erroneous inferences. 



perfect model of a complete Roman house of a superior class. 
But the general similarity in their plan and arrangement is very 
striking, and in all those that rise above a very humble class the 
leading divisions of the interior, the atrium, tablinum, peristyle, 
&c. may be traced with unfailing regularity. Another peculi- 
arity that is found in all the more considerable houses in Pompeii, 
is that of the front, where it faces one of the principal streets, 
being occupied with shops, usually of small size, and without 
any communication with the interior of the mansion. In a few 
instances indeed such a communication is found, but in these 
cases it is probable that the shop was used for the sale of articles 
grown upon the estate of the proprietor, such as wine, fruit, oil, 
&c, a practice that is still common in Italy. In general the 
shop had a very small apartment behind it, and probably in 
most cases a sleeping chamber above it, though of this the only 
remaining evidence is usually a portion of the staircase that led 
to this upper room. The front of the shop was open to the 
street, but was capable of being closed with wooden shutters, 
the remains of which have in a few instances been preserved. 
Not only have the shops of silversmiths been recognized by the 
precious objects of that metal found in them, but large quantities 
of fruits of various kinds preserved in glass vessels, various de- 
scriptions of corn and pulse, loaves of bread, moulds for pastry, 
fishing-nets and many other objects too numerous to mention, 
have been found in such a condition as to be identified without 
difficulty. Inns and wine-shops appear to have been numerous; 
one of the latter we can see to have been a thermopolium, where 
hot drinks were sold. Bakers' shops are also frequent, though 
arrangements for grinding and baking appear to have formed 
part of every large family establishment. In other cases, how- 
ever, these were on a larger scale, provided with numerous 
querns or hand-mills of the well-known form, evidently intended 
for public supply. Another establishment on a large scale was 
a fullonica (fuller's shop), where all the details of the business 
were illustrated by paintings still visible on the walls. Dyers' 
shops, a tannery and a shop where colours were ground and 
manufactured — an important business where almost all the 
rooms of every house were painted — are of special interest, as 
is also the house of a surgeon, where numerous surgical instru- 
ments were found, some of them of a very ingenious and elaborate 
description, but all made of b7onze. Another curious discovery 
was that of the abode of a sculptor, containing his tools, as well 
as blocks of marble and half-finished statues, The number 
of utensils of various kinds found in the houses and shops is 
almost endless, and, as these are in most cases of bronze, they are 
generally in perfect preservation. 

Of the numerous works of art discovered in the course of the 
excavations the statues and large works of sculpture, whether 
in marble or bronze, are inferior to those found at Herculaneum, 
but some of the bronze statuettes are of exquisite workmanship, 
while the profusion of ornamental works and objects in bronze 
and the elegance of their design, as well as the finished beauty 
of their execution, are such as to excite the utmost admiration — 
more especially when it is considered that these are the casual 
results of the examination of a second-rate provincial town, 
which had, further, been ransacked for valuables (as Hercu- 
laneum had not) after the eruption of 79. The same impression 
is produced in a still higher degree by the paintings with which 
the walls of the private houses, as well as those of the temples 
and other public buildings, are adorned, and which are noWnerely 
of a decorative character, but in many instances present us with 
elaborate compositions of figures, historical and mythological 
scenes, as well as representations of the ordinary life and manners 
of the people, which are full of interest to us, though often of 
inferior artistic execution. It has until lately been the practice 
to remove these to the museum at Naples; but the present 
tendency is to leave them (and even the movable objects 
found in the houses) in situ with all due precautions as to 
their preservation (as in the house of the Vettii, of the 
Silver Wedding, of the Golden Cupids, &c), which adds im- 
mensely to the interest of the houses; indeed, with the help 
of judicious restoration, their original condition is in large 



POMPEII 



55 



measure reproduced. 1 In some cases it has even been possible 
to recover the original arrangement of the garden beds, and to 
replant them accordingly, thus giving an appropriate frame- 
work to the statues, &c. with which the gardens were 
decorated, and which have been found in situ. The same 
character of elaborate decoration, guided almost uniformly 
by good taste and artistic feeling, is displayed in the mosaic 
pavements, which in all but the humbler class of houses 
frequently form the ornament of their floors. One of these, in 
the House of the Faun, well known as the battle of Alexander, 
presents us with the most striking specimen of artistic com- 
position that has been preserved to us from antiquity. 

The architecture of Pompeii must be regarded as presenting 
in general a transitional character from the pure Greek style to 
that of the Roman Empire. The temples (as already observed) 
have always the Roman peculiarity of being raised on a podium 
of considerable elevation; and the same characteristic is found 
in most of the other public buildings. All the three orders of 
Greek architecture — the Doric, Ionic and Corinthian— are found 
freely employed in the various edifices of the city, but rarely 
in strict accordance with the rules of art in their proportions 
and details; while the private houses naturally exhibit still 
more deviation and irregularity. In many of these indeed we 
find varieties in the ornamentation, and even in such leading 
features as the capitals of the columns, which remind one rather 
of the vagaries of medieval architecture than of the strict rules 
of Vitruvius or the regularity of Greek edifices. One practice 
which is especially prevalent, so as to strike every casual visitor, 
and dates from the early years of the empire, is that of filling 
up the flutings of the columns for about one-third of their height 
with a thick coat of stucco, so as to give them the appearance 
of being smooth columns without flutings below, and only fluted 
above. The unpleasing effect of this anomalous arrangement is 
greatly aggravated by the lower part of each column being almost 
always coloured with red or yellow ochre, so as to render the con- 
trast between the two portions still stronger. The architecture of 
Pompeii suffers also from the inferior quality of the materials 
generally employed. No good building stone was at hand; 
and the public as well as private edifices were constructed either 
of volcanic tufa, or lava, or Sarno limestone, or brick (the latter 
only used for the corners of walls). In the private houses even 
the columns are mostly of brick, covered merely with a coat of 
stucco. In a few instances only do we find them making use 
of a whitish limestone wrongly called travertine, which, though 
inferior to the similar material so largely employed at Rome, 
was better adapted than the ordinary tufa for purposes where 
great solidity was required. The portion of the portico sur- 
rounding the forum which was in the process of rebuilding at 
the time when the city was destroyed was constructed of this 
material, while the earlier portions, as well as the principal 
temples that adjoined it, were composed in the ordinary manner 
of volcanic tufa. Marble appears to have been scarce, and 
was sparingly employed. In some instances where it had been 
freely introduced, as in the great theatre, it would seem that the 
slabs must have been removed at a period subsequent to the 
entombment of the city. 

These materials are used in several different styles of con- 
struction belonging to the six different periods which Mau . 
traces in the architectural history of Pompeii. 

i. That of the Doric temple in the Foro Triangolare (6th century 
B.C.) and an old column built into a house in Region vi., Insula 5; 
also of the older parts of the city walls — date uncertain (Sarno 
limestone and grey tufa). 

2. That of the limestone atriums (outer walls of the houses of 
ashlar-work of Sarno limestone, inner walls with framework of 
limestone blocks, filled in with small pieces of limestone). Date, 
before 200 b.c. 

3. Grey tufa period ; ashlar masonry of tufa, coated with fine white 
stucco; rubble work of lava. The artistic character is still Greek, 
and the period coincides with the first (incrustation) style of mural 
decoration, which (probably origin ating in Alexandria) aimed at 

1 The paintings of the house of the Vettn are perhaps the 
best-preserved in Pompeii, and extremely fine in conception and 
execution, especially the scenes in which Cupids take part. 



the imitation in stucco of the appearance of a wall veneered with 
coloured marbles. No wall paintings exist, but there are often 
fine floor mosaics. To this belong a number of private houses 
(e.g. the House of the Faun), and the colonnade round the forum, 
the basilica, the temples of Apollo and Jupiter, the large theatre 
with the colonnades of the Foro Triangolare, and the barracks of 
the gladiators, the Stabian baths, the Palaestra, the exterior of 
the Porta Marina, and the interior of the other gates — all the 
public buildings indeed (except the Doric temple mentioned under 
(1), which do not belong to the time of the Roman colony). Date, 
2nd century B.C. 

4. The " quasi-reticulate " period — walling faced with masonry 
not yet quite so regular as opus reticulatum, and with brick quoins, 
coinciding with the second period of decoration (the architectural, 
partly imitating marble like the first style, but without relief, 
and by colour only, and partly making use of architectural designs). 
It is represented by the small theatre and the amphitheatre, the 
baths near the forum, the temple of Zeus Milichius, the Comitium 
and the original temple of Isis, but only a few private houses. The 
ornamentation is much less rich and beautiful than that of the 
preceding period. Date, from 80 B.C. until nearly the end of the 
Republic. 

5. The period from the last decades of the Republic to the 
earthquake of a.d. 63. No homogeneous series of buildings — we 
find various styles of construction (quasi-reticulate, opus reticulatum 
of tufa with stone quoins, of the time of Augustus, opus reticulatum 
with brick quoins or with mingled stone and brick quoins, a little 
later) ; and three styles of wall decoration fall within its limits. 
The second, already mentioned, the third or ornate, with its freer 
use of ornament and its introduction of designs which suggest 
an. Egyptian origin (originating in the time of Augustus), and the 
fourth or intricate, dating from about a.d. 50. Marble first appears 
as a building material in the temple of Fortuna Augusta (c. 3 B.C.). 

6. The period from the earthquake of a.d. 63 to the final de- 
struction of the city, the buildings of which can easily be recognized. 
The only wholly new edifice of any importance is the central baths. 

Outside the Porta Ercolanese, or gate leading to Herculaneum, 
is found a house of a different character from all the others, which 
from its extent and arrangements was undoubtedly a suburban 
villa, belonging to a person of considerable fortune. It is called — 
as usual without any authority — the villa of Arrius Diomedes; 
but its remains are of peculiar interest to us, not only for comparison 
with the numerous ruins of similar buildings which occur else- 
where—often of greater extent, but in a much less perfect state 
of preservation — but as assisting us in understanding the description 
of ancient authors, such as Vitruvius and Pliny, of the numerous 
appurtenances frequently annexed to houses of this description. 

In the cellar of this villa were discovered no less than twenty 
skeletons of the unfortunate inhabitants, who had evidently fled 
thither for protection, and fourteen in other parts of the house. 
Almost all the skeletons and remains of bodies found in the city 
were discovered in similar situations, in cellars or underground 
apartments — those who had sought refuge in flight having appar- 
ently for the most part escaped from destruction, or having perished 
under circumstances where their bodies were easily recovered by 
the survivors. According to Cassius Dio, a large number of the 
inhabitants were assembled in the theatre at the time of the catas- 
trophe, but no bodies have been found there, and they were probably 
sought for and removed shortly afterwards. Of late years it has 
been found possible in many cases to take casts of the bodies found — 
a complete mould having been formed around them by the fine 
white ashes, partially consolidated by water. 

An interesting farm-house (few examples have been so far dis- 
covered in Italy) is that at Boscoreale excavated in 1 893-1 894, 
which contained the treasure of one hundred and three silver vases 
now at the Louvre. The villa of P. Fannius Synhistor, not far off, 
was excavated in 1900; it contained fine wall paintings, which, 
despite their importance, were allowed to be exported, and sold by 
auction in Paris (some now in the Louvre). (See F. Barnabei, 
La Villa pompeiana di P. Fannio Sinistore; Rome, 1901.) 

The road leading from the Porta Ercolanese towards Herculaneum 
is bordered on both sides for a considerable extent by rows of tombs, 
as was the case with all the great roads leading into Rome, and in- 
deed in all large Roman towns. These tombs are in many instances 
monuments of considerable pretension, and of a highly ornamental 
character, and naturally present in the highest degree the peculiar 
advantage common to all that remains of Pompeii, in their perfect 
preservation. Hardly any scene even in this extraordinary city 
is more striking than the coup d'ceil of this long street of tombs, 
preserving uninjured the records of successive generations eighteen 
centuries ago. Unfortunately the names are all otherwise unknown; 
but we learn from the inscriptions that they are for the most part 
those of local magistrates and municipal dignitaries of Pompeii. 
Most of them belong to the early empire. 

There appears to have been in the same quarter a considerable 
suburb, outside the gate, extending on each side of the road towards 
Herculaneum, apparently much resembling those which are now 
found throughout almost the whole distance from thence to 
Naples. It was known by the name of Pagus Augustus Felix 



56 



POMPEY 



Suburbanus. Other suburbs were situated at the harbour and at 
the saltworks (saiinae). 

No manuscripts have been discovered in Pompeii. Inscriptions 
have naturally been found in considerable numbers, and we are 
indebted to them for much information concerning the municipal 
arrangements of the town, as well as the construction of various 
edifices and other public works. The most interesting of these 
are such as are written in the Oscan dialect, which appears to have 
continued in official use down to the time when the Roman colony 
was introduced by Sulla. From that time the Latin language 
was certainly the only one officially employed, though Oscan may 
have still been spoken by a portion at least of the population. 
Still more curious, and almost peculiar to Pompeii, are the numerous 
writings painted upon the walls, which have generally a semi- 
pubiic character, such as recommendations of candidates for muni- 
cipal offices, advertisements, &c, and the scratched inscriptions 
(graffiti), which are generally the mere expression of individual 
impulse and feeling, frequently amatory, and not uncommonly 
conveyed in rude and imperfect verses. In one house also a whole 
box was found filled with written tablets — diptychs and triptychs 
— containing the record of the accounts of a banker named L. 
Caecilius Jucundus. 

See A. Mau, Pompeii: its Life and Art (trans, by F. W. Kelsey, 
2nd ed., New York and London, 1902; 2nd revised edition of the 
German original, Pompeii in Leben und-Kunst, Leipzig, 1908), the 
best general account written by the greatest authority on the subject, 
to which our description owes much, with full references to other 
sources of information; and, for later excavations, Notizie degli 
Scavi and Romische Mitteilungen (in the latter, articles by Mau), 
passim. For the inscriptions on the tablets and on the walls, 
Corpus inscriptionum latinarum, vol. iv. (ed. Zangemeister and 
Mau). Recent works on the Pompeian frescoes are those of Berger, 
in Die Maltechnik des Alterthums, and A. P. Laurie, Greek and 
Roman Methods of Painting (1910). (E. H. ; B. ; T. As.) 

Oscan Inscriptions. — The surviving inscriptions which can 
be dated, mainly by the gradual changes in their alphabet, are 
of the 3rd and 2nd centuries B.C., some certainly belonging to 
the Gracchan period. The oldest of the Latin inscriptions are 
C.I.L. x. 794, the record of the building of colonnades in the 
forum by the " quaestor " V. Popidius, and two or three 
election placards (C.I.L. iv. 29, 30, 36) of one R. Caecilius, a 
candidate for the same office. It cannot be an accident that 
the alphabet of these inscriptions belongs distinctly to Sullan 
or pre-Sullan times, while no such officer as a quaestor appears in 
any later documents {e.g. in C.I.L. x. 844, it is the duoviri who 
build the small theatre), but does appear in the Oscan inscrip- 
tions. Hence it has been inferred that these oldest Latin inscrip-- 
tions are also older than Sulla's colony; if so, Latin must have 
been in use, and in fairly common use (if the programmata were 
to be of any service), in Pompeii at that date. On the other 
hand, the good condition of many of the painted Oscan inscrip- 
tions at the times when they were first uncovered (1797 onwards) 
and their subsequent decay and the number of Oscan graffiti 
appear to make it probable that at the Christian era Oscan was 
still spoken in the town. The two languages undoubtedly 
existed side by side during the last century B.C., Latin being 
alone recognized officially and in society, while Oscan was 
preserved mainly by intercourse with the country folk who 
frequented the market. Thus beside many Latin programmata 
later than those just mentioned we have similar inscriptions 
in Oscan, addressed to Oscan-speaking voters, where Illlner. 
obviously relates to the quattuorvirate, a title characteristic 
of the Sullan and triumviral colonies. An interesting stone 
containing nine cavities for measures of capacity found in 
Pompeii and now preserved in the Naples Museum with Oscan 
inscriptions erased in antiquity shows that the Oscan system of 
measurement was modified so as to correspond more closely with 
the Roman, about 14 B.C., by the duoviri, who record their 
work in a Latin inscription (C.I.L. x. 793; for the Oscan see Ital. 
Dial. p. 67). 

See further Osca Lingua, and R. S. Conway, The Italic Dialects, 
pp. 54 sqq.; Nissen, Pompeianische Studien; J. Beloch, Campanien, 
2nd ed. (R. S. C.) 

POMPEY, the common English form of Pompeius, the name 
of a Roman plebeian family. 

1. Gnaeus Pompeius (106-48 B.C.), the triumvir, the first 
of his family to assume the surname Magnus, was born on the 
36th of September in the same year as Cicero. When only 
seventeen he fought together with his father in the Social War. 



He took the side of Sulla against Marius and Cinna, but for a 
time, in consequence of the success of the Marians, he kept in 
the background. On the return of Sulla from the Mithradatic 
War Pompey joined him with an army of three legions, which 
he had raised in Picenum. Thus early in life he connected 
himself with the cause of the aristocracy, and a decisive victory 
which he won in 83 over the Marian armies gained for him from 
Sulla the title of Imperator. He followed up his successes in 
Italy by defeating the Marians in Sicily and Africa, and on his 
return to Rome in 81, though he was still merely an eques and 
not legally qualified to celebrate a triumph, he was allowed by 
general consent to enjoy this distinction, while Sulla greeted him 
with the surname of Magnus, a title he always retained and 
handed down to his sons. Latterly, his relations with Sulla were 
somewhat strained, but after his death he resisted the attempt of 
the consul M. Aemilius Lepidus to repeal the constitution. In 
conjunction with A. Lutatius Catulus, the other consul, he 
defeated Lepidus when he tried to march upon Rome, and drove 
him out of Italy (77). With some fears and misgivings the 
senate permitted him to retain the command of his victorious 
army, and decided on sending him to Spain, where the Marian 
party, under Sertorius, was still formidable. Pompey was 
fighting in Spain from 76 to 71, and though at first he met with 
serious reverses he was ultimately successful. After Sertorius 
had fallen a victim to assassination, Pompey easily defeated 
his successor Perperna and put an end to the war. In 71 he won 
fresh glory by finally crushing the slave insurrection of Spartacus, 
That same year, amid great popular enthusiasm, but without 
the hearty concurrence of the senate, whom he had alarmed by 
talking of restoring the dreaded power of the tribunes, he was 
elected with M. Licinius Crassus to the consulship, and entered 
Rome in triumph (December 31) for his Spanish victories. 
He was legally ineligible for the consulship, having held 
none of the lower offices of state and being under age. 
The following year saw the work of Sulla undone; the tribunate 
was restored, and the administration of justice was no longer 
left exclusively to the senate, but was to be shared by it with 
the wealthier portion of the middle class, the equites (q.v.) 
and the tribuni aerarii} The change was really necessary, as 
the provincials could never get justice from a court composed 
of senators, and it was carried into effect by Pompey with 
Caesar's aid. Pompey rose still higher in popularity, and 
on the motion of the tribune Aulus Gabinius in 67 he was 
entrusted with an extraordinary command over the greater 
part of the empire, specially for the extermination of piracy in 
the Mediterranean, by which the corn supplies of Rome were 
seriously endangered, while the high prices of provisions caused 
great distress. He was completely successful; the price of corn 
fell immediately on his appointment, and in forty days the 
Mediterranean was cleared of the pirates. Next year, on the 
proposal of the tribune Manilius, his powers were still further 
extended, the care of all the provinces in the East being put 
under his control for three years together with the conduct of 
the war against Mithradates VI., who had recovered from the 
defeats he had sustained from Lucullus and regained his 
dominions. Both Caesar and Cicero supported the tribune's 
proposal, which was easily carried in spite of the interested 
opposition of the senate and the aristocracy, several of whom 
held provinces which would now be practically under Pompey's 
command. The result of Pompey's operations was eminently 
satisfactory. The wild tribes of the Caucasus were cowed by 
the Roman arms, and Mithradates himself fled across the 
Black Sea to Panticapaeum (modern Kertch). In the years 
64 and 63 Syria and Palestine were annexed to Rome's empire. 
After the capture of Jerusalem Pompey is said to have entered 
the Temple, and even the Holy of Holies. Asia and the East 
generally were left under the subjection of petty kings who were 
mere vassals of Rome. Several cities had been founded which 
became centres of Greek life and civilization. 

Pompey, now in his forty-fifth year, returned to Italy in 61 to 

1 Their history and political character is obscure; they were at any 
rate connected with the knights (see Aerarium). 



POMPEY 



57 



celebrate the most magnificent triumph which Rome had ever 
witnessed, as the conqueror of Spain, Africa, and Asia (see A. 
Holm, Hist, of Greece, Eng. trans., vol. iv.). This triumph marked 
the turning-point of his career. As a soldier everything had 
gone well with him; as a politician he was a failure. He found 
a great change in public opinion, and the people indifferent to 
his achievements abroad. The optimates resented the extra- 
ordinary powers that had been conferred upon him; Lucullus 
and Crassus considered that they had been robbed by him of 
the honour of concluding the war against Mithradates. The 
senate refused to ratify the. arrangements he made in Asia or 
to provide money and lands for distribution amongst his 
veterans. In these circumstances he drew closer to Caesar on 
his return from Spain, and became reconciled to Crassus. The 
result was the so-called first triumvirate (see Rome: History). 
The remainder of his life is inextricably interwoven with that 
of Caesar. He was married to Caesar's daughter Julia, and as 
yet the relations between the two had been friendly. On more 
than one occasion Caesar had supported Pompey's policy, 
which of late had been in a decidedly democratic direction. 
Pompey was now in fact ruler of the greater part of the empire, 
while Caesar had only the two provinces of Gaul. The control 
of the capital, the supreme command of the army in Italy and 
of the Mediterranean fleet, the governorship of the two Spains, 
the superintendence of the corn supplies, which were mainly 
drawn from Sicily and Africa, and on which the vast population 
of Rome was wholly dependent, were entirely in the hands of 
Pompey, who was gradually losing the confidence of all political 
parties in Rome. The senate and the aristocracy disliked and 
distrusted him, but they felt that, should things come to the 
worst, they might still find in him a champion of their cause. 
Hence the joint rule of Pompey and Caesar was not unwillingly 
accepted, and anything like a rupture between the two was 
greatly dreaded as the sure beginning of anarchy throughout the 
Roman world. With the deaths of Pompey's wife Julia (54) and 
of Crassus (53) the relations between him and Caesar became 
strained, and soon afterwards he drew closer to what we may 
call the old conservative party in the senate and aristocracy. 
The end was now near, and Pompey blundered into a false 
political position and an open quarrel with Caesar. In 50 the 
senate by a very large majority revoked the extraordinary 
powers conceded to Pompey and Caesar in Spain and Gaul 
respectively, and called upon them to disband their armies. 
Pompey's refusal to submit gave Caesar a good pretext for 
declaring war and marching at the head of his army into 
Italy. At the beginning of the contest the advantages were 
decidedly on the side of Pompey, but the superior political 
tact of his rival, combined with extraordinary promptitude and 
decision in following up his blows, soon turned the scale against 
him. Pompey's cause, with that of the senate and aristocracy, 
was finally ruined by his defeat in 48 in the neighbourhood of the 
Thessalian city Pharsalus. That same year he fled with the 
hope of finding a safe refuge in Egypt, but was treacherously 
murdered by one of his old centurions as he was landing. He 
was five times married, and three of his children survived him — 
Gnaeus, Sextus, and a daughter Pompeia. 

Pompey, though he had some great and good qualities, 
hardly deserved his surname of " the Great." He was certainly 
a very good soldier, and is said to have excelled in all athletic 
exercises, but he fell short of being a first-rate general. He 
won great successes in Spain and more espec'ally in the East, 
but for these he was no doubt partly indebted to what others had 
already done. Of the gifts which make a good statesman he 
had really none. As plainly appeared in the last years of his 
life, he was too weak and irresolute to choose a side and stand 
by it. But to his credit be it said that in a corrupt time he 
never used his opportunities for plunder and extortion, and 
his domestic life was pure and simple. 

Authorities. — Ancient: Plutarch, Pompey; Dio Cassius; Appian; 
Velleius Paterculus; Caesar, De bello civili; Strabo xii., 555-560; 
Cicero, passim; Lucan, Pharsalia. 

Modern: Histories of Rome in general (see Rome: Ancient 
Vistory, ad fin.) ; works quoted under Caesar and Cicero. Also 



G. Boissier, Cicero and His Friends (Eng. trans., A. D. Jones, 1897) ; 
J. L. Strachan- Davidson's Cicero (1894); Warde Fowler's Julius 
Caesar (1892); C. W. Oman, Seven Roman Statesmen of the Later 
Republic (1902); notes in Tyrrell and Purser's Correspondence of 
Cicero (see index in vii. 80). 

2. Gnaeus Pompeius, surnamed Strabo (squint-eyed), 
Roman statesman, father of the triumvir. He was successively 
quaestor in Sardinia (103 B.C.), praetor (94), propraetor in 
Sicily (93) and consul (89). He fought with success in the 
Social War, and was awarded a triumph for his services. 
Probably towards the end of the same year he brought forward 
the law (lex Pompeia de Gallia Transpadana) , which conferred 
upon the inhabitants of that region the privileges granted to 
the Latin colonies. During the civil war between Marius and 
Sulla he seems to have shown no desire to attach himself 
definitely to either side. He certainly set out for Rome from the 
south of Italy (where he remained as proconsul) at the bidding 
of the aristocratic party, when the city was threatened by 
Marius and Cinna, but he displayed little enetgy, and the engage- 
ment which he fought before the Colline gate, although hotly 
contested, was indecisive. Soon afterwards he was killed by 
lightning (87). Although he possessed great military talents, 
Pompeius was the best-hated general of his time owing to his 
cruelty, avarice and perfidy. His body was dragged from the 
bier, while being conveyed to the funeral pile, and treated with 
the greatest indignity. 

See Plutarch, Pompey, 1; Appian, Bell. civ. i. 50, 52, 66-68, 80;, 
Veil. Pat. ii. 21 ; Livy, Epit. 74-79; Florus iii. 18. 

3. Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (c. 75-45 B.C.), the elder son of 
the triumvir. In 48 B.C. during the civil war he commanded 
his father's fleet in the Adriatic. After the battle of Pharsalus 
he set out for Africa with the remainder of the Pompeian party, 
but, meeting with little success, crossed over to Spain. Having 
been joined by his brother Sextus, he collected a considerable 
army, the numbers of which were increased by the Pompeians 
who fled from Africa after the battle of Thapsus (46). Caesar, 
who regarded him as a formidable opponent, set out against 
him in person. A battle took place at Munda on the 17th of 
March 45, in which the brothers were defeated. Gnaeus 
managed to make his escape after the engagement, but was 
soon (April 12) captured and put to death. He was generally 
unpopular owing to his cruelty and violent temper. 

See Pseudo-Oppius, Bellum hispaniense, 1-39; Lucan, Pharsalia, 
ix. 120; Dio Cassius xliii. 28-40. 

4. Sextus Pompeius Magnus (75-35 b.c), the younger son 
of the triumvir. After his father's death he continued the 
struggle against the new rulers of the Roman Empire. From 
Cyprus, where he had taken refuge, he made his way to Africa, 
and after the defeat of the Pompeians at Thapsus (46) crossed 
over to Spain. After Caesar's victory at the battle of Munda 
(45), in which he took no actual part, he abandoned Corduba 
(Cordova), though for a time he held his ground in the south, 
and defeated Asinius Pollio, the governor of the province. In 
43, the year of the triumvirate of Octavius, Antony, and 
Lepidus, he was proscribed along with the murderers of Caesar, 
and, not daring to show himself in Italy, he put himself at the 
head of a fleet manned chiefly by slaves or proscribed persons, 
with which he made himself master of Sicily, and from thence 
ravaged the coasts of Italy. Rome was threatened with a 
famine, as the corn supplies from Egypt and Africa were cut 
off by his ships, and it was thought prudent to negotiate a peace 
with him at Misenum (39), which was to leave him in possession 
of Sicily, Sardinia and Achaea, provided he would allow Italy 
to be freely supplied with corn. But the arrangement could 
not be carried into effect, as Sextus renewed the war and gained 
some considerable successes at sea. However, in 36 his fleet 
was defeated and destroyed by Agrippa at Naulochus off the 
north coast of Sicily. After his defeat he fled to Mytilene, and 
from there to Asia Minor. In the attempt to make his way to 
Armenia he was taken prisoner by Antony's troops, and put to 
death at Miletus. Like his father, he was a brave soldier, but 
a man of little culture. 



58 



POMPIGNAN— POMPTINE MARSHES 



See Dio Cassius, xtvi-xlix. ; Appian, Bell. civ. iv. 84-117 v 
2-143; Veil. Pat. ii. 73-87; Plutarch, Antony; Livy, Epit. \2\ 
128, 129, 131; Cicero, Philippica, xiii., and many references in 
Letters to Atttcus. 

POMPIGNAN, JEAN JACQUES LEFRANC, Marquis de (1709- 
1784), French poet, was born on the 17th of August 1709, at 
Montauban, where his father was president of the cour des aides, 
and the son, who also followed the profession of the law, suc- 
ceeded in 1745 to the same charge. The same year he was also 
appointed conseiller d'konneur of the parlement of Toulouse, 
but his courageous opposition to the abuses of the royal power^ 
especially in the matter of taxation, brought down upon him 
so much vexation that he resigned his positions almost immedi- 
ately, his marriage with a rich woman enabling him to devote 
himself to literature. His first play, Didon (1734), which owed 
much to Metastasio's opera on the same subject, gained a great 
success, and gave rise to expectations not fulfilled by the Adieux 
de Mars (1735) and some light operas that followed. His reputa- 
tion was made by Poesies sacr&es et philosophiques (1734), much 
mocked at by Voltaire who punned on the title: " S acres Us 
sont, car personne n'y louche." Lefranc's odes on profane sub- 
jects hardly reach the same level, with the exception of the ode 
on the death of J. B. Rousseau, which secured him entrance to 
the Academy (1760). On his reception he made an ill-con- 
sidered oration violently attacking the Encyclopaedists, many 
of whom were in his audience and had given him their votes. 
Lefranc soon had reason to repent of his rashness, for the 
epigrams and stories circulated by those whom he had attacked 
made it impossible for him to remain in Paris, and he took 
refuge in his native town, where he spent the rest of his life 
occupied in making numerous translations from the classics, 
none of great merit. 

La Harpe who is severe enough on Lefranc in his correspondence, 
does his abilities full justice in his Cours Utteraire, and ranks him 
next to J. B. Rousseau among French lyric poets. With those 
of other 18th-century poets his works may be studied in the Pelits 
poeles francais (1838) of M. Prosper Poitevin. His CEuvres com- 
pletes (4 vols.) were published in 1781, selections (2 vols.) in 1800, 

Iol^i Io22. 

His brother, Jean Georges Lefranc de Pompignan (1715- 
1790), was the archbishop of Vienne against whose defence of 
the faith Voltaire launched the good-natured mockery of Les 
Lettres d'un Quaker. Elected to the Estates General, he passed 
over to the Liberal side, and led the 149 members of the clergy 
who united with the third estate to form the National Assembly. 
He was one of its first presidents, and was minister of public 
worship when the civil constitution was forced upon the clergy. 

POMPONAZZI, PIETRO (Petrus Pomponatius) (1462-1523), 
Italian philosopher, was born at Mantua on the 16th of Sep- 
tember 1462, and died at Bologna on the 18th of May 1525. His 
education, begun at Mantua, was completed at Padua, where he 
became doctor of medicine in 1487. In 1488 he was elected 
extraordinary professor of philosophy at Padua, where he was 
a colleague of Achillini, the Averroist. From about 1495 to 
1500 he occupied the chair of natural philosophy until the 
closing of the schools of Padua, when he took a professorship 
at Ferrara where he lectured on the De anima. In 151 2 he 
was invited to Bologna where he remained till his death and 
where he produced. all his important works. The predominance 
of medical science at Padua had cramped his energies, but at 
Ferrara, and even more at Bologna, the study of psychology 
and theological speculation were more important. In 1516 he 
produced his great work De immortalitate animi, which gave 
rise to a storm of controversy between the orthodox Thomists 
of the Catholic Church, the Averroists headed by Agostino 
Nifo, and the so-called Alexandrist School. The treatise was 
burned at Venice, and Pomponazzi himself ran serious risk of 
death at the hands of the Catholics. Two pamphlets followed, 
the Apologia and the Defensorium, wherein he explained his 
paradoxical position as Catholic and philosophic materialist. 
His last two treatises, the De incantationibus and the De fato 
were posthumously published in an edition of his works printed 
at Basel. 



Pomponazzi is profoundly interesting as the herald of the 
Renaissance. He was born in the period of transition when 
scholastic formalism was losing its hold over men both in the 
Church and outside. Hitherto the dogma of the Church had 
been based on Aristotle as interpreted by Thomas Aquinas. 
So close was this identification that any attack on Aristotle, or 
even an attempt to reopen the old discussions on the Aristo- 
telian problems, was regarded as a dangerous heresy. Pom- 
ponazzi claimed the right to study Aristotle for himself, and 
devoted himself to the De anima with the view of showing that 
Thomas Aquinas had entirely misconceived the Aristotelian 
theory of the active and the passive intellect. The Averroists had 
to some extent anticipated this attitude by their contention that 
immortality does not imply the eternal separate existence of 
the individual soul, that the active principle which is common 
to all men alone survives. Pomponazzi's revolt went further 
than this. He held, with Alexander of Aprodisias, that, as 
the soul is the form of the body (as Aquinas also asserted), it 
must, by hypothesis, perish with the body; form apart from 
matter is unthinkable. The ethical consequence of such a 
view is important, and in radical contrast to the practice of the 
period. Virtue can -no longer be viewed solely in relation to 
reward and punishment in another existence. A new sanction 
is required. Pomponazzi found this criterion in rod koXou evena 
—virtue for its own sake. " Praemium essentiale virtutis est 
ipsamet virtus quae hominem felicem facit," he says in the De 
immortalitate. Consequently, whether or not the soul be im- 
mortal, the ethical criterion remains the same: " Neque aliquo 
pacta declinandum est a virtute quicquid accidat post mortem." 
In spite of this philosophical materialism, Pomponazzi declared 
his adherence to the Catholic faith, and thus established the 
principle that religion and philosophy, faith and knowledge, 
may be diametrically opposed and yet coexist for the same 
thinker. This curious paradox he exemplifies in the De incanla- 
tione, where in one breath he sums up against the existence 
of demons and spirits on the basis of the Aristotelian theory of 
the cosmos, and, as a believing Christian, asserts his faith in 
their existence. In this work he insists emphatically upon the 
orderly sequence of nature, cause and effect. Men grow to 
maturity and then decay; so religions have their day and 
succumb. Even Christianity, he added (with the usual proviso 
that he is speaking as a philosopher) was showing indications 
of decline. 

See A. H. Douglas, Philosophy and Psychology of Pietro Pompo- 
nazzi (1910); also Ritter, Geschichte der Philosophies J. A. Symonds, 
J he Renaissance in Italy; Windelband, History of Philosophy 
(trans, by James H. Tufts, pt. 4 , c. 1); J. Burckhardt, Die Kultur 
der Renaissance in Italien; L. Ferri, La Psicologia di P. Pom- 
ponazzi. (J_ M _ jy^y 

POMPONIUS, LUCIUS, called Bononiensis from his birthplace 
Bononia, Latin comic poet, flourished about 90 b.c. (or earlier). 
He was the first to give an artistic form to the Atellanae 
Fabulae by arranging beforehand the details of the plot which 
had hitherto been left to improvisation, and providing a written 
text. The fragments show fondness for alliteration and playing 
upon words, skill in the use of rustic and farcical language, 
and a considerable amount of obscenity. 

Fragments in O. Ribbeck, Scenicae romanorum poesis fratmenta 
(1897-1898); see Mommsen, Hist, of Rome (Eng. tr.), bk. iv. ch. 13; 
leuffel-Schwabe, Hist, of Roman Literature (Eng. tr.), § 151. 

POMPOSA, an abbey of Emilia, Ttaly, in the province of 
Ferrara, 2 m. from Codigoro, which is 30 m. E. of Ferrara in the 
delta of the Po. The fine church, a work of the 10th (?) century, 
with interesting sculptures on the facade and a splendid Roma- 
nesque campanile, contains a good mosaic pavement, and interest- 
ing frescoes_ of the 14th century— a " Last Judgment " of the 
school of Giotto and others; and there are also paintings in the 
refectory. It was abandoned in 1550 on account of malaria.. 
See G. Agnelli, Ferrara e Pomposa (Bergamo, 1902). (T. As.) 
POMPTINE MARSHES, a low tract of land in the province of 
Rome, Italy, varying in breadth between the Volscian mountains 
and the sea from 10 to 16 m., and extending N.W. to S.E. from 



PONANI— PONCHIELLI 



59 



Velletri to Terracina (40 m.). In ancient days this low tract 
was fertile and well-cultivated, and contained several prosperous 
cities (Suessa Pometia, Ulubrae — perhaps the mod. Cisterna — 
&c), but, owing to the dying out of the small proprietors, it 
had already become unhealthy at the end of the Republican 
period. Attempts to drain the marshes were made by Appius 
Claudius in 312 B.C., when he constructed the Via Appia through 
them (the road having previously followed a devious course at 
the foot of the Volscian mountains), and at various times 
during the Roman period. A canal ran through them parallel 
to the road, and for some reason that is not altogether clear it 
was used in preference to the road during the Augustan period. 
Trajan repaired the road, and Theodoric did the same some 
four hundred years later. But in the middle ages it had fallen 
into disrepair. Popes Boniface VIII., Martin V., Sixtus V., 
and Pius VI. all attempted to solve the problem, the last-named 
reconstructing the road admirably. The difficulty arises from 
the lack of fall in the soil, some parts no less than 10 m. from 
the coast being barely above sea-level, while they are separated 
from the sea by a series of sand-hills now covered with forest, 
which rise at some points over 100 ft. above sea-level. Springs 
also rise in the district, and the problem is further complicated 
by the flood-water and solid matter brought down by the 
mountain torrents, which choke up the channels made. By 
a law passed in 1899, the proprietors are bound to arrange for 
. the safe outlet of the water from the mountains, keep the exist- 
ing canals open, and reclaim the district exposed to inundation, 
within a period of twenty-four years. The sum of £280,000 has 
been granted towards the expense by the government. 

See T. Berti, Paludi pontine (Rome, 1884); R. de la BlanchSre, 
Un Chapilre d'histoire pontine (Paris, 1889). (T. As.) 

PONANI, a seaport on the west coast of India, in Malabar 
district, Madras, at a mouth of a river of the same name. Pop. 
(1901), 10,562. It is the headquarters of the Moplah or Map- 
pilla community of Mahommedans, with a religious college and 
many mosques, one of which is said to date from 1510. There 
is a large export of coco-nut products. 

PONCA, a tribe of North-American Indians of Siouan stock. 
They were originally part of the Omaha tribe, with whom they 
lived near the Red River of the North. They were driven 
westward by the Dakotas, and halted on the Ponca river, 
Dakota. After a succession of treaties and removals they were 
placed on a reservation at the mouth of the Niobrara, where 
they were prospering, when their lands were forcibly taken from 
them, and they were removed to Indian Territory (Oklahoma). 
During the march thither and in their new quarters, the tribe's 
health suffered, so that in 1878 they revolted and made their 
way back to the Omahas. They were recaptured, but public 
attention having been drawn to their hard case they were 
liberated in 1880, after a long trial, which resulted in their 
being declared United States citizens. They number some 
700, mostly in Oklahoma. 

PONCE, a seaport and the second largest city of Porto Rico, 
the seat of government of the Department of Ponce, on the 
south coast, about 50 m. (84 m. by the military road) S.W. of San 
Juan. Pop. (1899), 27,952, of whom 2554 were negroes and 
9942 of mixed races; (1910), 35,027. It is served by the American 
Railroad of Porto Rico, by a railway to Guayama (1910), and by 
steamboats from numerous ports; an old military road connects 
it with San Juan. Ponce consists of two parts: Ponce, or the 
city proper, and Ponce Playa, or the seaport; they are separated 
by the Portuguese River and are connected by an electric street 
railway. Ponce Playa is on a spacious bay and is accessible to 
vessels drawing 25 ft. of water; Ponce is 2 m. inland at the 
interior margin of a beautiful plain, with hills in the rear rising 
to a height of 1000 to 2000 ft. The city is supplied with water 
• by an aqueduct about 2 m. long. There are two attractive 
public squares in the heart of the city: Plaza Principal and Plaza 
de las Delicias. Among prominent public buildings are the 
city hall, the custom-house, the Pearl theatre, several churches- 
Roman Catholic (including a finely decorated cathedral) and 
Protestant; St Luke's hospital and insane asylum, an asylum 



for the blind, a ladies' asylum, a home for the indigent and 
aged, and a military barracks. At the Quintana Baths near the 
city are thermal springs with medicinal properties. The 
surrounding country is devoted chiefly to the cultivation of 
sugar cane, tobacco, oranges and cacao, and to the grazing of 
cattle. Among the manufactures are sugar, molasses, rum, 
and ice, and prepared coffee for the market. Ponce, named in 
honour of Ponce de Leon, was founded in 1752 upon the site of 
a settlement which had been established in the preceding century, 
was incorporated as a town in 1848, and was made a city in 
1878. 

PONCELET, JEAN VICTOR (1 788-1 867), French mathe- 
matician and engineer, was born at Metz on the 1st of July 
1788. From 1808 to 1810 he attended the Ecole polytechnique, 
and afterwards, till 181 2, the licole d' application at Metz. He 
then became lieutenant of engineers, and took part in the 
Russian campaign, during which he was taken prisoner and was 
confined at Saratov on the Volga. It was during his imprison- 
ment here that, " prive de toute espece de livres et de secours, 
surtout distrait par les malheurs de ma patrie et les miens 
propres," as he himself puts it, he began his researches on pro- 
jective geometry which led to his great treatise on that subject. 
This work, the Traite des propriites projectives des figures, which 
was published in 1822 (2d ed., 2 vols. 1865-1866), is occupied 
with the investigation of the projective properties of figures (see 
Geometry). This work entitles Poncelet to rank as one of the 
greatest of those who took part in the development of the 
modern geometry of which G. Monge was the founder. From 
1 81 5 to 1825 he was occupied with military engineering at 
Metz] and from 1825 to 1835 he was professor of mechanics at 
the Ecole d' application there. In 1826, in his M&moire sur les 
roues hydrauliques a aubes courbes, he brought forward im- 
provements in the construction of water-wheels, which more 
than doubled their efficiency. In 1834 he became a member of 
the Academie; from 1838 to 1848 he was professor to the 
faculty of sciences at Paris, and from 1848 to 1850 comman- 
dant of the Ecole polytechnique. At the London International 
Exhibition of 1851 he had charge of the department of 
machinery, and wrote a report on the machinery and tools on 
view at that exhibition. He died at Paris on the 23rd of 
December 1867. 

See J. Bertrand, Aloge historique de Poncelet (Paris, 1875). 

PONCHER, ETIENNE DE (1446-1524), French prelate and 
diplomatist. After studying law he was early provided with 
a prebend, and became councillor at the parlement of Paris 
in 1485 and president of the Chambre des Enquetes in 1498. 
Elected bishop of Paris in 1503 at the instance of Louis XII., 
he was entrusted by the king with diplomatic missions in 
Germany and Italy. After being appointed chancellor of the 
duchy of Milan, he became keeper of the seals of France in 151 2, 
and retained that post until the accession of Francis I., who 
employed him on various diplomatic missions. Poncher 
became archbishop of Sens in 1519. His valuable Constitutions 
synodales was published in 1514. 

PONCHIELLI, AMILCARE (1834-1886), Italian musical 
composer, was born near Cremona on the 1st of September 1834. 
He studied at the Milan Conservatoire. His first dramatic 
work, written in collaboration with two other composers, was 
II Sindaco Babbeo (185 1). After completing his studies at 
Milan he returned to Cremona, where his opera / Promessi 
sposi was produced in 1856. This was followed by La Savojarda 
(1861, produced in a revised version as Lina in 1877), Roderigo, 
re del Goti (1864), and La Stella del monte (1867). , A revised 
version of / Promessi sposi, which was produced at Milan in 
1872, was his first genuine success. After this came a ballet, 
Le Due Gemelle (1873), and an opera, / Lituani (1874, produced 
in a revised version as Alduna in 1884). Ponchielli reached the 
zenith of his fame with La Gioconda (1876), written to a libretto 
founded by Arrigo Boito upon Victor Hugo's tragedy, Angelo, 
Tyran de Padoue. La Gioconda was followed by II Figliuol 
prodigo (1880) and Marion Delorme (1885). Among his less 



6o 



PONCHO— PONI A RD 



important works are II Parlatore eterno, a musical farce (1873), 
and a ballet, Clarina (1873). In 1881 Ponchielli was made 
maestro di cappella of Piacenza Cathedral. His music shows 
the influence of Verdi, but at its best it has a distinct value of 
its own, and an inexhaustible flow of typically Italian melody. 
His fondness for fanciful figures in his accompaniments has 
been slavishly imitated by Mascagni, Leoncavallo, and many of 
their contemporaries. Ponchielli died at Milan on the 17 th 
of January 1886. 

PONCHO (a South American Spanish word, adopted from the 
Araucanian poncho or pontho in the 17th century), a form of 
cloak worn originally by the South American Indians, and 
afterwards adopted by the Spaniards living in South America. 
It is merely a long strip of cloth, doubled, with a hole for the 
head. 

POND, JOHN (c. 1767-1836), English astronomer-royal, was 
born about 1767 in London, where his father made a fortune 
in trade. He entered Trinity College, Cambridge, at the age 
of sixteen, but took no degree, his course being interrupted by 
severe pulmonary attacks which compelled a long residence 
abroad. In 1800 he settled at Westbury near Bristol, and 
began to determine star-places with a fine altitude and azimuth 
circle of 2^ ft. diameter by E. Troughton. His demonstration 
in 1806 (Phil. Trans, xcvi. 420) of a change of form in the, 
Greenwich mural quadrant led to the introduction of astro- 
nomical circles at the Royal Observatory, and to his own appoint- 
ment as its head. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society 
on the 26th of February 1807; he married and went to live in 
London in the same year, and in 181 1 succeeded Maskelyne as 
astronomer-royal. 

During an administration of nearly twenty-five years Pond 
effected a reform of practical astronomy in England comparable 
to that effected by Bessel in Germany. In 1821 he began to 
employ the method of observation by reflection; and in 1825 
he devised means (see Mem. Roy. Astron. Soc. ii. 409) of Combin- 
ing two mural circles in the determination of the place of a single 
object, the one serving for direct and the other for reflected 
vision. Under his auspices the instrumental equipment at 
Greenwich was completely changed, and the number of assis- 
tants increased from one to six. The superior accuracy of his 
determinations was attested by S. C. Chandler's discussion of 
them in 1894, in the course of his researches into the variation 
of latitude {Astron. Journ. Nos. 313, 3.15)/ He persistently con- 
troverted (1810-1824) the reality of J. Brinkley's imaginary 
star-parallaxes (Phil. Trans, cviii. 477, cxiii. 53). Delicacy of 
health compelled his retirement in the autumn of 1835. He 
died at Blackheath on the 7th of September 1836, and was 
buried beside Halley in the churchyard of Lee. The Copley 
medal was conferred upon him in 1823, and the Lalande prize 
in 1817 by the Paris Academy, of which he was a corresponding 
member. He published eight folio volumes of Greenwich 
Observations, translated Laplace's Systbme du monde (in 2 vols. 
8vo., 1809), and contributed thirty-one papers to scientific 
collections. His catalogue of n 12 stars (1833) was of great 
value. 

See Mem. Roy. Astron. Soc. x. 357; Proc. Roy. Soc. iii. 434; 
Penny Cyclopaedia (De Morgan); F. W. Bessel, Pop. Varlesungen, 
p. 543; Report Brit. Assoc, i. 128, 136 (Airy); Sir G. Airy's 
Autobiography, p. 127; Observatory, xiii. 204, xxii. 357; Annual 
Biography and Obituary (1837); R- Grant, Hist, of Phys. Astron. 
p. 491 ; Royal Society's Cat. Scient. Papers. 

POND, a small pool or body of standing water, a word often 
applied to one for which the bed has been artificially constructed. 
The word is a variant of " pound " (q.v.), an enclosure. 

PONDICHERRY, the capital of the French possessions in 
India, situated on the Coromandel or western coast, 122 m. by 
rail S. of Madras. The territory, which is entirely surrounded 
by the British district of South Arcot, has an area of 115 sq. m. 
with a population (1901) of 174,456. The chief crops are dry 
grains, rice, earth-nuts and a little indigo. The territory is 
traversed by a branch of the South Indian railway from Villa- 
puram. The town has a population of 27,448. It is well laid 



out with fine public buildings; the water-supply is derived from 
artesian wells. It has an open roadstead, with a small iron 
pier. The port is visited yearly by 500 vessels, and has trade 
of the value of about some £1,300,000. The principal imports 
are areca-nuts, wines and liqueurs, and the chief exports ground- 
nuts, oil, cotton fabrics and rice. Of the export trade more 
than one-half is with France, but of the import trade only one- 
fourth. The weaving of various fabrics forms the principal 
industry. 

Pondicherry was founded in 1683 by Francois Martin, on the 
site of a village given him by the governor of Gingee. In 1693 
the Dutch took Pondicherry, but restored it, with the fortifica- 
tions greatly improved, in 1697, at the peace of Ryswick. In 
1748 Admiral Boscawen laid siege to it without success, but in 
1 76 1 it was taken by Colonel Coote from Lally. In 1763 it 
was restored to the French. In 1778 it was again taken by 
Sir Hector Munro, and its fortifications destroyed. In 1783 
it was retransf erred to the French, and in 1793 recaptured by 
the English. The treaty of Amiens in 1802 restored it to the 
French, but it was retaken in 1803. In 1816 it was finally 
restored to the French. 

PONDO, a Kaffir people who have given their name to Pondo- 
land, the country comprising much of the seaboard of Kaffraria, 
Cape province, immediately to the south-west of Natal. The 
Pondo, who number about 200,000, are divided into several 
tribal groups, but the native government, since the annexation 
of the country to Cape Colony in 1894, has been subject to the 
control of the colonial authorities. (See Kaffirs.) 

PONDWEED, a popular name for Potamogeton natans, a 
cosmopolitan aquatic plant found in ponds, lakes and ditches, 
with broad, more or less oblong-ovate, olive-green, floating 
leaves: The name is also applied to other species of Potamo- 
geton, one of the characteristic genera of lakes, ponds and streams 
all over the world, but more abundant in temperate regions. 
It is the principal genus of the natural order of Monocotyledous 
Potamogetonaceae, and contains plants with slender branched 
stems, and submerged and translucent, or floating and opaque, 
alternate or opposite leaves, often with membranous united 
stipules. The small flowers are borne above the water in 




(After Wossidlo. From Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Botanik.) 
Potamogeton natans. 

1, Apex of flowering shoot. 3, Flower viewed from the side. 

2, Flower viewed from above. 4, Diagram of flower. 

axillary or terminal spikes; they have four stamens, which bear 
at the back four small herbaceous petal-like structures, and 
four free carpels, which ripen to form four small green fleshy 
fruits, each containing one seed within a hard inner coat ; 
the seed contains a large hooked embryo. An allied genus 
Zannichellia (named after Zanichelli, a Venetian botanist), ' 
occurring in fresh and brackish ditches and pools in Britain, 
and also widely distributed in temperate and tropical regions, 
is known as horned pondweed, from the curved fruit. 

PONIARD, a dagger, particularly one of small size, used for 
stabbing at close quarters. The French word poignard, from 



PONIATOWSKI— PONS 



61 



which the English is a 16th-century adaptation, is formed from 
poing, fist, the clenched hand in which the weapon is grasped. 
(See Dagger.) 

PONIATOWSKI, the name of a Polish princely family of 
Italian origin, tracing descent from Giuseppe Torelli, who 
married about 1650 an heiress of the Lithuanian family of 
Poniator, whose name he assumed. 

The first of the Poniatowskis to distinguish himself was 
Stanislaus Poniatowski (1677-1762), who only belonged to 
the family by adoption, being the reputed son of Prince Sapieha 
and a Jewess. He was born at Dereczyn in Lithuania, and was 
adopted by Sapieha's intendant, Poniatowski. With his father 
he attached himself to the party of Stanislaus Leszczynski, and 
became major-general in the army of Charles XII. of Sweden. 
After the defeat of Pultowa he conveyed Charles XII. across 
the Dnieper, and remained with him at Bender. From there 
he was sent to Constantinople, where he extracted from the 
sultan Achmet III. a promise to march to Moscow. When the 
grand vizier, Baltagi Mehemet, permitted the tsar Peter I. to 
retreat unharmed from the banks of the Pruth, Poniatowski 
exposed his treason. He rejoined Leszczynski in the duchy 
of Zweibrucken, Bavaria, of which he became governor. 
After the death of Charles XII. in 1 718 he visited Sweden; 
and was subsequently reconciled with Leszczynski's rival on 
the throne of Poland, Augustus II., who made him grand 
treasurer of Lithuania in 1724. On the death of Augustus II. 
he tried to secure the reinstatement of Leszczynski, who then 
resumed his claims to the Polish crown. ' He was taken prisoner 
at Danzig by the Russians, and presently gave his allegiance 
to Augustus III., by whom he was made governor of Cracow. 
He died at Ryki on the 3rd of August 1762. 

His second son Stanislaus Augustus became king of Poland 
(see Stanislaus II.). Of the other sons, Casimir (1721-1780) 
was his brother's chancellor; Andrew (1 735-1773) entered the 
Austrian service, rising to the rank of feldzeugmeister; and 
Michael (1736-1794) became archbishop of Gnesen and primate 
of Poland. Joseph Anthony Poniatowski (q.v.), son of Andrew, 
became one of Napoleon's marshals. 

Stanislaus Poniatowski (1757-1833), son of Casimir, 
shared in the aggrandisement of the family during the reign of 
Stanislaus II., becoming grand treasurer of Lithuania, starost 
of Podolia and lieutenant-general of the royal army. In 1793 
he settled in Vienna, and subsequently in Rome, where he made 
a magnificent collection of antique gems in his house on the 
Via Flaminia. This collection was sold at Christie's in London 
in May 1839. He died in Florence on the 13th of February 
1833, and with him the Polish and Austrian honours became 
extinct. 

His natural, but recognized, son, Joseph Michael Xavier 
Francis John Poniatowski (1816-1873), was born at Rome 
and in 1847 was naturalized as a Tuscan subject. He received 
the title of prince in Tuscany (1847) and in Austria (1850). 
He had studied music under Ceccherini at Florence, and wrote 
numerous operas, in the first of which, Giovanni di Procida, 
he sang the title r61e himself at Lucca in 1838. He represented 
the court of Tuscany in Paris from 1848, and he was made a 
senator by Napoleon III., whom he followed to England in 
1871. His last opera, Gelmina, was produced at Covent Garden 
in 1872. He died on the 3rd of July 1873, and was buried at 
Chislehurst. His son, Prince Stanislaus Augustus, married and 
settled in Paris. He was equerry to Napoleon III., and died 
in January 1908. 

PONIATOWSKI, JOSEPH ANTHONY (1 763-1813), Polish 
prince and marshal of France, son of Andrew Poniatowski and the 
countess Theresa Kinsky, was born at Warsaw in 1763. Adopt- 
ing a military career, he joined the Imperial army when Austria 
declared war against the Turks in 1788, and distinguished 
himself at the storming of Sabac on the 25th of April, where 
he was seriously wounded. Recalled by his uncle King Stanis- 
laus when the Polish army was reorganized, he received the rank 
of major-general, and subsequently that of lieutenant-general, 
and devoted himself zealously to the improvement of the 



national forces. In 1789, when Poland was threatened by the 
armed intervention of Russia, he was appointed commander of 
the Ukraine division at Braclaw on Bug. After the proclama- 
tion of the constitution of the 3rd of May 1791 he was 
appointed commander-in-chief, with instructions to guard the 
banks of the Dniester and Dnieper. On the outbreak of the 
war with Russia, Prince Joseph, aided by Kosciuszko, displayed 
great ability. Obliged constantly to retreat, but disputing 
every point of. vantage, he turned on the pursuer whenever 
he pressed too closely, and won several notable victories. At 
Polonna the Russians were repulsed with the loss of 3000 men; 
at Dubienka the line of the Bug was defended for five days 
against fourfold odds; at Zielence the Poles won a still more 
signal victory. Finally the Polish arms converged upon Warsaw, 
and were preparing for a general engagement when a courier 
from the capital informed the generals that the king had acceded 
to the confederation of Targowica (see Poland: History) and 
had at the same time guaranteed the adhesion of the army. 
All hostilities were therefore to be suspended. After an indig- 
nant but fruitless protest, Poniatowski and most of the other 
generals threw up their commissions and emigrated. During 
the Kosciuszko rising he again fought gallantly for his country 
under his former subordinate, and after the fall' of the republic 
resided as a private citizen at Warsaw for the next ten years. 
After Jena and the evacuation of the Polish provinces by 
Prussia, Poniatowski was offered the command of the National 
Guard; he set about reorganizing the Polish army, and on the 
creation of the grand duchy of Warsaw was nominated war 
minister. During the war of 1809, when an Austrian army 
corps under the archduke Ferdinand invaded the grand duchy, 
Poniatowski encountered them at the bloody battle of Radzyn, 
and though compelled to abandon Warsaw ultimately forced 
the enemy to evacuate the grand duchy, and captured Cracow. 
In Napoleon's campaign against Russia in 1812 Poniatowski 
commanded the fifth army corps; and after the disastrous 
retreat of the grand army, when many of the Poles began to waver 
in their allegiance to Napoleon, Poniatowski remained faithful 
and formed a new Polish army of 13,000 men with which he 
joined the emperor at Liitzen. In the campaign of 1813 he 
guarded the passes of the Bohemian mountains and defended 
the left bank of the Elbe. As a reward for his brilliant services 
at the three days' battle of Leipzig he was made a marshal of 
France and entrusted with the honourable but dangerous duty 
of covering the retreat of the army. Poniatowski heroically 
defended Leipzig, losing half his corps in the attempt, finally 
falling back slowly upon the bridge over the Elster which the 
French in the general confusion blew up before he reached it. 
Contesting every step with the overwhelming forces of the 
pursuers, he refused to surrender, and covered with wounds 
plunged into the river, where he flied fighting to the last. His 
relics were conveyed to Poland and buried in Cracow Cathedral, 
where he lies by the side of Tadeusz Kosciuszko and Jan Sobieski. 
Poniatowski's Mes souvenirs sur la campagne de 1792 (Lemberg, 
1863) is a valuable historical document. 

See Stanislaw Kostka Boguslawski, Life of Prince Joseph Ponia- 
towski (Pol.; Warsaw, 1831); Franciszek Paszkowski, Prince Joseph 
Poniatowski (Pol.; Cracow, 1898); Correspondence of Poniatowski 
(ed. E. Raczynski, Posen, 1843); Bronislaw Dembinski, Stanislaus 
Augustus and Prince Joseph Poniatowski in the light of their Corre- 
spondence (Fr. ; Lemberg, 1904) ; Szymon Askenazy, Prince 
Joseph Poniatowski (Pol.; Warsaw, 1905). (R. N. B.) 

PONS, JEAN LOUIS (176-1-1831), French astronomer, was 
born at Peyres (Hautes Alpes) on the 24th of December 1761. 
He entered the Marseilles observatory in 1789, and in 1819 
became the director of the new observatory at Marlia near 
Lucca, which he, left in 1825 for the observatory of the museum 
at Florence. Here he died on the 14th of October 1831. 
Between 1801 and 1827 Pons discovered thirty-seven comets, one 
of which (observed on the 26th of November 1818) was named 
after J. F. Encke, who determined its remarkably short period. 

See M. R. A. Henrion, Annuaire biographigue, i. 288 (Paris, 1834); 
Memoirs Roy. Astron. Soc. v. 410; R. Wolf, Geschichte der 
I Astronomie. p. 709; J. C. Poggendorff, Biog. lit. Handworterbuch. 



62 



PONSARD— PONTANUS 



PONSARD, FRANCOIS (1814-1867), French dramatist, was 
born at Vienne, department of Isere, on the 1st of June 1814. 
He was bred a lawyer ^ and his first performance in literature 
was a translation of Manfred (1837). His play Lucrece was 
represented at the Thtdtre Francais on the 1st of April 1843. 
This date is a kind of epoch in literature and dramatic 
history, because it marked a reaction against the romantic 
style of Dumas and Hugo. He received in 1845 the prize 
awarded by the Academy for a tragedy " to oppose a dike to 
the waves of romanticism." Ponsard adopted the liberty of 
the romantics with regard to the unities of time and place, but 
he reverted to the more sober style of earlier French drama. 
The tastes and capacities of the greatest tragic actress of the 
day, Rachel, suited his methods, and this contributed greatly 
to his own popularity. He followed up Lucrece with Agnes de 
Meranie (1846), Charlotte Corday (1850), and others. Ponsard 
accepted the empire, though with no very great enthusiasm, 
and received the post of librarian to the senate, which, however, 
he soon resigned, fighting a bloodless duel with a journalist on 
the subject. L'Honneur et I'argent, one of his most successful 
plays, was acted in 1853, and he became an Academician in 
1855. For some years he did little, but in 1866 he obtained 
great success with Le Lion atnoureux, another play dealing with 
the revolutionary epoch. His GaliUe, which excited great 
opposition in the clerical camp, was produced early in 1867. 
He died in Paris on the 7th of July of the same year, soon after 
his nomination to the commandership of the Legion of Honour. 
Most of Ponsard's plays hold a certain steady level of literary 
and dramatic ability, but his popularity is in the main due to 
the fact that his appearance coincided with a certain public 
weariness of the extravagant and unequal style of 1830. 

His CEuvres completes were published in Paris (3 vols., 1865- 
1876). See La Fin du thedtre romantique et Francois Ponsard d'apres 
des documents inedits (1899), by C. Latreille. 

PONSONBY, JOHN (1713-1789), Irish politician, second son 
of Brabazon Ponsonby, 1st earl of Bessborough, was born on 
the 29th of March 1713. In 1739 he entered the Irish parliament 
and in 1744 he became first commissioner of the revenue; in 
1746 he was appointed a privy councillor, and in 1756 Speaker 
of the Irish House of Commons. Belonging to one of the great 
families which at this time monopolized the government of 
Ireland, Ponsonby was one of the principal " undertakers," men 
who controlled the whole of the king's business in Ireland, and 
he retained the chief authority until the marquess Townshend 
became lord-lieutenant in 1767. Then followed a struggle 
for supremacy between the Ponsonby faction and the party 
dependent on Townshend, one result of this being that Ponsonby 
resigned the speakership in 1771. He died on the 12th of 
December 1789. His wife was Elizabeth, daughter of William 
Cavendish, 3rd duke of Devonshire, a connexion which was of 
great importance to the Ponsonbys. 

Ponsonby's third son, George Ponsonby (1755-1817), lord 
chancellor of Ireland, was born on the 5th of March 1755 and 
was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge. A barrister, he 
became a member of the Irish parliament in 1776 and was 
chancellor of the Irish exchequer in 1782, afterwards taking 
a prominent part in the debates on the question of Roman 
Catholic relief, and leading the opposition to the union of the 
parliaments. After 1800 Ponsonby represented Wicklow and 
then Tavistock in the united parliament; in 1806 he was lord 
chancellor of Ireland, and from 1808 to 1817 he was the official 
leader of the opposition in the House of Commons. He left an 
only daughter when he died in London on the 8th of July 181 7. 
George Ponsonby's elder brother, William Brabazon 
Ponsonby, 1st Baron Ponsonby (1 744-1806), was also a leading 
Whig politician, being a member of the Irish, and after 1800, of 
the British parliament. In 1806 shortly before his death he 
was created Baron Ponsonby of Imokilly. Three of his sons 
were men of note. The eldest was John (c. 17 70-1 8 5 5), who 
succeeded to the barony and was created a viscount in 1839; 
he was ambassador at Constantinople from 1832 to 1837 and 
at Vienna from 1846 to 1850. The second son was Major- 



General Sir William Ponsonby (1772-1815), who, after serving 
in the Peninsular War, was killed at the battle of Waterloo 
whilst leading a brigade of heavy cavalry. Another son was 
Richard Ponsonby (1772-1853), bishop of Derry. Sir William 
Ponsonby's posthumous son William (1816-1861) became 3rd 
Baron Ponsonby on the death of his uncle John, Viscount 
Ponsonby; he died childless and was succeeded by his cousin 
William Brabazon Ponsonby (1807-1866), only son of the bishop 
of Derry, on whose death the barony of Ponsonby became extinct. 
Among other members of this family may be mentioned Major- 
General Sir Frederick Cavendish Ponsonby (1783-1837), son of 
the 3rd earl of Bessborough, a soldier who distinguished himself 
at the battles of Talavera, Salamanca and Vittoria, in the 
Peninsular War, and was wounded at Waterloo; he was governor 
of Malta from 1826 to 1835. His eldest son, Sir Henry Frederick 
Ponsonby (1825-1895), a soldier who served in the Crimea, is 
best remembered as private secretary to Queen Victoria from 
1870 until a few months before his death. 

PONSON DU TERRAIL [Pierre Alexis de Ponson], 
Vicomte de (1829-1871), French romance writer, was born at 
Montmaur (Isere) on the 8th of July 1829. He was a prolific 
novelist, producing in the space of two years some seventy- 
three volumes. Among his most successful productions were 
Les Coulisses du monde (1853), Exploits de Rocambole (1859), 
Les Drames de Paris (1865) and Le Forgeron de la Cour-Dieu 
(1869). He died at Bordeaux on the 20th of January 187 1. 

PONT (or Kylpont), ROBERT (1524-1606), Scottish reformer, 
was educated at St Andrews. In 1562 he was appointed 
minister at Dunblane and then at Dunkeld; in 1563, commis- 
sioner for Moray, Inverness and Banff. Then in succession 
he became minister of Birnie (1567), provost of Trinity College 
n»ar Edinburgh (i57i),a lord of session (1572), minister of St 
Cuthbert's, Edinburgh (1573) and at St Andrews (1581). Pont 
was a. strenuous champion of ecclesiastical independence, and 
for protesting against parliamentary interference in church 
government he was obliged to leave his country. From 1584 
to 1586 he was in England, but returning north he resumed his 
prominence in church matters and kept it until his death in 
1606. His elder son Timothy Pont (is6o?-i6i4?) was a good 
mathematician, surveyor, and " the first projector of a Scottish 
atlas." 

PONTA DEL6ADA, the capital of an administrative district, 
comprising the islands of St Michael's and St Mary in the 
Portuguese archipelago of the Azores. Pop. (1900), 17,620. 
Ponta Delgada is built on the south coast of St Michael's, in 
37 40' N. and 25° 36' W. Its mild climate, and the fine scenery 
of its mountain background, render it very attractive to visitors; 
it is the commercial centre, and the most populous city of the 
archipelago. Besides the cathedral, it contains several inter- 
esting churches and monasteries, and an observatory. Formerly 
its natural inner harbour only admitted vessels of light draught, 
while larger ships were compelled to anchor in an open road- 
stead, which was inaccessible during the prevalence of southerly 
gales. But great improvements were effected after i860 by 
the construction of a breakwater 2800 ft. long. 

PONT-A-MOUSSON, a town of northern France in the depart- 
ment of Meurthe-et-Moselle, 17 m. N.N.W. of Nancy by rail. 
Pop. (1906), 12,282. The Moselle, which is canalized, divides 
the town into two quarters, united by a bridge of the late 16th 
century. The church of St Martin, dating from the 13th, 14th 
and 15th centuries, has a handsome facade with two towers, 
and in the interior a choir screen and Holy Sepulchre of the 1 5th 
century. The lower ecclesiastical seminary occupies the build- 
ing of an old Premonstratensian convent. There are several 
interesting old houses. The town has a communal college and 
engineering workshops, blast furnaces, and manufactures of 
lacquered ware, paper, cardboard, cables and iron-ware. Dating 
from the 9th or 10th century, Pont-a-Mousson constituted a 
lordship, which was made a marquisate in 1354. It was from 
1572 to 1763 the seat of a well-known university. 

PONTANUS, JOVIANUS (1426-1503), Italian humanist and 
poet, was born in 1426 at Cerreto in the duchy of Spoleto, 



PONTARLIER— PONTECOULANT 



63 



where his father was murdered in one of the frequent civil 
brawls which then disturbed the peace of Italian towns. His 
mother escaped with the boy to Perugia, and it was here that 
Pontano received his first instruction in languages and literature. 
Failing to recover his patrimony, he abandoned Umbria, and 
at the age of twenty-two established himself at Naples, which 
continued to be his chief place of residence during a long and 
prosperous career. He here began a close friendship with the 
distinguished scholar, Antonio Beccadelli, through whose in- 
fluence he gained admission to the royal chancery of Alphonso 
the Magnanimous. Alphonso discerned the singular gifts of 
the young scholar, and made him tutor to his sons. Pontano's 
connexion with the Aragonese dynasty as political adviser, 
military secretary and chancellor was henceforth a close one; 
and the most doubtful passage in his diplomatic career is when 
he welcomed Charles VIII. of France upon the entry of that king 
into Naples in 1405, thus showing that he was too ready to 
abandon the princes upon whose generosity his fortunes had been 
raised. Pontano illustrates in a marked manner the position 
of power to which men of letters and learning had arrived in 
Italy. He entered Naples as a penniless scholar. He wasr 
almost immediately made the companion and trusted friend of 
its sovereign, loaded with honours, lodged in a fine house, 
enrolled among the nobles of the realm, enriched, and placed at 
the very height of social importance. Following the example of 
Pomponio Leto in Rome and of Cosimo de' Medici at Florence, 
Pontano founded an academy for the meetings of learned and 
distinguished men. This became the centre of fashion as well 
as of erudition in the southern capital, and subsisted long after 
its founder's death. In 1461 he married his first wife, Adriana 
Sassone, who bore him one son and three daughters before her 
death in 1491. Nothing distinguished Pontano more than the 
strength of his domestic feeling. He was passionately attached 
to his wife and children; and, while his friend Beccadelli signed 
the licentious verses of Hermaphroditus, his own Muse celebrated 
in liberal but loyal strains the pleasures of conjugal affection, 
the charm of infancy and the sorrows of a husband and a father 
in the loss of those he loved. Not long after the death of his 
first wife Pontano took in second marriage a beautiful girl of 
Ferrara, who is only known to us under the name of Stella. 
Although he was at least sixty-five years of age at this period, 
his poetic faculty displayed itself with more than usual warmth 
and lustre in the glowing series of elegies, styled Eridanus, 
which he poured forth to commemorate the rapture of this 
union. Stella's one child, Lucilio, survived his birth but fifty 
days; nor did his mother long remain to comfort the scholar's 
old age. Pontano had already lost his only son by the first 
marriage; therefore his declining years were solitary. He died 
in 1503 at Naples, where a remarkable group of terra-cotta 
figures, life-sized and painted, still adorns his tomb in the church 
of Monte Oliveto. He is there represented together with his 
patron Alphonso and his friend Sannazzaro in adoration before 
the dead Christ. 

As a diplomatist and state official Pontano played a part of 
some importance in the affairs of southern Italy and in the 
Barons' War, the wars with Rome, and the expulsion and restora- 
tion of the Aragonese dynasty. But his chief claim upon the 
attentions of posterity is as a scholar. His writings divide 
themselves into dissertations upon such topics as the " Liberality 
of Princes " or " Ferocity," composed in the rhetorical style of 
the day, and poems. He was distinguished for energy of Latin 
style, for vigorous intellectual powers, and for the faculty, rare 
among his contemporaries, of expressing the facts of modern 
life, the actualities of personal emotion, in language sufficiently 
classical yet always characteristic of the man. His prose 
treatises are more useful to students of manners than the similar 
lucubrations of Poggio. Yet it was principally as a Latin poet 
that he exhibited his full strength. An ambitious didactic 
composition in hexameters, entitled Urania, embodying the 
astronomical science of the age, and adorning this high theme 
with brilliant mythological episodes, won the admiration of 
Italy. It still remains a monument of fertile invention, 



exuberant facility and energetic handling of material. Not less 
excellent is the didactic poem on orange trees, De hortis Hesperi- 
dum. His most original compositions in verse, however, are 
elegiac and hendecasyllabic pieces on personal topics — the De 
conjugali amore, Eridanus, Tumuli, Naeniae, Baiae, &c. — in 
which he uttered his vehemently passionate emotions with a 
warmth of southern colouring, an evident sincerity, and a truth 
of painting from reality which excuse their erotic freedom. 

Pontano's prose and poems were printed by the Aldi at Venice. 
For his life see Ardito, Giovanni Pontano e i suoi tempi (Naples, 
1871); for his place in the history of literature, Symonds, Renais- 
sance in Italy. (J. A. S.) 

PONTARLIER, a frontier town of eastern France, capital of 
an arrondissement in the department of Doubs, 36 m. S.E. of 
Besancon by road. Pop. (1906), 7896. It is situated 2750 ft. 
above sea-level on the Doubs, about four miles from the Swiss 
frontier, and forms an important strategic point at the mouth 
of the defile of La Cluse, one of the principal passes across the 
Jura. The pass is defended by the modern fort of Larmont, 
and by the Fort de Joux, which was originally built in the 10th 
century by the family of Joux and played a conspicuous part 
in the history of Franche-Comte. Pontarlier is the junction 
of railway lines to Neuchatel, Lausanne, Lons-le-Saunier, Dole 
and Besancon. A triumphal arch of the 18th century com- 
memorates the reconstruction of the town after the destructive 
fire of 1736. It was at Pontarlier that the French army of the 
East made its last stand against the Prussians in 187 1 before 
crossing the Swiss frontier. The distillation of herbs, extensively 
cultivated for the manufacture of absinthe, kirsch and other 
liqueurs, is the chief industry. The town is the seat of a sub- 
prefect and has a tribunal of first instance and a communal 
college. 

PONT AUDEMER, a town of north-western France, capital 
of an arrondissement in the department of Eure, 39 m. N.W. 
of Evreux, on the Risle, a left-bank affluent of the Seine, and 
on the railway from Evreux to Honfleur. Pop. (1906), 5700. 
The church of St Ouen, which has fine stained glass of the 
1 6th century, combines the late Gothic and Renaissance styles; 
its choir is Romanesque. Local institutions are the sub-prefec- 
ture, a tribunal of first instance, a board of trade-arbitration, a 
chamber and tribunal of commerce. Manufacturing industry 
is active, and includes the founding of malleable metal, a spur 
factory, the manufacture of glue and paper, cotton-spinning 
and various branches of leather manufacture. There is trade 
in flax, wool, grain, cattle, cider, paper, iron, wood and coal. 
The port has a length of over half a mile on the Risle, which is 
navigable for small vessels from this point to its mouth (10 m.). 
The town owes its name to Audomar, a Frank lord, who in 
the 7th or 8th century built a bridge over the Risle at this point. 
It was the scene of several provincial ecclesiastical councils in 
the 1 2th and 13th centuries and of meetings of the estates of 
Normandy in the 13th century. 

PONTE (Ital. for " bridge "), a rough game peculiar to the 
city of Pisa, in which the players, divided into two sides 
and provided with padded costumes, contended for the 
possession of one of the bridges over the Arno. The weapon 
used, both for offence and defence, was a kind of shield which 
served as a club as well. 

A history and description of the game may be found in William 
Heywood's Polio and Ponte (London, 1904). 

PONTECORVO, a city of Campania, Italy, in the province of 
Caserta, on the Garigliano, about 48 m. from Caserta and 3 m. 
from Aquino on the railway from Rome to Naples. Pop. (1901), 
10,518 (town); 12,492 (commune). The town is approached by 
a triumphal arch adorned with a statue of Pius IX. The princi- 
pality of Pontecorvo (about 40 sq. m. in extent), once an indepen- 
dent state, belonged alternately to the Tomacelli and the abbots 
of Monte Cassino. Napoleon bestowed it on Bernadotte in i8o£, 
and in 1 8 10 it was incorporated with the French Empire. 

PONTECOULANT, LOUIS GUSTAVE LE DOULCET, Comte 
de (1764-1853), French politician, was born at Caen on the 17th 
of November 1764. He began a career in the army in 1778. 



6 4 



PONTEFRACT 



A moderate supporter of the revolution, he was returned to the 
Convention for the department of Calvados in 1792, and became 
commissary with the army of the North. He voted for the 
imprisonment of Louis XVI. during the war, and his banishment 
after tne peace. He then attached himself to the party of the 
Gironde, and in August 1793 was outlawed. He had refused to 
defend his compatriot Charlotte Corday, who wrote him a letter 
of reproach on her way to the scaffold. He returned to the 
Convention on the 8th of March 1795, and showed an unusual 
spirit of moderation by defending Prieur de la Marne and Robert 
Lindet. President of the Convention in July 1 795, he was for 
some months a member of the council of public safety. He 
was subsequently elected to the council of five hundred, but'was 
suspected of royalist leanings, and had to spend some time in 
retirement before the establishment of the consulate.. Becoming 
senator in 1805, and count of the empire in 1808, he organized 
the national guard in Franche Comte in 181 1, and the defence 
of the north-eastern frontier in 181 3. At the first restoration 
Louis XVIII. made him a peer of France, and although he 
received a similar honour from Napoleon during the Hundred 
Days, he sat in the upper house under the Second Restoration. 
He died in Paris on the 3rd of April 1853, leaving memoirs and 
correspondence from which were extracted four volumes (1861- 
1865) of Souvenirs historiques et parlementaires 1764-1848. 

His son Louis Adolphe Le Doulcet, comte de Pontecoulant 
(1794-1882), served under Napoleon in 1812 and 1814, and then 
emigrated to Brazil, where he took part in the abortive insurrec- 
tion at Pernambuco in 181 7. He also organized a French 
volunteer contingent in the Belgian revolution of 1830, and was 
wounded at Louvain. The rest of his life was spent in Paris 
in the study of ancient music and acoustics. Among his works 
was one on the Musee instrumental du conservatoire de musique , 
(1864). A younger brother, Philippe Gustave Le Doulcet, 
comte de Pontecoulant (1795-1874), served in the army until 
1849, when he retired to devote himself to mathematics and 
astronomy. His works include Thtorie analytique du systeme 
du monde (Paris, 1829-1846) and Traiti elementaire de physique 
celeste (2 vols., Paris, 1840). 

PONTEFRACT (pronounced and sometimes written " Pom- 
fret "), a market town and municipal and parliamentary borough 
in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 21 m. S.S.W. from 
York, served by the Midland, North-Eastern and Lancashire & 
Yorkshire railways. Pop. (1891), 9702; (1901), 13,427. It is 
well situated, mainly on an eminence, near the junction of the 
Aire and the Calder. The most important of the antiquarian 
remains are the ruins of the famous castle situated on a rocky 
height, originally covering with its precincts an area of over 
8 acres, and containing in all eight round towers. The remains 
are principally of Norman date, and an unusual feature of the 
stronghold is the existence of various subterranean chambers in 
the rock. Below the castle is All Saints church, which suffered 
severely during the siege of the castle, but still retains some work 
of the 1 2th century. In 1837 the tower and transepts were 
fitted for divine service. The church of St Giles, formerly a 
chapel of ease to All Saints, but made parochial in the 18th 
century, is of Norman date, but most of the present structure 
is modern. The 17th-century spire was removed in 1707, and 
replaced by a square tower, which was rebuilt in 1797; the chan- 
cel was rebuilt in 1869. In Southgate is an ancient hermitage 
and oratory cut out of the solid rock, which dates from 1396. 
On St Thomas's Hill, where Thomas, earl of Lancaster, was 
beheaded in 1322, a chantry was erected in 1373, the site of 
which is now occupied by a windmill built of its stones. At 
Monkhill there are the remains of a Tudor building called the 
Old Hall, probably constructed out of the old priory of St John's. 
A grammar school of ancient foundation, renewed by Elizabeth 
and George III., occupies modern buildings. The town-hall 
was built at the close of the 18th century on the site of one 
erected in 1656, which succeeded the old moot-hall dating from 
Saxon times. Among other buildings are the court house, the 
market hall, the assembly rooms (a handsome building adjoining 
the town-hall), and large barracks. The foundation of the 



principal almshouse, that of St Nicholas, dates from before the 
Conquest. Trinity Hospital was founded by Sir Robert Knolles 
(d. 1407), an eminent military commander in the French wars 
of Edward III. At Ackworth, in the neighbourhood, there is a 
large school of the. Society of Friends or Quakers (1778), in the 
foundation of which Dr John Fothergill (17 12-1780) was a prime 
mover. There are extensive gardens and nurseries in the 
neighbourhood of Pontefract, and liquorice is largely grown 
for the manufacture of the celebrated Pomfret cakes. The 
town possesses ironfoundries, sack and matting manufactories, 
tanneries, breweries, corn mills and brick and terra-cotta works. 
The parliamentary borough, falling within the Osgoldcross 
division of the county, returns one member (before 1885 the 
number was, two). The town is governed by a mayor, six alder- 
men and 18 councillors. Area, 4078 acres. 

The, remains of a Roman camp have been discovered near 
Pontefract, but there is no trace of settlement in the town itself 
until after the Conquest. At the time of the Domesday Survey 
Tateshall (now Tanshelf, a suburb of the town) was the chief 
manor and contained 60 burgesses, while Kirkby, which after- 
awards became the borough of Pontefract, was one of its members, 
The change was probably owing to the fact that Ilbert de Lacy, 
to whom the Conqueror had granted the whole of the honour of 
Pontefract, founded a castle at Kirkby, on a site said to have 
been occupied by a fortification raised by Ailric, a Saxon thane. 
Several reasons are given for the change of name but none is at 
all satisfactory. One account says that it was caused by a 
broken bridge which delayed the Conqueror's advance to the 
north, but this is known to have been at Ferrybridge, three 
miles away; a second says that the new name was derived from 
a Norman town called Pontfrete, which, however, never existed; 
and a third that it was caused by the breaking of a bridge in 
1 1 53 on the arrival of the archbishop of York, St William, when 
several people were miraculously preserved from drowning, 
although the town was already known as Pontefract in 1140 
when Archbishop Thurstan died there. The manor remained 
in the Lacy family until it passed by marriage to Thomas, duke 
of Lancaster, who was beheaded on a hill outside the town after 
the battle of Boroughbridge. His estates were restored to his 
brother Henry, earl of Lancaster, on the accession of Edward III., 
and the manor has since then formed part of the duchy of 
Lancaster. The town took part in most of the rebellions in the 
north of England, and in 1399 Richard II. was imprisoned and 
secretly murdered in the castle. During the Wars of the Roses 
the town was loyal to Henry VI., and several of the Yorkist 
leaders were executed here after the battle of Wakefield. It was 
taken by Robert Aske, leader of the Pilgrimage of Grace, in 
1536. In 1642 the castle was garrisoned for Charles I. and 
sustained four sieges, the second, in 1644, being successful, 
but two years later it was retaken by the royalists, who held it 
until after the execution of the king, when they surrendered to 
General Lambert and the castle was destroyed. 

Roger de Lacy in n 94 granted a charter to the burgesses 
confirming their liberties and right to be a free borough at a 
fee^farm of 1 2d. yearly for every toft, granting them the same 
privileges as the burgesses of Grimsby, and that their reeve 
should be chosen annually by the lord of the manor at his court 
leet, preference being given to the burgesses if they would pay 
as much as others for the office. Henry de Lacy cofirmed this 
charter in 1278 and in 1484 Richard III. incorporated the town 
under the title of mayor and burgesses and granted a gild 
merchant with a hanse. His charter was withdrawn on the 
accession of Henry VII. and a similar one was granted, while in 
1489 the. king gave the burgesses licence to continue choosing a 
mayor as they had done in the time of Richard III. In 1606-1607 
James I. confirmed the charter of Henry VII. and regulated the 
choice of the mayor by providing that he should be elected from 
among the chief burgesses by the burgesses themselves. The 
privilege of returning two members to parliament which had 
belonged to Pontefract at the end of the 13th century was revived 
in 1620-1621 on the grounds that the charter of 1606-1607 
had restored all their privileges to the burgesses. Since the 



PONTEVEDRA— PONTIAC 



65 



Redistribution of Seats Act of 1885 one member only has been 
returned. Liquorice was largely grown as early as 1 700-1 701, 
when the corporation prohibited the sale of buds or sets of 
the plant. Richard III. by his incorporation charter granted 
the market rights in the borough to the burgesses, who still 
hold them under his charter. 

See Victoria County History: Yorkshire; Eighth Report of the Royal 
Commission on Historical Manuscripts ( 1 870- 1 80,7) ; Book of Entries of 
the Pontefract Corporation, 1653-1726 (ed. by Richard Holmes, 1882) ; 
Benjamin Boothroyd, The History of the Ancient Borough of Ponte- 
fract (1807); George Fox, The History of Pontefract (1827). 

PONTEVEDRA, a maritime province of north-western Spain, 
formed in 1833 of districts taken from Galicia, and bounded 
on the N. by Corunna, E. by Lugo and Orense, S. by Portugal 
and W. by the Atlantic. Pop. (1900), 457,262; area, 1695 sq. m. 
Pontevedra is the smallest of the provinces of Spain except 
the three Basque Provinces; its density of population, 269-8 
inhabitants per square mile, is only excelled in the provinces of 
Barcelona and Biscay (Vizcaya). Both of these are mining 
and manufacturing districts, while Pontevedra is dependent 
on agriculture and fisheries. The surface is everywhere moun- 
tainous, and consists almost entirely of arable land, pasture or 
forest. The coast-line is deeply indented; navigation is rendered 
difficult by the prevalence of fogs in summer and storms in 
winter. The river Mino (Portuguese Minho) forms the southern 
frontier, and is navigable by small ships as far as Salvatierra; 
.and the province is watered by many smaller streams, all flowing, 
like the Mino, into the Atlantic. The largest of these are the 
Ulla, which separates Pontevedra from Corunna, the Umia and 
the Lerez. Pontevedra has a mild climate, a fertile soil and a 
very heavy rainfall. Large agricultural fairs are held in the 
chief towns, and there is a considerable export trade in cattle 
to Great Britain and Portugal, hams, salt meat and fish, eggs, 
breadstuffs, leather and wine. Vigo is the headquarters of 
shipping, and one of the chief ports of northern Spain. There 
are also good harbours at Bayona, Carril, Marin, Villagarcia and 
elsewhere among the deep estuaries of the coast. At Tuy the 
Spanish and Portuguese railways meet, and from this town one 
line goes up the Mino valley to Orense, and another northward 
along the coast to Santiago de Gompostela. 

PONTEVEDRA, the capital of the Spanish province of Ponte- 
vedra; on the Tuy-Corunna railway, and on the river Lerez, 
which here enters the Ria de Pontevedra, an inlet of the Atlantic. 
Pop. (1900), 22,330. The name of the town is derived from the 
ancient Roman bridge {pons vetus) of twelve arches, which spans 
the Lerez near its mouth. Pontevedra is a picturesque town, 
mainly built of granite, and still partly enclosed by medieval 
fortifications. It contains handsome provincial and municipal 
halls erected in the 19th century, and many convents, some of 
which have been converted into hospitals or schools. Marin and 
Sangenjo are ports on the Ria de Pontevedra, which is the seat 
of a thriving sardine fishery. There is an active trade in grain, 
wine and fruit; cloth, hats, leather and pottery are manufactured. 
PONTIAC (t. 1 7 20-1 769), Indian chief of the Ottawa and 
leader in the " Conspiracy of Pontiac " in 1763-64, was born 
between 1712 and 1720 probably on the Maumee river, near the 
mouth of the Auglaize. His father was an Ottawa, and his 
mother an Ojibwa. By 1755 he had become a chief of the 
Ottawa and a leader of the loose confederacy of the Ottawa, 
Potawatomi and Ojibwa. He was an ally of France and 
possibly commanded the Ottawa in the defeat (July 9, 1755) of 
General Edward Braddock. In November 1760 he met Major 
Robert Rogers, then on his way to occupy Michilimackinac and 
other forts surrendered by the French, and agreed to let the 
English troops pass unmolested on condition that he should be 
treated with respect by the British. Like other Indians he soon 
realized the difference between French and English rule — that 
the Indians were no longer welcomed at the forts and that they 
would ultimately be deprived of their hunting grounds by en- 
croaching English settlements. French hunters and traders 
encouraged Indian disaffection with vague promises of help from 
France; in 1762 an Indian "prophet" among the Delawares 
on the Muskingum preached a union of the Indians to expel the 
xxii. 3 



English; and in that year (as in 1761) there were abortive con ■ 
spiracies to massacre the English garrisons of Detroit, Fort 
Niagara and Fort Pitt (now Pittsburg). Pontiac seems to have 
been chief of a magic association (the Metai), and he took advan- 
tage of the religious fervour and the general unrest among the 
Indians to organize in the winter of 1762-63 a simultaneous 
attack on the English forts to be made in May 1763 at a certain 
phase of the moon. On the 27th of April 1763, before a meeting 
near Detroit of delegates from most of the Algonquian tribes, he 
outlined his plans. On the 7th of May, with 60 warriors, he 
attempted unsuccessfully to gain admission to Detroit, which 
then had a garrison of about 160 under Major Henry Gladwin 
(1730-1791); and then besieged the fort from the 9th of May to 
the end of October. On the 28th of May reinforcements from 
Fort Niagara were ambuscaded near the mouth of the Detroit. 
In June the Wyandot and Potawatomi withdrew from the siege, 
but on the 29th of July they attacked reinforcements (280 men, 
including 20 of Rogers's rangers) from Fort Niagara under 
Captain James Dalyell (or Dalzell), who, however, gained the 
fort, and in spite of Gladwin's opposition on the 31st of July 
attacked Pontiac's camp, but was ambuscaded on Bloody Run 
and was killed, nearly 60 others being killed or wounded. On 
the 1 2th of October the Potawatomi, Ojibwa and Wyandot made 
peace with the English; with the Ottawa Pontiac continued the 
siege until the 30th of October, when he learned from Neyon 
de la Valliere, commandant of Fort Chartres (among the Illinois) 
that he would not be aided by the French. Pontiac then 
withdrew to the Maumee. 

Fort Pitt with a garrison of 330 men under Captain Simeon 
Eciiyer was attacked on the 22nd of June and was besieged 
from the 27th of July to the 1st of August, when the Indians 
withdrew to meet a relief expedition of 500 men, mostly High- 
landers, under Colonel Henry Bouquet (1719-1766), who had 
set out from Carlisle, Pennsylvania, on the 18th of July, and 
relieved Fort Ligonier (on the site of the borough of Ligonier, 
Westmoreland county, Penn.) on the 2nd of August, but 
was surprised on the 5th, and fought (5th and 6th) the battle 
of Bushy Run (25 m. S.E. of Fort Pitt), finally flanking and 
routing the Indians after tricking them by a feinted retreat of 
a part of his force. Bouquet reached Fort Pitt on the 10th 
of August. At Michilimackinac (Mackinac), Michigan, on the 
4th of June, the Indians gained admission to the fort by a trick, 
killed nearly a score of the garrison and captured the remainder, 
including Captain George Etherington, the commander, besides 
several English traders, including Alexander Henry (1739-1824). 1 
Some of the captives were seized by the Ottawa, who had taken 
no part in the attack; a part of these were released, and reached 
Montreal on the 13th of August. Seven of the prisoners kept 
by the Ojibwa were killed in cold blood by one of their chiefs. 
Fort Sandusky (on the site of Sandusky, Ohio) was taken on the 
1 6th of May by Wyandot; and Fort St Joseph (on the site of the 
present Niles, Mich.) was captured on the 25th of May and n 
men (out of its garrison of 14) were massacred, the others with the 
commandant, Ensign Schlosser, being taken to Detroit and 
exchanged for Indian prisoners. On the 27th of May Fort 
Miami (on the site of Fort Wayne, Indiana) surrendered to the 
Indians after its commander, Ensign Holmes, had been treacher- 
ously killed. Fort Ouiatanon (about 5 m. south-west of the present 
Lafayette, Indiana) and Fort Presque Isle (on the site of Erie, 
Penn.) were taken by the Indians on the 1st and 16th of 
June respectively; and Fort Le Boeuf (on the site of Waterford, 

1 Henry, a native of New Brunswick, N.J., had become a fur- 
trader at Fort Michilimackinac in 1761. He was rescued by 
Wawatam, an Ottawa, who had adopted him as a brother; in 1764 
he took part in Colonel John Bradstreet's expedition; in 1770, with 
Sir William Johnson, the duke of Gloucester and others, formed a 
Company to mine copper in the Lake Superior region; was a fur- 
trader again until 1796; and then became a merchant in Montreal. 
His Travels and Adventures in Canada and the Indian Territories 
between the Years 1760 and 1776 (1809; reprinted 1901) is a valuable 
account of the fur trade and of his adventures at Michilimackinac. 
He is not to be confused with his nephew of the same name, also a 
fur-trader, whose journal was published in 1897 in 3 vols., as New 
Light on the Early History of the Greater Northwest. 



66 



PONTIAC— -PONTIVY 



Penn.) was surprised on the 18th, but its garrison escaped, 
and seven (out of 13) got safely to Fort Pitt. Fort Venango 
(near the site of the present Venango, Penn.) was taken 
and burnt about the same time by some Senecas (the only 
Iroquois in the conspiracy), who massacred the garrison and 
later burned the commander, Lieut. Gordon. About 500 
Senecas on the 14th of September surprised a wagon train, 
escorted by 24 soldiers, from Fort Schlosser (2 m. above Niagara 
Falls), drove most of them over the brink of the Devil's Hole 
(below the cataract), and then nearly annihilated a party from 
Fort Niagara sent to the rescue. 

In 1763, although the main attacks on Detroit and Fort Pitt 
had failed, nearly every minor fort attacked was captured, 
about 200 settlers and traders were killed, and in property 
destroyed or plundered the English lost about £100,000, the 
greatest loss in men and property being in western Pennsylvania. 
In June 1764 Colonel John Bradstreet (1711-1774) led about 
1 200 men from Albany to Fort Niagara, where at a great gather- 
ing of the Indians several treaties were made in July; in August 
he made at Presque Isle a treaty (afterwards annulled by 
General Thomas Gage) with some Delaware and Shawnee chiefs; 
and in September made treaties (both unsatisfactory) with the 
Wyandot, Ottawa and Miami at Sandusky, and with various 
chiefs at Detroit. He sent Captain Howard to occupy the forts 
at Michilimackinac, Green Bay and Sault Ste Marie, and Captain 
Morris up the Maumee river, where he conferred with Pontiac, 
and then to Fort Miami, where he narrowly escaped death at 
the hands of the Miami; and with his men Bradstreet returned 
to Oswego in November, having accomplished little of value. 
An expedition of 1 500 men under Colonel Bouquet left Carlisle, 
Pennsylvania, in August, and near the site of the present 
Tuscarawas, Ohio, induced the Indians to release their prisoners 
and to stop fighting — the practical end of the conspiracy. 
Pontiac himself made submission to Sir William Johnson on the 
25th of July 1766 at Oswego, New York. In April 1769 he was 
murdered, when drunk, at Cahokia (nearly opposite St Louis) 
by a Kaskaskia Indian bribed by an English trader; and he was 
buried near the St Louis Fort. His death occasioned a bitter 
war in which a remnant of the Illinois was practically annihilated 
in 1770 at Starved Rock (between the present Ottawa and La 
Salle), Illinois, by the Potawatomi, who had been followers of 
Pontiac. Pontiac was one of the most remarkable men of the 
Indian race in American history, and was notable in particular 
for his power (rare among the Indians) of organization. 

See Francis Parkman, The Conspiracy of Pontiac (2 vols., Boston, 
1851; 10th ed., 1896). 

PONTIAC, a city and the county-seat of Oakland county, 
Michigan, U.S.A., on the Clinton river, about 26 m. N.W. of 
Detroit. Pop. (1890), 6200; (1900) 9769, of whom 2020 were 
foreign-born; (1910 U.S. census) 14,532. It is served by the Grand 
Trunk and the Pontiac, Oxford & Northern railways (being the 
southern terminus of the latter), and by the Detroit & Pontiac 
and the North-Western electric inter-urban lines. In the sur- 
rounding country there are many small, picturesque lakes (the 
largest being Orchard, about 6 m. south-east of Pontiac, Cass 
and Elizabeth lakes), and there is good hunting and fishing in 
the vicinity. In Pontiac is the Eastern Michigan Asylum for 
the insane (1878), -with grounds covering more than 500 acres. 
The city has various manufactures, and the value of the factory 
products increased from $2,470,887 in 1900 to $3,047,422 in 
1904, or 23-3%. Agricultural products, fruit and wool from 
the surrounding country are shipped in considerable quantities. 
The municipality owns and operates its waterworks. Pontiac, 
named in honour of the famous Indian chief of that name, was 
laid out as a town in 1818, became the county-seat in 1820, was 
incorporated as a village in 1837, and was chartered in 1861. 

PONTIANUS, pope from 230 to 235. He was exiled by the 
emperor Maximinus to Sardinia, and in consequence of this sen- 
tence resigned (Sept. 28, 235). He was succeeded by Anteros. 

PONTIFEX. The collegium of the Pontifices was the most 
important priesthood of ancient Rome, being specially charged 
with the administration of the jus divinum, i.e. that part of the 



civil law which regulated the relations of the community with 
the deities recognized by the state officially, together with a 
general superintendence of the worship of gens and family. 
The name is clearly derived from pons and facere, but whether 
this should be taken as indicating any special connexion with the 
sacred bridge over the Tiber (Pons Sublicius) , or what the original 
meaning may have been, cannot now be determined. The 
college existed under the monarchy, when its members were 
probably three in number; they may safely be considered as 
legal advisers of the rex in all matters of religion. Under the 
republic they emerge into prominence under a pontifex maximus, 
who took over the king's duties as chief administrator of religious 
law, just as his chief sacrificial duties were taken by the rex 
sacrorum; his dwelling was the regia, " the house of the king." 
During the republican period the number of pontifices increased, 
probably by multiples of three, until after Sulla (82 B.C.) we 
find them fifteen; for the year 57 B.C. we have a complete list 
of them in Cicero (Harusp. resp. 6, 12). Included in the 
collegium were also the rex sacrorum, the flamines, three assistant 
pontifices (minores), and the vestal virgins, who were all chosen 
by the pontifex maximus. Vacancies in the body of pontifices 
were originally filled by co-optation; but from the second Punic 
War onwards the pontifex maximus was chosen by a peculiar 
form of popular election, and in the last age of the republic this 
held good for all the members. They all held office for life. 

The immense authority of the college centred in the pontifex 
maximus, the other pontifices forming his consilium or advising 
body. His functions were partly sacrificial or ritualistic, but 
these were the least important ; the real power lay in the adminis- 
tration of the jus divinum, the chief departments of which may 
briefly be described as follows: (1) the regulation of all expiatory 
ceremonials needed as the result of pestilence, lightning, &c. ; 
(2) the consecration of all temples and other sacred places and 
objects dedicated to the gods by the state through its magis- 
trates; (3) the regulation of the calendar both astronomically 
and in detailed application to the public life of the state; (4) the 
administration of the law relating to burials and burying-places, 
and the worship of the Manes, or dead ancestors; (5) the superin- 
tendence of all marriages by confarreatio, i.e. originally of all 
legal patrician marriages; (6) the administration of the law of 
adoption and of testamentary succession. They had also the 
care of the state archives, of the lists of magistrates, and kept 
records of their own decisions (commentarii) and of the chief 
events of each year (annales). 

It is obvious that a priesthood having such functions as these, 
and holding office for life, must have been a great power in the 
state, and for the first three centuries of the republic it is probable 
that the pontifex maximus was in fact its most powerful member. 
The office might be combined with a magistracy, and, though 
its powers were declaratory rather than executive, it may fairly 
be described as quasi-magisterial. Under the later republic it 
was coveted chiefly for the great dignity of the position; Julius 
Caesar held it for the last twenty years of his life, and Augustus 
took it after the death of Lepidus in 12 B.C., after which it 
became inseparable from the office of the reigning emperor. 
With the decay of the empire the title very naturally fell to the 
popes, whose functions as administrators of religious law closely 
resembled those of the ancient Roman priesthood, hence the 
modern use of " pontiff " and " pontifical." 

For further details consult Marquardt, Staatsverwaltung, iii. 
2 35 se Q- ! Wissowa, Religion und Kultus der Romer, 430 seq. ; 
Bouche-Leclercq, Les Pontifes, passim. (W. W. F.*) 

PONTIVY, a town of western France, chief town of an arron- 
dissement in the department of Morbihan, 46 m. N.N.W. of 
Vannes by rail. Pop. (1906), 6312 (town); 9506 (commune). 
The town, situated on the Blavet, at its confluence with the 
Nantes-Brest canal, comprises two distinct parts — the old town 
and that to the south known as Napoleonville. The latter, 
built by orderof Napoleon I., who desired to make it the military 
headquarters for Brittany, and consisting chiefly of barracks, 
subsequently gave its name to the whole town, but in 1871 the 
old name was resumed. The ancient castle (1485) of the dukes 



PONT-L'ABBE— PONTOON 



67 



of Rohan, whose capital the town was, is occupied by the Musee 
le Brigant of art and archaeology. A monument to commem- 
orate the Breton-Angevin Union, the deputies of which met at 
Pontivy in 1790, was erected in 1894, and there are statues of 
Dr Guepin, a democrat, and General de Lourmel (d. 1854). The 
town has a sub-prefecture, a tribunal of first instance, and a 
lycee for boys. Pontivy had its origin in a monastery founded 
in the 7th century by St Ivy, a monk of Lindisfarne. 

PONT-L'ABBfi, a town of western France in the department 
of Finistere, 13 m. S.W. of Quimper by rail. Pop. (1906), of the 
town 4485, of the commune 6432. The town is situated on the 
right bank of the estuary or river of Pont-PAbbe, 2 m. from the 
sea. Its port carries on fishing, imports timber, coal, &c, and 
exports mine-props and the cereals and vegetables of the neigh- 
bourhood. Of the old buildings of the town the chief is a church 
of the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, once attached to a Carmelite 
convent; an old castle is occupied by the h&tel de ville. The 
local costumes, trimmed with the bright-coloured embroideries 
for which the town is noted, are among the most striking in 
Brittany; the bigouden or head-dress of the women has given its 
name to the inhabitants. Pont-1'Abbe carries on flour-milling 
and the extraction of chemicals from seaweed. 

PONTMARTIN, ARMAND AUGUSTIN JOSEPH MARIE 
FERRARD, Comte de (1811-1890), French critic and man of 
letters, was born at Avignon (Vaucluse) on the 16th of July 181 1. 
Imbued by family tradition with legitimist sympathies, he began 
by attacking the followers of the encyclopaedists and their 
successors. In the Assemblee nationale he published his Causeries 
litUraires, a series of attacks on prominent Liberals, which created 
some sensation. Pontmartin was an indefatigable journalist, 
and most of his papers were eventually published in volume 
form: Contes et reveries d'un planteur de choux (1845); Causeries 
du samedi (1857-1860); Nouveaux samedis (1865-1881), &c. 
But the most famous of all his books is Les Jeudis de Mme. 
Charbonneau (1862), which under the form of a novel offered 
a series of malicious and witty portraits of contemporary 
writers. Pontmartin died at Avignon on the 29th of March 
1890. 

See Hatzfeld and Meunier, Les Critiques littiraires du XIX" 
siecle (1894). 

PONTOISE, a town of northern France, capital of an arron- 
dissement of the department of Seine-et-Oise, 18 m. N.W. of 
Paris on the railway to Dieppe. Pop. (1906), 7963. Pontoise 
is picturesquely situated on the right bank of the Oise where it 
is joined by the Viosne. The traffic on the main river is large, 
and the tributary drives numerous mills. Of the many churches 
that used to exist in the town two only remain: St Maclou, a 
church of the 12 th century, altered and restored in the 15th and 
1 6th centuries by Pierre Lemercier, the famous architect of St 
Eustache at Paris, and containing a fine holy sepulchre of the 
1 6th century; and Notre-Dame, of the close of the 16th century, 
which contains the tomb of St Gautier, abbot of Meulan in the 
1 2th century. At the top of the flight of steps by which St 
Maclou is approached is the statue of General Leclerc, a native of 
the town and husband of Pauline Bonaparte. Grain and flour 
are the principal staples of the trade; a well-known fair is held 
in November. The town has a sub-prefecture, tribunals of first 
instance and of commerce and a communal college. At Meriel, 
near Pontoise, there are interesting remains of the Cistercian 
abbey of Le Val. Pontoise existed in the time of the Gauls as 
Briva Isarae (Bridge of the Oise). It was destroyed by the 
Normans in the 9th century, united with Normandy in 1032, and 
acquired by Philip I. in 1064. Capital of the French Vexin, it 
possessed an important stronghold and played a conspicuous 
part in the wars between the French and the dukes of Normandy 
and in the Hundred Years' War. The English took it in 1419, 
and again in 1437. In 1441 Charles VII. took it by storm after 
a three months' siege. After belonging to the count of Charolais 
down to the treaty of Conflans, it was given as a dowry to Jeanne 
of France when she was divorced by Louis XII. The parlement 
of Paris several times met in the town; and in 1561 the states- 
general convoked at Orleans removed thither after the death of 



Francis II. During the Fronde it offered a refuge to Louis XIV. 
and Mazarin. Henry III. made it an apanage for his brother 
the duke of Anjou. At a later period it passed to the duke of 
Conti. Down to the Revolution it remained a monastic town. 

PONTOON (Fr. ponton, from Lat. pons, a bridge), a flat- 
bottomed boat, used as a ferry boat or lighter; especially a boat 
of particular design intended to form part of a military bridge. 
In modern hydraulic engineering the words ponton and pontoon 
are used to designate hollow water-tight structures which are 
secured to sunken wrecks and bring them up to the surface, and 
also the hollow chambers which serve as gates for docks and 
sluices, and are lowered and raised by the admission and pumping 
out of water. 

Military Pontoon Bridges. — From time immemorial floating 
bridges of vessels bearing a roadway of beams and planks have 
been employed to facilitate the passage of rivers and arms of the 
sea. Xerxes crossed the Hellespont on a double bridge, one line 
supported on three hundred and sixty, the other on three hundred 
and fourteen vessels, anchored head and stern with their keels 
in the direction of the current. Darius threw similar bridges 
across the Bosporus and the Danube in his war against the 
Scythians, and the Ten Thousand employed a bridge of boats 
to cross the river Tigris in their retreat from Persia. Floating 
bridges have been repeatedly constructed over rivers in Europe 
and Asia, not merely temporarily for the passage of an army, 
but permanently for the requirements of the country; and to this 
day many of the great rivers in India are crossed, on the lines of 
the principal roads, by floating bridges, which are for the most 
part supported on boats such as are employed for ordinary traffic 
on the river. 

But light vessels which can be taken out of the water and 
lifted on to carriages are required for transport with an army in 
the field. Alexander the Great occasionally carried with his 
army vessels divided into portions, which were put together 
on reaching the banks of a river, as in crossing the Hydaspes ; he 
is even said to have carried his army over the Oxus by means 
of rafts made of the hide tents of the soldiers stuffed with straw, 
when he found that all the river boats had been burnt. Cyrus 
crossed the Euphrates on stuffed skins. The practice of carrying 
about skins to be inflated when troops had to cross a river, which 
was adopted by both Greeks and Romans, still exists in the 
East. In the 4th century the emperor Julian crossed the Tigris, 
Euphrates and other rivers by bridges of boats made of skins 
stretched over osier frames. In the wars of the 17th century 
pontoons are found as regular components of the trains of armies, 
the Germans using a leather, the Dutch a tin and the French a 
copper " skin " over stout timber frames. 

Modern military pontoons have been made of two forms, open 
as an undecked boat, or closed as a decked canoe or cylinder. 
During the Peninsular War the English employed open bateaux; 
but the experience gained in that war induced them to introduce 
the closed form. General Colleton devised a buoy pontoon, 
cylindrical with conical ends and made of wooden staves like a 
cask. Then General Sir Charles Pasley introduced demi-pon- 
toons, like decked canoes with pointed bows and square sterns, 
a pair, attached sternwise, forming a single " pier " of support 
for the roadway; they were constructed of light timber frames 
covered with sheet copper and were decked with wood; each 
demi-pontoon was divided internally into separate compartments 
by partitions which were made as water-tight as possible, and 
also supplied with the means of pumping out water; when trans- 
ported overland with an army a pair of demi-pontoons and the 
superstructure of one bay formed the load for a single carriage 
weighing 27-75 cwt. when loaded. The Pasley was superseded 
by the Blanshard pontoon, a tin coated cylinder with hemis- 
pherical ends, for which great mobility was claimed, two pon- 
toons and two bays superstructure being carried on one waggon, 
giving a weight of about 45 cwt., which was intended to be drawn 
by four horses. The Blanshard pontoon was long used in the 
British army, but was ultimately discarded; and British 
engineers came to the conclusion that it was desirable to return 
to the form of the open bateau to which the engineers of all the 



68 



PONTOON. 



Continental armies had meanwhile constantly adhered. Captain 
Fowke, R.E., invented a folding open bateau, made of water- 
proof canvas attached to sliding ribs, so that for transport it 
could be collapsed like the bellows of an accordion and for use 
could be extended by a pair of stretchers. This was followed by 
the pontoon designed by Colonel Blood, R.E., an open bateau 
with decked ends and sides partly decked where the rowlock 
blocks were fixed. It consisted of six sets of framed ribs con- 
nected by a deep kelson, two side streaks, and three bottom 
streaks. The sides and bottom were of thin yellow pine with 
canvas secured to both surfaces by india-rubber solution, and 
coated outside with marine glue. The central interval between 
the pontoons in forming a bridge was invariably maintained at 
15 ft.; for the support of the roadway five baulks were ordinarily 
employed, but nine for the passage of siege artillery and the 
heaviest loads; they fitted on to saddles resting on central 
saddle beams. The pontoons were not immersed to within 1 ft. 
of the tops of their " coamings " when carrying ordinary loads, 
as of infantry in marching order " in fours " crowded at a check, 
or the 16-pounder R.M.L. gun of position weighing 43 cwt.; nor 
were they immersed to within 6 in. when carrying extraordinary 
loads, such as disorganized infantry, or the 64-pounder R.M.L. 
guii weighing 98 cwt. In designing this pontoon the chief points 
attended to were — (1) improvement in power of support, (2) 
simplification in bridge construction, (3) reduction of weight in 
transport, and (4) adaptation for use singly as boats for ferrying 
purposes. One pontoon with the superstructure for a single 
bay constituted a load for one waggon, with a total weight 
behind horses of about 40 cwt. 

The following table (from Ency. Brit. 9th ed.) shows the powers 
of various pontoons in use by different nations in the past. Modern 
improvements are comparatively few. The " working power of 
support " has been calculated in most instances by deducting from 
the " available buoyancy " one-fourth for open and one-tenth for 
closed vessels: — 



In the English and French equipment the pontoons were originally 
made of two sizes, the smaller and lighter for the " advanced guard," 
the larger and heavier for the "reserve;" in both equipments 
the same size pontoon is now adopted for general requirements, the 
superstructure being strengthened when necessary for very heavy 
weights. The German army has an undivided galvanized iron pon- 
toon, 24 ft. 6 in. long, handy as a boat, but of inadequate buoyancy 
for heavy traffic, with the result that the span has to be diminished 
and ipso facto the waterway obstructed. The Austrian and Italian 
pontoons are made in three pieces, two with bows and a middle 
piece without ; not less than two pieces are ordinarily employed, and 
the third is introduced when great supporting power is required, 
but in all cases a constant interval is maintained between the 
pontoons. On the other hand, in the greater number of pontoon 
equipments greater supporting power is obtained not by increasing 
the number of supports but by diminishing the central interval 
between the pontoons, Within certain limits it does not matter 
whether the buoyancy is made up of a large number of small or a 
small number of large vessels, so long as the waterway is not unduly 
contracted and the obstruction offered to a swift current dangerously 
increased; but it is to, be remembered that pontoon bridges have 
failed as frequently from being washed away. as from insufficient 
buoyancy. In Austria efforts have been made to diminish the weight 
of the Birago equipment by the substitution of steel for iron. The 
present pontoon, in three pieces, is of steel, and 39 ft. 4 in. long, like 
the old pattern. 

In the British army Colonel Blood's equipment was later modified 
by. the introduction of a bipartite pontoon designed in 1889 by 
Lieut. Clauson, R.E. Each pontoon is carried on one waggon with 
a bay of superstructure, and consists of two sections, a bow-piece and 
a stern-piece, connected together by easily manipulated couplings 
of phosphor bronze. Decks and " coamings " are dispensed with, 
and the rowlock holes are sunk in a strong gunwale. The detach- 
able saddle-beam, which receives the load on the centre of the 
thwarts, is made in sections, so as to form a continuous saddle of 
any length required. The baulks (or road-bearers) and chesses 
■ (or planks) remain unaltered, but chess-holders and chess-bearers 
are added for use in constructing light bridges for infantry in file. 
In this kind of bridge each pontoon section is used separately, 
with a roadway of chesses placed longitudinally four abreast. In 
the normal or medium bridge two sections, and in heavy bridge 
three sections are joined together. The chief advantages of the 



Pontoon. 



d O 

Tt£. 



a a 



Cm t! 

«- cj o 3 
■ e 2 « ^ 

* op; i- 
•53 c a n. 

•^. O G 3 



> 3 



co i u 
a) e >- 



jj o >. 

O. o rf 



« 



.3.1 



OSS. 



"I? 



II" 3 
-i i 8 S.-S 



Gribeauval: open bateau, oak 
Austrian: open, wooden, 1799 
Aust. -Birago: open, wooden; two pieces 
,, ,, ,, three ,, 

,, „ iron; two pieces 

,, ,, ,, three ,, 

French: open, wooden ; reserve 

,, ,, ,, advanced guard 

,, ,, ,, general . 

Prussian: open, wooden; open order 
,, ,, ,, close order 

,, ,, iron; open order 

,. ,, „■ ' close order 

Italian : open wooden ; one piece 
,, ,, „ two pieces 

,, modified; one piece 

,, ,, two pieces 

Russian \ °P en - canvas on ( open order 
( wooden framework ; \ close order 
Belgian: open, iron; one piece 

,, ,, ,, two pieces 

American \ india-rubber, three; ) open order 

( cylinders connected ; \ close order 

English Pontoons. 
Peninsular ( open, tin; reserve 

equipment? ,, ,, advanced guard 
Pasley : closed demi-canoe ; copper 
Blanshard: cylinder, tin; open order . 

,, ,, ,, close order . 

.. ., ,, light pattern 

Fowke: open, collapsible, canvas; open order 
Forbes: closed, spherangular, tin; open order 
Blood : open, wooden ; general .... 



Ft. 

36-3 
27-0 
28-0 

39-4 
28-0 

39-4 
3Q-9 
19-7 

3°-9 
23-7 
23-7 
247 
24-7 
19-6 
39-2 
24-6 
49-2 
210 

21-0 

24-8 

49-2 

20-0 
20-0 



18-9 

151 

25-0 

22-5 
22-5 

15-5 

22-0 
24-2 
21-6 



Cub. Ft. 
593 
354 
303 
445 
353 : 
530 
325 
156 
321 
164 
164 
214 

214 
283 

565 
325 
649 
209 
209 
297 
595 
130 
130 



209 
120 
141 
109 
109 
26 

134 
128 
280 



tb 

45,044 
22,123 
18,907 

27,791 
22,090 

33,135 
20,286 

9,734 
20,065 
10,226 
10,226 
13,385 
13,385 
17,660 
35,320 
20,290 
40,580 
13,042 
13,042 
18,584 
37,168 
8,125 
8,125 



13,092 
7,520 
8,781 
6,785 
6,785 
1,640 
8,460 

7,977 
17,500 



lb 
8,044 
3,332 
3,249 
3,884 
3,698 

4,5oi 
3,668 

1,506 
3,153 
2,393 
2,213 
2,209 
2,029 
3,582 
4,572 
3,401 
4,489 
2,355 
2,083 
3-336 
4,548 
1,980 
1,824 



2,374 
1,654 
2,103 
1,600 
1,408 
340 
1,246 
1,689 
2,300 



lb 
37,000 
18,791 
15,658 
23,907 
18,392 
28,634 
16,678 
8,228 
16,912 

7,833 
8,013 
11,176 
n,356 
14,078 
30,748 
16,889 
36,091 
10,687 

10,959 
15,248 
32,620 

6,H5 
6,301 



10,718 
5,866 
6,678 
5,i85 
5,377 
1,300 

7,2H 

6,288 

15,200 



lb 
27,750 
14,093 
ii,744 
17,930 
,13,794 
21,476 

12,509 

6,171 

12,684 

5,875 

6,010 

8,382 

8,517 

io,559 

23,061 

12,669 

27,068 

8,015 

8,219 

ii,436 

24,465 

5,530 

5,76i 



8,039 


16-8 


4,400 


14-0 


6,010 


12-5 


4,667 


12-5 


4,839 


8-3 


1,170 


5-3 


5,4U 


10-0 


5,659 


II-O 


13,350 


15-0 



Ft. 
22-8 
16-6 
21-7 
21-7 
21-7 
21-7 
19-7 
16-4 
19-7 
15-3 

1 1 -2 

15-3 

II-2 

26-3 
26-3 
23-0 
23-0 
16-6 
u-7 
19-7 
19-7 
18-0 
14-7 



lb 
[,215 
849 
542 
827 
636 
991 
635 
376 
644 

384 
535 
56i 
759 
402 
878 

55i 
1,178 

493 
705 
580 

1-244 
307 
393 



477 
314 
481 

373 
58i 
220 
54i 
5H 
890 



lb, 
840 
560 
56o 
560 
560 
560 
56o 
560 
560 
560 
560 
560 
560 
560 
56o 
560 
560 
560 
560 
56o 
56o 
580 
560 



560 
560 
560 
560 
560 
280 
56o 
560 
560 



Ft. 

15-6 

114 

93 

9-3 

9-3 

9-3 

10-5 

9-3 
9-8 
9.9 

9-9 
9.9 

9-9 
9-8 
9-8 
9-8 
9-8 
10-4 
10-4 
9-5 
9-5 

II-O 
II-O 



io-o 
9-0 

lO-O 
10-0 
10-0 

7-0 

IO-O 
10-0 
10-0 



lb 

35,568 

18,924 
20,181 
20,181 
20,181 
20,181 
20,685 
15,252 
19,306 

15,147 
11,088 

15,147 
11,088 

25,774 
25,774 
22,540 
22,540 
17,264 
12,168 
18,715 
18,715 

19,800 

18,370 



800 
600 
500 
,500 
,300 

,710 

,000 

,000 
,000 . 



PONTOPPIDAN, E.— rPONTORMO 



69 



equipment are (1) the buoyancy of the piers can be proportioned 
to the weight of traffic and to the roughness of the water; (2) 
owing to the special design of the bows, boats and rafts are easy to 
row, while the pontoons in bridge oppose little resistance to the 
current, and so require less anchor power; (3) transport rafts, pier- 
heads and flying bridges can be constructed with great ease, owing 
to the flush gunwales on which baulks can rest if necessary ; (4) the 
pontoon sections are convenient to handle, easy to ship or to 
transport by rail, and can readily be replaced singly if damaged in 
bridge. A canoe pontoon and superstructure adapted for pack 
transport has also been adopted from designs by Colonel (Sir) Elliott 
Wood, C.B., R.E. The pontoon consists of four sections laced 
together, each section being a framework of wood covered with 
waterproof sheeting. Three pontoons and eight composite planks 
form a " unit," from which can be constructed 48 ft. of bridge for 
infantry in file, 84 ft. for infantry in single file, or a raft to carry 15 
men or an empty wagon. 

For the British army in India the standard pontoon for many 
years was the Pasley; it was seldom used, however, for boats could 
almost always be procured on the spot in sufficient numbers where- 
ever a floating bridge had to be constructed. Later an equipment 
was prepared for the Indian army of demi-pontoons, similar to the 
Blood pontoon cut in half, and therefore more mobile ; each has 
a bow and a square stern, and they are joined at the sterns when 
required to form a " pier " ; they are fitted with movable covers and 
can therefore be used in much rougher water than pontoons of the 
home pattern, and their power of support and breadth of roadway 
are the same. The Chitral Relief Expedition of 1895, however, 
revealed certain defects. The shape of the bow was unsuited to 
rapid currents; the balance was not satisfactory, and the copper 
sheathing cracked. Experiments were then undertaken with the 
bipartite pontoon. 

The india-rubber pontoon does not appear to have been generally 
employed even in America, where it was invented. The engineer 
officers with the army of the Potomac, after full experience of the 
india-rubber pontoon and countless other inventions of American 
genius, adopted the French equipment, which they found " most 
excellent, useful and reliable for all military purposes." The 
Russians, in crossing the Danube in their war with Turkey in 1878, 
employed the Austrian equipment. Aluminium pontoons have 
been tried in Germany, but have not been adopted. 

For light bridging work the Berthon and other collapsible boats 
have been adopted in Germany and Great Britain, especially for 
cavalry work in advance of the army. The German folding boat is 
made of wood framework and canvas skin; two boats are easily 
carried on one " folding-boat wagon." The total length of the three 
sections together is 21 ft. 6 in. The British field troop R.E., 
attached to cavalry, carries two collapsible boats 18 ft. 6 in. long. 

The methods of constructing pontoon bridges have been simpli- 
fied of late years in most armies, and are usually restricted to (1) 
adding pontoons one by one to the head of the bridge; (2) con- 
necting rafts of two or more pontoons into bridge by intermediate 
bays of superstructure; and (3) swinging across the river a bridge 
previously prepared alongside the shore. The formation of a bridge 
from rafts touching one another consumes an excessive amount 
of equipment, and opposes unnecessary resistance to the stream; it 
is therefore being discarded in most armies. " Booming out " 
the bridge bay by bay from the shore until the head teaches the 
opposite bank is unsuited for rapid currents, and is almost obsolete 
except for light infantry bridges. 

In every army the pontoon service is in the hands of technical 
specialists. 1 But there are many other forms of military 
bridging, in which the specialist only supervises the work of the 
ordinary soldier, or indeed, takes no part whatever. Troops of 
all arms are expected to be familiar with certain methods of 
rough temporary bridging. In the British service the forms 
of temporary timber bridge usually employed are called trestle, 
lock and floating. The trestle bridge in its Various forms Con- 
sists of a series of two-legged or three-legged trestles carrying the 
road-bearers and chesses which form the roadway. Trestles 
can be improvised, but some are carried, ready for use, by 
mobile engineer units and they are frequently combined with 
pontoon bridges at the shore ends, where holding ground for 
the feet of the trestles is found. Lock bridges never touch 
water, forming single spans over a chasm. These consist of 
spars made into frames of which the feet rest in the banks of the 
river and the heads are interlocked, the whole being securely 
lashed. Another type of frame-bridge is the cantilever, which 
has been used in Indian frontier expeditions to bridge swift 

1 In Germany, however, as mentioned below, light bridging 
material has been placed in the hands of the cavalry. This tendency, 
in accordance with the needs of modern armies, will probably 
become more pronounced in the future. It began with the pro- 
vision of demolition equipment for the cavalry pioneers. 



steep-banked streams. Improvised suspension bridges are also 
used. Floating bridges are made not only of pontoons but also 
of boats of all sorts, casks lashed together, and rafts. They are 
almost always combined with one or two bays of trestle bridging 
at the shore ends. 

The organization of bridging personnel in different armies shows 
as much divergence of opinion as the design of pontoon equipment. 
In Great Britain, since the divisional reorganization, the bridging 
trains have been assigned to the " army troops," which include 
two_ " bridging trains," totalling 14 officers and 454 men with 92 
vehicles, most of them six-horsed. Each train carries 32 pontoons 
and 3? bays of superstructure, as well as 16 trestles and 8 bays of 
the appropriate superstructure, and can construct 200 yds. of 
medium bridge in all. Besides these trains the divisional engineer 
units (2 field companies per division) bear with them in all 4 pontoons 
and 4 trestles, with the necessary bays of superstructure, their 
total bridging capacity being about 40 yds. of medium bridge. 
In France each army corps has a bridging train which admits of 
the construction of bridges to the extent of about 120 yds. of 
medium and 140 yds. of light bridging and bears besides 2 " advanced 
guard " trains which can provide 33 yds. of medium bridging each. 
Besides the corps trains there are also " army " trains, five in all, 
which can furnish 280 yds. of medium bridging apiece. These 
would be allotted in accordance with the requirements of particular 
campaigns. In Germany the increasing importance attached to 
independent cavalry operations has led to the assignment of a 
folding-boat wagon to every cavalry regiment. . The regimental 
equipment provides for a ferry, capable of taking 25 to 30 infantrymen, 
one artillery vehicle or four horses at one journey, a foot-bridge 
22 to 35 yds. in length, or a light bridge of 8 to 13 yds. By 
assembling the material of a whole cavalry division of 6 regiments, 
a foot-bridge of no to 210 yds. or a light bridge of 57 to 70 yds. 
can be constructed. The corps bridging train of a German army 
corps can construct 140 yds. of medium or 170 yds. of light 
bridging, and each of the two divisional trains, 40 yds. of medium 
and 48 yds. of light bridging. 

PONTOPPIDAN, ERIK (1698-1764), Danish author, was 
born at Aarhus on the 24th of August 1698. He studied 
divinity at the university of Copenhagen, and for some time 
acted as a travelling tutor. In 173 s he became one of the 
chaplains of the king. In 1738 he was made professor extra- 
ordinary of theology at Copenhagen, and in 1745 bishop of 
Bergen, Norway, where he died on the 20th of December 1764. 

His principal works are: Theatrum Daniae veteris et modernae 
(4to, 1730), a description of the geography, natural history, an- 
tiquities, &c, of Denmark; Gesta et vestigia danorum extra Daniam 
(3 vols. 8vo, 1740), a laborious but uncritical work; Annates 
ecclesiae danicae. (3 vols., 1741-1747); Marmora danica selectiora 
(2 vols, fol., 1739-1741); Glossarium norvegicum (1749); Det forste 
forsog Norges naturlige hislorie (4to, 1 752-1 754); Eng. trans., 
Natural History of Norway (2 vols., 1755), containing curious 
accounts, often referred to, of the Kraaken, sea-serpent, and the 
like; Origines hafnienses (1760); Menoza (3 vols., 1742-1743), a 
religious novel. His Danske Atlas (7 vols. 4to), an historical and 
topographical account of Denmark, was mostly posthumous. 

See an article by S. M. Gjellerup in Danish Biografisk Lexikon 
(vol. xiii., 1899), 

PONTOPPIDAN, HENRIK (1857- ), Danish author, son 
of a pastor, was born at Fredericia on the 24th of July 1857. 
He studied physics and, mathematics at the university of Copen- 
hagen, and when he was eighteen he travelled on foot through 
Germany and Switzerland. His novels show an intimate 
acquaintance with peasant life and character, the earlier ones 
showing clear evidence of the influence of Kjelland. An 
excellent example of his work is in the trilogy dealing with the 
history of Emanuel Hansted, a theorizing radical parson who 
marries a peasant wife. These three stories, Muld (" Soil," 
1891), Det Forjaettede Land ("The Promised Land," 1892), and 
Dommens Dag (1895) are marked by fine discrimination and 
great narrative power. Among his other works are Fra Hytterne 
(1887), Folkelivsskildringer (2 parts, 1888-1890), and Skyer (1890). 
He began in 1898 a new series in Lykke Per, the story of a typical 
Jutlander. 

See an article of Niels Moller in Dansk Biografisk Lexikon (vol. 
xiii., 1899). 

PQNTORMO, JACOPO DA (1494-1557), whose family name 

was Carucci, Italian painter of the Florentine school, was born 

at Pantormo in 1494, son of a painter of ordinary ability, was 

apprenticed to Leonardo da Vinci, and afterwards took lessons 

I from Piero di Cosimo. At the age of eighteen he became a 



PONTREMOLI— PONTUS 



70 

journeyman to Andrea del Sarto, and was remarked as a young 
man of exceptional accomplishment and promise. Later on, 
but still in early youth, he executed, in continuation of Andrea's 
labours, the " Visitation," in the cloister of the Servi in Florence 
— one of the principal surviving evidences of his powers. The 
most extensive series of works which he ever undertook was a 
set of frescoes in the church of S. Lorenzo, Florence, from the 
" Creation of Man to the Deluge," closing with the " Last 
Judgment." By this time, towards 1546, he had fallen under 
the dangerous spell of Michelangelo's colossal genius and super- 
human style; and Pontormo, after working on at the frescoes 
for eleven years, left them incomplete, and the object of general 
disappointment and disparagement. They were finished by 
Angelo Bronzino, but have long since vanished under whitewash. 
Among the best works of Pontormo are his portraits, which 
include the likenesses of various members of the Medici family ; 
they are vigorous, animated and highly finished. He was fond 
of new and odd experiments both in style of art and in method of 
painting. From Da Vinci he caught one of the marked physio- 
gnomic traits of his visages, smiles and dimples. At one time 
he took to direct imitation or reproduction of Albert Diirer, 
and executed a series of paintings founded on the Passion 
subjects of the German master, not only in composition, but 
even in such peculiarities as the treatment of draperies, &c. 
Pontormo died of dropsy on the 2nd of January 1557, mortified 
at the ill success of his frescoes in S. Lorenzo; he was buried 
below his work in the Servi. 

PONTREMOLI, a town and bishop's see of the province of 
Massa and Carrara, Tuscany, Italy, in the upper valley of the 
Magra, 25 m. N. by E. of Spezia by rail and 49 m. S.S.W. of 
Parma, 843 ft. above sea-level. Pop. (1001), 4107 (town); 
14,570 (commune). It has a 17th-century cathedral. The 
church of the Annunziata with its Augustinian monastery is 
interesting. There are also mineral springs. The town, which 
is well situated among the mountains, was an independent 
republic in the 12th and 13th centuries, and in 1495 was sacked 
by the troops of Charles VIII. of France. It was much damaged 
by an earthquake in 1834. 

PONTUS, a name applied in ancient times to extensive tracts 
of country in the north-east of Asia Minor bordering on the 
Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos 
(the Main), by the Greeks. The exact signification of this 
purely territorial name varied greatly at different times. The 
Greeks used it loosely of various parts of the shores of the Euxine, 
and the term did not get a definite connotation till after the 
establishment of the kingdom founded beyond the Halys during 
the troubled period following the death of Alexander the Great, 
about 301 B.C., by Mithradates I., Ktistes, son of a Persian 
satrap in the service of Antigonus, one of Alexander's successors, 
and ruled by a succession of kings, mostly bearing the same name, 
till 64 B.C. As the greater part of this kingdom lay within 
the immense region of Cappadocia, which in early ages extended 
from the borders of Cilicia to the Euxine, the kingdom as a 
whole was at first called " Cappadocia towards the Pontus " 
(Trpos to) ILWcp), but afterwards simply " Pontus," the name 
Cappadocia being henceforth restricted to the southern half 
of the region previously included under that title. Under the 
last king, Mithradates Eupator, commonly called the Great, 
the realm of Pontus included not only Pontic Cappadocia but 
also the seaboard from the Bithynian frontier to Colchis, part 
of inland Paphlagonia, and Lesser Armenia (see under Mithra- 
dates). With the destruction of this kingdom by Pompey 
in 64 B.C., the meaning of the name Pontus underwent a change. 
Part of the kingdom was now annexed to the Roman Empire, 
being united with Bithynia in a double province called " Pontus 
and Bithynia " : this part included (possibly from the first, 
but certainly from about 40 B.C. onwards) only the seaboard 
between Heracleia (Eregli) and Amisus (Samsun), the ora Pontica. 
Hereafter the simple name Pontus without qualification was 
regularly employed to denote the half of this dual province, 
especially by Romans and people speaking from the Roman 
point of view; it is so used almost always in the New Testament. 



But it was also frequently used to denote (in whole or part) that 
portion of the old Mithradatic kingdom which lay between the 
Halys (roughly) and the borders of Colchis, Lesser Armenia, 
Cappadocia and Galatia — the region properly designated by 
the title " Cappadocia towards the Pontus," which was always 
the nucleus of the Pontic kingdom. 

This region is regarded by the geographer Strabo (a.d. 19-20), 
himself a native of the country, as Pontus in the strict sense 
of the term (Geogr. p. 678). Its native population was of the 
same stock as that of Cappadocia, of which it had formed a part, 
an Oriental race often called by the Greeks Leucosyri or White 
Syrians, as distinguished from the southern Syrians, who were 
of a darker complexion, but their precise ethnological relations 
are uncertain. Geographically it is a table-land, forming the 
north-east corner of the great plateau of Asia Minor, edged on the 
north by a lofty mountain rim, along the foot of which runs a 
fringe of coast-land. The table-land consists of a series of fertile 
plains, of varying size and elevation separated from each other 
by upland tracts or mountains, and it is drained almost entirely 
by the river Iris (Yeshil Irmak) and its numerous tributaries, 
the largest of which are the Scylax {Tchekerek Irmak) with many 
affluents and the Lycus (Kalkid Irmak), all three rising in the 
highlands near, or on, the frontier of Armenia Minor and flowing 
first in a westerly and then in a north-westerly direction to 
merge their waters in a joint stream, which (under the name 
of the Iris) pierces the mountain-wall and emerges on the east 
of Amisus (Samsun). Between the Halys and the Iris the 
mountain rim is comparatively low and broken, but east of the 
Iris it is a continuous lofty ridge (called by the ancients Pary- 
adres and Scydises), whose rugged northern slopes are furrowed 
by torrent beds, down which a host of small streams (among 
them the Thermodon, famed in Amazon story) tumble to the 
sea. These inaccessible slopes were inhabited even in Strabo's 
time by wild, half-barbarous tribes, of whose ethnical relations 
we are ignorant — the Chalybes (identified by the Greeks with 
Homer's Chalybes), Tibareni, Mosynoeci and Macrones, on 
whose manners and condition some light is thrown by Xenophon 
(Anab. V). But the fringe of coast-land from Trebizond 
westward is one of the most beautiful parts of Asia Minor and 
is justly extolled by Strabo for its wonderful productiveness. 

The sea-coast, like the rest of the south shore of the Euxine, 
was studded with Greek colonies founded from the 6th century 
onwards: Amisus, a colony of Miletus, which in the 5th century 
received a body of Athenian settlers, now the port of Samsun; 
Cotyora, now Ordu; Cerasus, the later Pharnacia, now Kerasund; 
and Trapezus (Trebizond), a famous city from Xenophon's 
time till the end of the middle ages. The last three were 
colonies of Sinope, itself a Milesian colony. The chief towns 
in the interior were Amasia, on the Iris, the birthplace of Strabo, 
the capital of Mithradates the Great, and the burial-place of the 
earlier kings, whose tombs still exist; Comana, higher up the 
river, a famous centre of the worship of the goddess Ma (or 
Cybele); Zela, another great religious centre, refounded by 
Pompey, now Zlleh; Eupatoria, refounded by Pompey as 
Magnopolis at the junction of the Lycus and Iris; Cabira, 
Pompey's Diospolis, afterwards Neocaesarea, now Niksar; 
Sebastopolis on the Scylax, now Sulu Serai; Sebasteia, now 
Sivas; and Megalopolis, a foundation of Pompey, somewhere in 
the same district. 

The history of this region is the history of the advance of 
the Roman Empire towards the Euphrates. Its political 
position between 64 and 41 B.C., when Mark Antony became 
master of the East, is not quite certain. Part of it was handed 
over by Pompey to client princes: the coast-land east of the 
Halys (except the territory of Amisus) and the hill-tribes of 
Paryadres were given, with Lesser Armenia, to the Galatian 
chief Deiotarus, with the title of king; Comana was left under 
the rule of its high-priest. The rest of the interior was parti- 
tioned by Pompey amongst the inland cities, almost all of which 
were founded by him, and, according to one view, was included 
together with the seaboard west of Amisus and the corner of north- 
east Paphlagonia possessed by Mithradates in his new province 



PONTUS DE TYARD— PONTYPRIDD 



7 1 



Pontus-Bithynia. Others maintain that only the seaboard 
was included in the province, the inland cities being constituted 
self-governing, " protected " communities. The latter view 
is more in conformity with Roman policy in the East, which 
did not usually annex countries till they reached (under the 
rule of client princes) a certain level of civilization and order, 
but it is difficult to reconcile with Strabo's statements (p. 541 
sqq.). In any case, during the years following 40 B.C. all inland 
Pontus was handed over, like north-east Paphlagonia, to native 
dynasts. The Pontic possessions of Deiotarus (d. 40 B.C.) were 
given with additions (e.g. Cabira) in 39 B.C. to Darius, son of 
Pharnaces, and in 36 B.C. to Polemon, son of a rhetorician of 
Laodicea on the Lycus. The high-priest of Comana, Lycomedes, 
received an accession of territory and the royal title. The 
territories of Zela and Megalopolis were divided between Lyco- 
medes, the high-priest of Zela and Ateporix, who ruled the 
principality of Carana (later Sebastopolis). Amasia and 
Amisus were also given to native princes. 

After the battle of Actium (31 B.C.) Augustus restored 
Amisus as a " free city " to the province of Bithynia-Pontus, 
but made no other serious change. Polemon retained his king- 
dom till his death in 8 B.C., when it passed to his widow Pytho- 
doris. But presently the process of annexation began and the 
Pontic districts were gradually incorporated in the empire, 
each being attached to the province of Galatia, then the centre 
of Roman forward policy. (1) The western district was an- 
nexed in two sections, Sebastopolis and Amasia in 3-2 B.C., 
and Comana in a.d. 34-35. To distinguish this district from 
the province Pontus and Polemon's Pontus, it" was henceforth' 
called Pontus galaticus (as being the first part attached to 
Galatia). (2) Polemon's kingdom, ruled since a.d. 38 by Pole- 
mon II., grandson of the former king, was annexed by Nero in 
a.d. 64-65, and distinguished by the title of Pontus polemoniacus, 
which survived for centuries. [But the simple name Pontus, 
hitherto commonly used to designate Polemon's realm, is still 
employed to denote this district by itself or in conjunction 
with Pontus Galaticus, where the context makes the meaning 
clear {e.g. in inscriptions and on coins).] Polemoniacus 
included the sea-coast from the Thermodon to Cotyora and the 
inland cities Zela, Magnopolis, Megalopolis, Neocaesarea and 
Sebasteia (according to Ptolemy, but apparently annexed since 
2 B.C., according to its coins). (3) Finally, at the same time 
(a.d. 64) was annexed the remaining eastern part of Pontus, 
which formed part of Polemon's realm but was attached to 
the province Cappadocia and distinguished by the epithet 
cappadocicus. These three districts formed distinct adminis- 
trative divisions within the provinces to which they were 
attached, with separate capitals Amasia, Neocaesarea and 
Trapezus; but the first two were afterwards merged in one, 
sometimes called Pontus mediterraneus, with Neocaesarea as 
capital, probably when they were definitively transferred 
(about a.d. 114) to Cappadocia, then the great frontier military 
province. 

With the reorganization of the provincial system under 
Diocletian (about a.d. 295), the Pontic districts were divided 
up between four provinces of the dioecesis pontica: (1) Paphla- 
gonia, to which was attached most of the old province Pontus; 
(2) Diospontus, re-named Helenopontus by Constantine, con- 
taining the rest of the province Pontus and the adjoining dis- 
trict, eight cities in all (including Sinope, Amisus and Zela) with 
Amasia as capital; (3) Pontus Polemoniacus, containing Comana, 
Polemonium, Cerasus and Trapezus with Neocaesarea as 
capital; and (4) Armenia Minor, five cities, with Sebasteia, as 
capital. This rearrangement gave place in turn to the Byzantine 
system of military districts {themes). 

Christianity was introduced into the province Pontus (the 
Or a pontica) by way of the sea in the 1st century after Christ 
and was deeply rooted when Pliny governed the province 
(a.d. 111-113). But the Christianization of the inland Pontic 
districts began only about the middle of the 3rd century and 
was largely due to the missionary zeal of Gregory Thaumaturgus, 
bishop of Neocaesarea. 



See Ramsay, Histor. Geogr. of Asia Minor (1890); Anderson and 
Cumont, Studia pontica (1903 et seq.) ; Babelon and Reinach, 
Recueil des monnaies d'Asie min., t. i. (1904) ; H. Gregoire, " Voyage 
dans le Pont " &c. in Bull, de cones, hell. (1909). (J. G. C. A.) 

PONTUS DE TYARD (c. 1521-1605), French poet and member 
of the Pleiade (see Daurat), was seigneur of Bissy in Burgundy, 
where he was born in or about 1521. He was a friend of Antoine 
Heroet and Maurice Sceve, and to a certain extent anticipated 
Ronsard and Joachim Du Bellay. His Erreurs amoureuses, 
originally published in 1549, was augmented with other poems 
in successive editions till 1573. On the whole his poetry is 
inferior to that of his companions, but he was one of the first 
to write sonnets in French (the actual priority belongs to Melin 
de St Gelais). It is also said that he introduced the sestine 
into France, or rather reintroduced it, for it was originally 
a Provencal invention. In his later years he gave himself up 
to the study of mathematics and philosophy. He became bishop 
of Chalons-sur-Saone in 1578, and in 1587 appeared his Discours 
philosophiques. He was a zealous defender of the cause of 
Henry III. against the pretensions of the Guises. This attitude 
brought down on him the vengeance of the league; he was 
driven from Chalons and his chateau at Bissy was plundered. 
He survived all the members of the Pleiade and lived to see the 
onslaught made on their doctrines by Malherbe. Pontus 
resigned his bishopric in 1594, and retired to the chateau de 
Bragny, where he died on the 23rd of September 1605. 

His Oeuvres poetiques may be found in the Pleiade francaise (^875) 
of M. Ch. Marty-Laveaux.. 

PONTYPOOL, a market town in the northern parliamentary 
division of Monmouthshire, England, 8 m. N. of Newport, 
served by the Great Western, London & North- Western, and 
Rhymney railways. Pop. of urban district (1901), 6126. It 
is beautifully situated on an acclivity above the Afon Lwyd, 
a tributary of the Usk. Its prosperity is due to its situation 
on the edge of the great coal- and iron-field of Monmouthshire 
and Glamorganshire. The earliest record of trade in iron is in 
1588, but it was developed chiefly in the beginning of the 18th 
century by the family of Hanbury, the proprietors of Pontypool 
Park. Pontypool was formerly famed for its japanned goods, 
invented by Thomas Allwood, a native of Northampton, who 
settled in the town in the reign of Charles II., but the manu- 
facture has long been transferred elsewhere. The town and 
neighbourhood contain large forges and iron mills for the manu- 
facture of iron-work and tin-plate. Water communication 
is afforded with Newport by the Monmouthshire Canal. On 
the south-east of Pontypool is the urban district of Panteg, 
including Griffithstown, with a population (1901) of 7484. 

PONTYPRIDD, a parish, market town, and urban district, 
in the eastern parliamentary division of Glamorganshire, Wales, 
situated on the Taff at its junction with the Rhondda, on the 
Taff Vale railway, and on the Glamorganshire Canal, 12 m. 
N.N.W. from Cardiff, 12 S. from Merthyr-Tydfil, and 169 by rail 
from London. It is also connected with Newport by a Great 
Western line i8i m. long. Pop. (1901), 32,316. It receives its 
name from a remarkable bridge of one arch spanning the Taff, 
erected in 1755 by William Edwards, a self-taught mason. 
The bridge is a perfect segment of a circle, the chord being 
140 ft., and the height at low water 36 ft. A three-arched bridge 
was erected close to it in 1857. The town is built at the junc- 
tion of the three parishes of Llanwonno, Llantwit Fardre and 
Eglwysilan, out of portions of which Glyntaff was formed into 
an ecclesiastical parish in 1848, and from this Pontypridd was 
carved in 1884. The urban district was constituted into a 
civil parish in 1894. The church of St Catherine, built in 
1868, enlarged in 1885, is in early Decorated style; other places 
of worship are the Baptist, Calvinistic Methodist, Congrega- 
tional, and Wesleyan chapels. The principal secular buildings 
are a masonic hall, town-hall built above the market, free library 
(1890), county intermediate school (1895) and court-house. 
Near the town is a far-famed rocking-stone 95 tons in weight, 
known as the Maen Chwyf, round which a circle of small stones 
was set up in the middle of the 19th century under the direction 



72 



PONY— POOLE, R. S. 



of Myvyr Morganwg, who used to style himself archdruid of 
Wales. The place became, for a time, famous as a meeting 
place for neo-Druidic gatherings. Pontypridd was an insig- 
nificant village till the opening of the Taff Vale railway into 
the town in 1840, and it owed its progress chiefly to the de- 
velopment of the coal areas of the Rhondda Valley, for which 
district it serves as the market town and chief business centre. 
It also possesses anchor, chain, and cable works, chemical works, 
and iron and brass foundries. Pontypridd has, jointly with 
Rhondda, a stipendiary magistrate since 1872. 

PONY (from the Lowland Scots powney, probably from O. Fr. 
pouleriet, diminutive of poulain, a colt or foal; Late Lat. pullanus, 
Lat. pullus, a young animal), a horse of a small breed, sometimes 
confined to such as do not exceed 13 hands in height, but 
generally applied to any horse under 14 hands (see Horse). The 
word is of frequent use as a slang term— e.g. for a sum of £25; 
for a liquor measure or glass containing less than a half-pint; 
and in America for a literal translation of a foreign or classical 
author, a " crib." 

PONZA (anc. Pontiae), the principal of a small group of 
islands belonging to Italy. Pop. (1901), 4621. The group is of 
volcanic origin, and includes Palmarola (anc. Palmaria),,Zannone 
(Sinonia), Ventotene (Pandateria, pop. in 1901, 1986) and San 
Stefano. It is situated about 20 m. S. of Monte Circeo and 
70 m. W. of Naples, and belongs partly to the province of Caserta 
and partly to that of Naples (Ventotene). There is regular 
communication with Naples by steamer, and in summer with 
Anzio. The islands rise to a height of about 70 ft. above sea- 
level. They are now penal settlements, and their isolated 
character led to their being similarly used in ancient times. A 
colony with Latin rights was founded on Pontiae in 313 b.c. 
Nero, Germanicus's eldest son, and the sisters of Caligula, were 
confined upon it; while Pandateria was the place of banishment 
of Julia, daughter of Augustus, of her daughter Agrippina the 
elder, and of Octavia, the divorced wife of Nero. 

POOD, a Russian weight, equivalent to 40 lb Russian and 
about 36 lb avoirdupois. A little more than 62 poods go to 
the ton. The word is an adaptation of the Low German or 
Norse pund, pound. 

POOL. (1) A pond, or a small body of still water; also a 
place in a river or stream where the water is deep and still,, so 
applied in the Thames to that part of the river known as The 
Pool, which reaches from below London Bridge to Limehouse. 
The word in Old English was p6l, which may be related to pull 
or pyll, and the similar Celtic words, e.g. Cornish pal, a creek, 
common on the Bristol Channel and estuary of the Severn, on 
the English side in the form " pill." A further connexion has 
been suggested with Lat. palus, marsh; Gr. tt?X<4s, mud. (2) 
A name for the stakes, penalties, &c, in various card and other 
games when collected together to be paid out to the winners; 
also the name of a variety of games of billiards (q.v.). This 
word has a curious history. It is certainly adapted from Fr. 
poule, hen, chicken, apparently a slang term for the stakes in 
a game, possibly, as the New English Dictionary suggests, used 
as a synonym for plunder, booty. " Chicken-hazard " might 
be cited as a parallel, though that has been taken to be a cor- 
ruption of " chequeen," a form of the Turkish coin, a sequin. 
When the word came into use in English at the end of the 17th 
century, it seems to have been at once identified with " pool," 
pond, as Fr. fiche (ficher, to fix), a counter, was with "fish," 
counters in card games often taking the form of " fish " made 
of mother-of-pearl, &c. " Pool," in the sense of a common 
fund, has been adopted as a commercial term for a combination 
for the purpose of speculating in stocks and shares, the several 
owners of securities " pooling" them and placing them under a 
single control, and sharing all losses and profits. Similarly 
the name is given to a form of trade combination, especially in 
railway or shipping companies, by which the receipts or profits 
are divided on a certain agreed-upon basis, for the purpose of 
avoiding competition (see Trusts). 

POOLE, MATTHEW (1624-1679), English Nonconformist 
theologian, was born at York, educated at Emmanuel College, 



Cambridge, and from 1649 till the passing of the Act of Unifor- 
mity (1662) held the rectory of St Michael le Querne, London. 
Subsequent troubles led to his withdrawal to Holland, and he 
died at Amsterdam in 1679. The work with which his name 
is principally associated is the Synopsis criticorum biblicorum 
(5 vols, fol., 1669-1676), in which he summarizes the views of one 
hundred and fifty biblical critics. He also wrote English Anno- 
tations on the Holy Bible, as far as Isa. lviii.- — a work which 
was completed by several of his Nonconformist brethren, and 
published in 2 vols. fol. in 1683. 

POOLE, PAUL FALCONER (1806-1879), English painter, 
was born at Bristol in 1806. Though self-taught his fine feeling 
for colour, poetic sympathy and dramatic power gained for him 
a high position among British artists. He exhibited his first 
work in the Royal Academy at the age of twenty-five, the sub- 
ject being " The Well," a scene in Naples. There was an interval 
of seven years before he next exhibited his " Farewell, Farewell " 
in 1837, which was followed by the " Emigrant's Departure," 
" Hermann and Dorothea " and " By the Waters of Babylon." 
In 1843 his position was made secure by his " Solomon Eagle," 
and by his success in the Cartoon Exhibition, in which he received 
from the Fine Art Commissioners a prize of £300 sterling. After 
his exhibition of the " Surrender of Syon House " he was elected 
an associate of the Royal Academy in 1846, and was made an 
academician in 1861. He died in 1879. 

Poole's subjects divide themselves into two orders — one 
idyllic, the other dramatic. Of the former his " May Day " 
(1852) is a typical example. Of both styles there were excellent 
examples to be seen in the small collection of his works shown 
at Burlington House in the Winter Exhibition of 1883-1884. 
Among his early dramatic pictures was " Solomon Eagle ex- 
horting the People to Repentance during the Plague of 1665," 
painted in 1843. To this class belongs also the " Messenger 
announcing to Job the Irruption of the Sabeans and the 
Slaughter of the Servants " (exhibited in 1850), and " Robert, 
Duke of Normandy *ind Arietta" (1848). Finer examples of 
his more mature power in this direction are to be found in his 
" Prodigal Son," painted in 1869; the " Escape of Glaucusand 
lone with the blind girl Nydia from Pompeii" (i860); and 
" Cunstaunce sent adrift by the Constable of Alia, King of 
Northumberland," painted in 1868. More peaceful than these 
are the " Song of Troubadours " (painted in 1854) and the " Goths 
in Italy" (1851), the latter an important historical work of 
great, power and beauty. Of a less lofty strain, but still more 
beautiful in its workmanship, is the " Seventh Day of the 
Decameron," painted in 1857. In this picture Poole rises to his 
full height as a colourist. In his pastorals he is soft and tender, 
as in the " Mountain Path " (1853), the " Water-cress Gatherers " 
(1870), the " Shepston Maiden " (1872). But when he turns to 
the grander and more sublime views of nature his work is bold 
and vigorous. Fine examples of this style may be seen in the 
" Vision of Ezekiel " of the National Gallery, "Solitude" 
(1876), the " Entrance to the Cave of Mammon " (1875), the 
" Dragon's Cavern " (1877), and perhaps best of all in the " Lion 
in the Path " (1873), a great representation of mountain and 
cloud form. 

POOLE, REGINALD STUART (1832-1895), English archae- 
ologist and orientalist, was born in London on the 27th of 
January 1832. His father was the Rev. Edward Poole, a well- 
known bibliophile. His mother, Sopha, authoress of The 
Englishwoman in Egypt (1844), was the sister of E. W. Lane, 
the Arabic scholar, with whom R. S. Poole lived in Cairo from 
1842 to 1849, thus imbibing an early taste for Egyptian 
antiquities. In 1852 he became an assistant in the British 
Museum, and was assigned to the department of coins and 
medals, of .which in 1870 he became keeper. In that capacity 
he did work of the highest value, alike as a writer, teacher and 
administrator. In 1882 he was largely responsible for founding 
the Egypt Exploration Fund, and in 1884 for starting the Society 
of English Medallists. He retired in 1893, and died on the 8th 
of February 1895. Some of Poole's best work was done in his 
articles for the Ency. Brit. (9th ed.) on Egypt, Hieroglyphics 



POOLE— POOP 



73 



and Numismatics, and considerable portions have been retained 
in the present edition, even though later research has been 
active in his sphere of work; he also wrote for Smith's Dictionary 
of the Bible, and published several volumes dealing with his 
special subjects. He was for some time professor of archae- 
ology at University College, London; and also lecturer at the 
Royal Academy. 

His elder brother, Edward Stanley Poole (1830-1867), 
who was chief clerk in the science and art department at South 
Kensington, was an Arabic scholar, whose early death cut short 
a promising career. His two sons, Stanley Lane-Toole (b. 1854), 
professor of Arabic in Trinity College, Dublin, and Reginald 
Lane-Poole (b. 1857), keeper of the archives at Oxford, 
lecturer in diplomatic, and author 'of various historical works, 
carried on the family tradition of scholarship. 

POOLE, a municipal borough, county in itself, market town 
and seaport in the eastern parliamentary division of Dor- 
setshire, England, 113I m. S.W. by W. from London by the 
London & South-Western railway. Pop. (1901), 19,463. It 
is picturesquely situated on a peninsula between Holes Bay 
and the shallow irregular inlet of Poole Harbour. There are 
several modern churches, a guildhall, public library and school 
of art. Poole Harbour, extending inland 6 m., with a general 
breadth of 4 m., has a very narrow entrance, and is studded 
with low islands, on the largest of which, Brownsea or Branksea, 
is a castle, transformed into a residence, erected as a defence 
of the harbour in Tudor times, and strengthened by Charles I. 
Potters' clay is worked here. At low water the harbour is 
entirely emptied except a narrow channel, when there is a 
depth of 8| ft. There are some valuable oyster beds. There 
is a considerable general coasting trade, and clay is exported 
to the Staffordshire potteries. Some shipbuilding is carried 
on, and there are manufacturers of cordage, netting and sail- 
cloth. The town also possesses potteries, decorative tileworks, 
iron foundries, agricultural implement works and flour-mills. 
Poole Park, containing 40 acres of land and 62 acres of water, 
was acquired in 1887 and 1889, and Branksome Park, of 
40 acres, in 1895. The borough is under a mayor, 6 aldermen 
and 18 councillors. Area, 5333 acres. 

Although the neighbourhood abounds in British earth- 
works and barrows, and there are traces of a Roman road lead- 
ing from Poole to Wimborne, Poole (La Pole) is not mentioned 
by the early chroniclers or in Domesday Book- The manor, 
part of that of Canford, belonged in 1086 to Edward of Salis- 
bury, and passed by marriage to William Longespee, earl of 
Salisbury, thence to Edmund de Lacy, earl of Lincoln, and with 
his heiress to Thomas, earl of Lancaster; and so to the Crown. 
Poole is first mentioned in a writ of 1224, addressed to the bailiffs 
and good men of La Pole, ordering them to retain all ships within 
their port. Entries in the Patent Rolls show that Poole had 
considerable trade before William de Longespee, earl of Salis- 
bury, granted the burgesses a charter about 1248 assuring to 
them all liberties and free customs within his borough. The 
bailiff was to be chosen by the lord from six men elected by 
the burgesses, and was to hold pleas for breach of measures 
and assizes. It is uncertain when the burgesses obtained their 
town at the fee-farm rent of £8, 13s. 4d. mentioned in 1312. 
The mayor, bailiffs and good men are first mentioned in 1311 
and were required to provide two ships for service against 
Robert de Brus. In 1372 the burgesses obtained assize of 
bread and ale, and right to hold the courts of the lord of the 
manor, the prepositus being styled his mayor. The burgesses 
were licensed in 1433 t0 fortify the town; this was renewed in 
1462, when the mayor was given cognisance of the staple. 
Elizabeth incorporated Poole in 1569 and made it a separate 
county; Charles II. gave a charter in 1667. The corporation 
was suspended after a writ of quo warranto in 1686, the town 
being governed by the commission of the peace until the 
charters were renewed in 1688. Poole returned two members to 
parliament in 1362 and 1368, and regularly from 1452 to 1867, 
when the representation was reduced, ceasing in 1885. It is 
uncertain when the Thursday market was granted, but the 



present fairs on the Feasts of SS Philip and James and All 
Saints were granted in 1453. Poole, as the headquarters of the 
Parliamentary forces in Dorset during the Civil War, escaped 
the siege that crippled so many of its neighbours. When 
Charles II. visited the town in 1665 a large trade was carried on 
in stockings, though the prosperity of Poole still depended on 
its usefulness as a port. 

POONA, or Puna, a city and district of British India, in 
the Central division of Bombay. The city is at the confluence 
of the Mutha and Mula rivers, 1850 ft. above sea-level and 119 m. 
S.E. from Bombay on the Great Indian Peninsula railway. 
Municipal area, about 4 sq. m.; pop. (1901), 153,320. It is 
pleasantly situated amid extensive gardens, with a large num- 
ber of modern public buildings, and also many temples and 
palaces dating from the 16th to the 19th century. The palace 
of the peshwas is a ruin, having been destroyed by fire in 1827. 
From its healthy situation Poona has been chosen not only 
as the headquarters of the 6th division of the Southern army, 
but also as the residence of the governor of Bombay during' the 
raihy season, from June to September. The native town, along 
the river bank, is somewhat poorly built. The European quarter, 
including the cantonment, extends north-west towards Kirkee. 
The waterworks were constructed mainly by the munificence 
of Sir Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy. Poona was never a great centre 
of trade or manufacture though still noted for brass-work, 
jewelry and other articles of luxury. Cotton-mills, paper- 
mills, a brewery (at Dapuri), flour-mills, factories of ice and 
mineral waters, and dairy farms furnish the chief industries. 
Educational institutions are numerous. They include the 
government Deccan College, with a law class; the aided Fer- 
gusson college; the government colleges of science and agricul- 
ture; high schools; training schools for masters and mistresses; 
medical school; and municipal technical school. The recent 
history of Poona has been painfully associated with the plague. 
During 1897, when the city was first attacked, the death-rate 
rose to 93 per 1000 in Poona city, 71 per 1000 in the canton- 
ment, and 93 per 1000 in Kirkee. 

The District op Poona has an area of 5349 sq. m. Popula- 
tion (1901), 995,330, showing an increase of 18% after the dis- 
astrous famine of 1876-1877, but a decrease of 7% in the last 
decade. Towards the west the country is undulating, and 
nuftierous spurs from the Western Ghats enter the district; to 
the east it opens out into plains. It is watered by many streams 
which, rising in the ghats, flow eastwards until they join the 
Bhima, a river which intersects' the district from north to south. 
The principal crops are millets, pulses, oil-seeds, wheat, rice, sugar- 
cane, vegetables and fruit (including grapes). The two most 
important irrigation works in the Deccan are the Mutha canal, 
with which the Poona waterworks are connected, and the Nira 
canal. There are manufactures of cotton, silk and blankets. 
The district is traversed by the Great Indian Peninsula railway, 
and also by the Southern Mahratta line, which starts from Poona 
city towards Satara. It is liable to drought, from which it 
suffered severely in 1866-1867, 1876-1877, and again in 
1896-1897. 

In the 17th century the district formed part of the Mahom- 
medan kingdom of Ahmadnagar. Sivaji was born within its 
boundaries at Junriar in 1627, and he was brought up at Poona 
town as the headquarters of the hereditary fief of his father. 
The district thus was the early centre of the Mahratta power; 
and when Satara became first the capital and later the prison 
of the descendants of Sivaji, Poona continued to be the seat of 
government under their hereditary ministers, with the title 
of peshwa. Many stirring scenes in Mahratta history were 
enacted here. Holkar defeated the last peshwa under its walls, 
and his flight to Bassein led to the treaty by which he put 
himself under British protection. He was reinstated in 1802, 
but, unable to maintain friendly relations, he attacked the 
British at Kirkee in 181 7, and his kingdom passed from him. 
POOP (Lat. puppis, stern), the stern or after-part of a ship; in 
the 16th and 1 7th centuries a lofty and castellated deck. The verb 
" to poop " is used of a wave breaking over the stern of a vessel. 



74 



POORE— POOR LAW 



POORE (or Poor), RICHARD (d. 1237), English bishop, was 
a son of Richard of Ilchester, bishop of Winchester. About 
1 197 he was chosen dean of Sarum and, after being an un- 
successful candidate for the bishoprics of Winchester and of 
Durham, he became bishop of Chichester in 1214. In 1217 he 
was translated to Salisbury, where he succeeded his elder brother, 
Herbert Poore, and in 1228 to Durham. He died at Tarrant 
Monkton, Dorset, said by some to be his birthplace, on the 15th 
of April 1237. Poore took some part in public affairs, under 
Henry III., but the great work of his life was done at Salisbury. 
Having in 1219 removed his see from Old to New Sarum, or 
Salisbury, he began the building of the magnificent cathedral 
there; he laid the foundation stone in April 1220, and during 
his episcopate he found money and forwarded the work in other 
ways. For the city the bishop secured a charter from Henry III. 
and he was responsible for the plan on which it was built, 
a plan which to someextent it still retains. He had something 
to do with drawing up some statutes for his cathedral; he is 
said to be responsible for the final form of the " use of Sarum," 
and he was probably the author of the Ancren Riwle, a valuable 
" picture of contemporary life, manners and feeling " written 
in Middle English. His supposed identity with the jurist, 
Ricardus Anglicus, is more doubtful. 

POOR LAW. The phrase "poor law" in English usage 
denotes the legislation embodying the measures taken by the 
state for the relief of paupers and its administration. The 
history of the subject and its problems generally are dealt with 
in the article Charity and Charities, and other information 
will be found in Unemployment and Vagrancy. This article 
will deal only with the practice in the United Kingdom as 
adopted after the reform of the poor law in 1834 and amended 
by subsequent acts. This reform was brought about mainly 
by the rapid increase of the poor rate at the beginning of the 
19th century, showing that a change was necessary either 
in the poor law as it then existed or in the mode of its adminis- 
tration. 

A commission was appointed in 1832 "to make diligent and 
full inquiry into the practical operation of the laws for the 
relief of the poor in England and Wales, and into the manner in 
which those laws were administered, and to report their opinion 
as to what beneficial alterations could be made." The com- 
missioners reported " fully on the great abuse of the legislative 
provision for the poor as directed to be employed by the! statute 
of Elizabeth," finding "that the great source of abuse was the 
outdoor relief afforded to the able-bodied on their own account 
or on that of their families, given either in kind or in money." 
They also reported that " great maladministration existed in 
the workhouses." To remedy the evils they proposed con- 
siderable alterations in the law, and the principal portion of 
their suggestions was embodied in the Poor Law Amendment 
Act 1834. By virtue of this act three commissioners were 
appointed (originally for five years, but subsequently con- 
tinued from time to time), styled "the poor law commissioners 
for England and Wales," sitting as a board, and appointing 
assistant commissioners and other officers. The administration 
of relief according to the existing laws was subject to their 
direction and control, and to their orders and regulations for 
the government of workhouses and the guidance and control 
of guardians and vestries and the keeping and allowing of 
accounts and contracts, without interfering with ordinary relief 
in individual cases. The whole of England and Wales was 
divided into twenty-one districts, to each of which an assistant 
commissioner was appointed. The commissioners under their 
powers formed poor law unions by uniting parishes for general 
administration, and building workhouses, guardians elected by 
the ratepayers (or ex officio) having the general government 
and administration of relief. The expense was apportioned to 
each parish on settled principles and rules, with power, however, 
to treat the united parishes as one for certain purposes. Out- 
door relief might be given, on the order of two justices, to poor 
persons wholly unable to work from old age or infirmity. 
The obstacles which the act had to contend with in London 



chiefly arose from the confusion and perplexity of jurisdiction 
which existed in the one hundred and seventy parishes com- 
prised within the city of London and the metropolitan district, 
some of these containing governing bodies of their own ; in some 
the parish business was professedly managed by open vestries, 
in others by select vestries, and in addition to these there were 
elective vestries, while the majority of the large parishes were 
managed under local acts by boards of directors, governors 
and trustees. These governing bodies executed a great variety 
of functions besides regulating the management of the poor. 
The power, patronage and the indirect advantages which arose 
from the administration of the local funds were so great that 
much opposition took place when it was proposed to interfere 
by constituting a board to be annually chosen and freely elected 
by the ratepayers, on which the duty of regulating the expen- 
diture for the relief of the poor was to depend. The general 
management of the poor was, however, on a somewhat better 
footing in London than in the country. 

The act of 1834 was rather to restore the scope and intention 
of the statute of Elizabeth by placing its administration in the 
hands of responsible persons chosen by the ratepayers, and 
themselves controlled by the orders of a central body, than to 
create a new system of poor laws. The agents and instruments 
by which the administration of relief is afforded are the fol- 
lowing. The description applies to the year 1010, but, as 
noticed below, the question of further reform was already to 
the fore, and the precise direction in which changes should go 
was a highly controversial matter. 

The guardians of the poor regulate the cases and description 
of relief within the union; a certain number of guardians are 
elected from time to time by the ratepayers. The 
number was formerly determined by the central 
board, 1 by whom full directions as to the mode of election 
were given. In addition to those elected there were ex officio 
guardians, principally local magistrates. However, both these 
and nominated guardians were done away with by the Local 
Government Act 1894. The plural vote (which gave to the 
votes of the larger ratepayers a higher value) was also abolished; 
and in place of the old property qualification for the office of 
guardian a ratepaying or residential qualification was sub- 
stituted. In urban districts the act in other respects left the 
board of guardians untouched, but in rural districts it inaugu- 
rated a policy of consolidating l6cal authorities. In the rural 
districts the district council is practically amalgamated with the 
guardians, for, though each body retains a separate corporate 
existence, the district councillors are the guardians, and guar- 
dians as such are no longer elected. These electoral changes, 
extremely democratic in their character, brought about no 
marked general change in poor law administration. Here and 
there abrupt changes of policy were made, but the difficulty of 
bringing general principles to bear on the administration of the 
law remained much as before. 

The guardians hold their meetings frequently, according to the 
exigencies of the union. Individual cases are brought to their 
notice— most cases of resident poor by the relieving officer of 
the union; the case of casual paupers by him or by the work- 
house officers by whom they were admitted in the first instance. 
The resident poor frequently appear in person before the guar- 
dians. The mode of voting which the guardians follow in respect 
to any matter they differ on is minutely regulated, and all their 
proceedings, as well as those of their officers, are entered in pre- 
scribed books and forms. They have a clerk, generally a local 
solicitor of experience, who has a variety of responsible duties 
in advising, conducting correspondence and keeping books of 

1 After an intermediate transfer in 1847 of the powers of the 
poor law commissioners, and the constitution of a fresh board 
styled " commissioners for administering the laws for relief of the 
poor in England," it was found expedient to concentrate in one 
department of the government the supervision of the laws relating 
to the public health, the relief of the poor and local government; 
and this concentration was in 1 87 1 carried out by the establishment 
(by Act of Parliament 34 & 35 Vict. c. 70) of the local government 
board. 



POOR LAW 



75 



accounts, and carrying out the directions of the guardians, 
who in their turn are subject to the general or special regulations 
of the local government board. 

It may be mentioned here that the chief difficulty in under- 
standing the English poor law arises from the fact that there are 
three authorities, each of them able to alter its administration 
fundamentally. The poor law is not only the creation of 
statutes passed by parliament; it is also controlled by the 
subordinate jurisdiction of the local government board, which in 
virtue of various acts has the power to issue orders. In a 
single year the local government board may issue nearly two 
thousand orders, over a thousand of them having special reference 
to the poor law. It is not possible therefore even to summarize 
the mass of subordinate legislation. A third source of authority 
is the local board of guardians, which, within the discretion 
allowed to it by statutes and orders, can so variously administer 
the law that it is difficult to understand how procedure so 
fundamentally different can be based on one and the same law. 
This elasticity, admirable or mischievous, as we choose to 
regard it, is the most characteristic feature of the English poor 
law system. The various officers of the union, from the medical 
officers to workhouse porters, including masters and matrons 
of workhouses, are generally appointed by the guardians, and 
the areas, duties and salaries of all the paid officers may be 
prescribed by the local government board. 

Among a multitude of miscellaneous duties and powers of 
the guardians, apart from the ordinary duties of ordering 'or 
refusing relief in individual cases and superintending the officers 
of the union, the duties devolve on them of considering the 
adjustment of contributions to the common fund whether 
of divided or added parishes, and matters affecting other unions, 
the building of workhouses and raising of money for that and 
other purposes, the taking of land on lease, the hiring of buildings, 
special provisions as to superannuation and allowances to officers, 
the maintenance and orders as to lunatics apart from individual 
instances, and the consideration of questions of settlement 
and removal. A paramount obligation rests on the guardians 
to attend to the actual visitation of workhouses, schools and 
other institutions and places in which the poor are interested, 
and to call attention to and report on any irregularity or neglect 
of duty. Guardians may charge the rates with the expenses 
of attending conferences for the discussion of matters con- 
nected with their duties (Poor Law Conferences Act 1883). In 
relation to expenditure the guardians have very considerable 
but restricted powers. Their accounts are audited by district 
auditors appointed by the local government board. 

Overseers of the poor are still appointed under the statute 
of Elizabeth, and the guardians cannot interfere with the ap- 
_ pointment. As, however, the relief of the poor is 

administered by boards of guardians, the principal 
duties of overseers relate to the making and collection of rates 
and payments. The guardians, by order of the local govern- 
ment board, may appoint assistant overseers and collectors. 

The conditions of persons entitled to relief are indicated by 
the terms of the statute of Elizabeth. If they fall within the 
definitions there given they have right to relief. 
of Relief. A fundamental principle with respect to legal relief 
of the poor is that the condition of the pauper 
ought to be, on the whole, less eligible than that of the independent 
labourer. The pauper has no just ground for complaint, 
if, while his physical wants are adequately provided for, 
his condition is less eligible than that of the poorest class of 
those who contribute to his support. If a state of destitution 
exists, the failure of third persons to perform their duty, as a 
husband, or relative mentioned in the statute of Elizabeth, 
neglecting those he is under a legal obligation to support, is no 
answer to the application. The relief should be afforded, and is 
often a condition precedent to the right of parish officers to take 
proceedings against the relatives or to apply to other poor 
unions. The duty to give immediate relief must, however, 
vary with the circumstances. The case of wanderers under 
circumstances not admitting of delay may be different from 



that of persons resident on the spot where inquiry as to all the 
circumstances is practicable. The statute of Elizabeth con- 
templated that the relief was to be afforded to the poor resi- 
dent in the parish, but it is contrary to the spirit of the law that 
any person shall be permitted to perish from starvation or want 
of medical assistance. Whoever is by sudden emergency or 
urgent distress deprived of the ordinary means of subsistence 
has a right to apply for immediate relief where he may 
happen to be. Persons comprehended within this class are 
called " casual poor," although the term " casuals " is generally 
used in reference to vagrants who take refuge for a short time 
in the " casual wards " of workhouses. Various tests are 
applied to ascertain whether applicants are really destitute. 
Labour tests are applied to the able-bodied, and workhouse 
tests are applied to those to whom entering a workhouse is 
made a condition of relief. 

As to the nature and kind of relief given under the poor laws 
the great distinction restored rather than introduced by the 
amendment of the poor law system in 1834 was Nature and 
giving all relief to able-bodied persons of their Kind of 
families in well-regulated workhouses (that is to * e/fc/ - 
say, places where they may be set to work according to the 
spirit and intention of the statute of Elizabeth), and confining 
outdoor relief to the impotent — that is, all except the able- 
bodied and their families. Although workhouses formed a 
conspicuous feature in legislation for the poor from an early 
period, the erection of those buildings for unions throughout 
the country where not already provided followed immediately 
on the amendment of the system in 1834. Since that time there 
has been a constant struggle between the pauper class and 
the administrators of the law, the former naturally wishing 
to be relieved at their own homes, and in many instances 
choosing rather to go without aid than to remove within 
the walls of the workhouse. Relief given in a workhouse is 
termed " in (or indoor) maintenance " relief, and when given 
at the homes of the paupers is termed " outdoor relief." 

Admission to a workhouse may be by a written order of the 
board of guardians, or by the master or matron (or in their absence 
by the porter) without an order in any case of sudden ' 

or urgent necessity, or provisionally by a relieving Workhouse 
officer, or overseer or churchwarden. Any person who Ku ' es * 
is brought by a policeman as having been found wandering in a state 
of destitution may be admitted. It is to be observed generally, 
with respect to all persons who may apply for admission into the 
workhouse under circumstances of urgent necessity, that their 
destitution, coupled with the fact of being within the union or 
parish, entitles them to relief, altogether independently of their 
settlement, if they have one, which is a matter for subsequent 
inquiry. 

The regulations for the government of workhouses fall under 
two classes: (1) those which are necessary for the maintenance of 
good order in any building in which considerable numbers of 
persons of both sexes and of different ages reside; (2) those which 
are necessary in order that these establishments may not be alms- 
houses, but workhouses in the proper meaning of the term. 

The inmates of a workhouse are necessarily separated into certain 
classes. In no well-managed institution o£ this sort, in any country, 
are males and females, the old and the young, the healthy and the 
sick, indiscriminately mixed together. Guardians are required to 
divide the paupers into certain classes, and to subdivide any one 
or more of these classes in any manner which may be advisable, 
and which the internal arrangements of the workhouse admit; and 
the guardians are required from time to time, after consulting the 
medical officer, to make necessary arrangements with regard to per- 
sons labouring under any disease of body or mind, and, so far as cir- 
cumstances permit, to subdivide any of the enumerated classes with 
reference to the moral character or behaviour or the previous habits 
of the inmates, or to such other grounds as may seem expedient. 

The separation of married couples was long a vexed question, the 
evils on the one hand arising from the former unrestricted practice 
being very great, while on the other hand the separation of old 
couples was felt as a great hardship, and by express statutory pro- 
vision in 1847 husband and wife, both being above the age of sixty, 
received into a workhouse cannot be compelled to live separate and 
apart from each other (10 & 11 Vict. c. 109, § 23). This exemption 
was carried somewhat further by contemporaneous orders of the 
board, under which guardians were not compelled to separate infirm 
couples, provided they had a sleeping apartment separate from that 
of other paupers; and in 1876 guardians were empowered, at their 
discretion, to permit husband and wife where either of them is 



7 6 



POOR LAW 



infirm, sick or disabled by any injury, or above sixty years of age 
to live together, but every such case must be reported to the local 
government board (39 & 40 Vict. c. 61, § 10). 

The classification of children apart from adult paupers is per- 
emptory. Even in those unions where what is called a workhouse 
school is maintained the children are kept in detached parts of 
the building, and do not associate with the adult paupers. The 
separate school is built on a separate and often distant site. Some- 
times the separate school is one building, sometimes detached 
" blocks," and sometimes a group of cottage homes. There still 
remain ten district schools. In some places an experiment which 
is called the scattered homes system has been adopted. This 
consists in lodging-homes for the children placed in different parts 
of the town, from which the children attend the local public ele- 
mentary schools. In the rural districts and in less populous unions 
the children generally attend the local public elementary school. 
To these expedients boarding-out must be added. The above 
refers of course only to those children who as inmates are under the 
charge of the guardians. Outdoor paupers are responsible for 
the education of their children, but guardians cannot legally continue 
outdoor relief if the children are not sent regularly to school. 

The tendency too has been to improve administrative methods 
with reference to children. 

Two important orders on the subject of the boarding-out of poor- 
law children were issued in 1889. By the Boarding of Children in 
Unions Order, orphan and deserted children can be boarded out 
with suitable foster-parents in the union by all boards of guardians 
except those in the metropolis. This can be done either through 
a voluntary committee or directly. By the Boarding Out Order, 
orphan and deserted children may be boarded out by all boards of 
guardians without the limits of their own unions, but in all cases 
this must be done through the offices of properly constituted local 
boarding-out committees. The sum payable to the foster-parents 
is not to exceed 4s. per week for each child. The local committee 
require to be approved by the Local Government Board. 

The question of the education of poor law children was much 
discussed in later years. During the early years of the central 
authority, it was the object of the commissioners to induce boards 
of guardians to unite in districts for educational purposes. This 
was advocated on grounds of efficiency and economy. It was very 
unpopular with the local authorities, and the number of such 
districts has never exceeded a dozen. In London, where this 
aggregation was certainly less desirable than in rural unions, several 
districts were formed and large district schools were built. Adverse 
criticism, by Mrs Nassau Senior in 1874, and by a department 
committee appointed twenty years later, was directed against these 
large, or, as they are invidiously called, barrack schools. The 
justice of this condemnation has been disputed, but it seems 
probable that some of these schools had grown too large. Many 
of these have been dissolved by order of the local government 
board on the application of the unions concerned. This con- 
demnation of some schools has in certain quarters been extended 
to all schools, and is construed by others as an unqualified 
recommendation of boarding out, a method of bringing up poor law 
children obviously requiring even more careful supervision than is 
needed in the publicity of a school. 

Other acts to be noted are the Poor Law Act 1889 and the Custody 
of Children Act 1 891, § 3. The evil of allowing children who 
have been reputably brought up in poor law schools to relapse 
into vicious habits on return to the custody of unworthy parents 
has been the subject of frequent remark. By the act of 1889, 
guardians are authorized to detain children who are under their 
charge, as having been deserted by their parents, up to the age of 
16 if boys and of 18 if girls. By the Poor Law Act 1899 the 
principle is extended to orphans and the children of bad parents 
chargeable to the rates. The act of 1 89 1 goes further, and enacts 
that where a parent has (a) abandoned or deserted his child, or 
(6) allowed his child to be brought up by another person at that 
person's expense, or by the guardians of a poor law union for such 
a length of time and in such circumstances as to satisfy the court 
that the parent was unmindful of his parental duties, the court 
shall not make an order for the delivery of the child to the parent 
unless the parent has satisfied the court that, having regard to the 
welfare of the child, he is a fit person to have the custody of the 
child. 

Casual and poor wayfarers admitted by the master and matron 
are kept in a separate ward and dieted and set to work in such 
manner as the guardians by resolution direct; and whenever any 
vagrants or mendicants are received into a workhouse they are 
usually (as a precaution necessary for preventing the introduction 
of infectious or contagious diseases) kept entirely separate from the 
other inmates, unless their stay exceeds a single night. 

For the guidance of guardians an important circular was issued 
from the local government board on the 15th of March 1886. It 
stated that while " the board have no doubt that the powers which 
the guardians possess are fully sufficient to enable them to deal 
with ordinary pauperism, and to meet the demand for relief from 
the classes who usually seek it," yet " these provisions do not in 
all cases meet the emergency. What is required to relieve artisans 
and others who have hitherto avoided poor law assistance, and who 



are temporarily deprived of employment, is — (1) Work which will 
not involve the stigma of pauperism; (2) work which all can per- 
form, whatever may have been their previous occupations; (3) 
work which does not compete with that of other labourers at 
present in employment; and lastly, work which is not likely 
to interfere with the resumption of regular employment in their 
own trades by those who seek it." 

The circular went on to recommend that guardians should confer 
with the local authorities, " and endeavour to arrange with the 
latter for the execution of works on. which unskilled labour may 
be immediately employed." The conditions of such work were 

(1) the men to be employed must be recommended by the guardians; 

(2) the wages must be less than the wages ordinarily paid for such 
work. 

The circular was widely distributed. Many boards that were 
inclined in that direction regarded it as an encouragement to open 
or to promote the opening of relief works. Others, again, looked 
closely at the conditions, and declared roundly that it was impos- 
sible to fulfil them. A poor law authority, they said, cannot give 
relief which will not subject the recipients to the legal (if any) and 
economic disabilities attaching to the receipt of poor law relief. 
Work which all can perform can only be found in the shape of 
task-work under adequate supervision. If the work is of a useful 
and necessary character, it must compete with the labour of others 
belonging to the trades affected. If the relief works are opened by 
authorities other than the poor law guardians, the conditions that 
the men were only to be employed when recommended by the 
guardians, and then paid less than the current rate of wages, were 
calculated, it was urged, to secure bad work, discontent, and all 
the " stigma of pauperism." The ambiguity of the circular indeed 
was such, that both action and inaction seem amply justified by it. 

In the administration of medical relief to the sick, the objects 
kept in view are: (1) to provide medical aid for persons who are 
really destitute, and (2) to prevent medical relief from „ 
generating or encouraging pauperism, and with this Relief 
view to withdraw from the labouring classes, as well 
as from the administrators of relief and the medical officers, all 
motives for applying for or administering medical relief, unless 
where the circumstances render it absolutely necessary. 

Unions are formed into medical districts limited in area and 
population, to which a paid medical officer is appointed, who is 
furnished with a list of all such aged and infirm persons and persons 
permanently sick or disabled as are actually receiving relief and 
residing within the medical officer's district. Every person named 
in the list receives a ticket, and on exhibiting it to the medical 
officer is entitled to advice, attendance and medicine as his case 
may require. Medical outdoor relief in connexion with dispen- 
saries is regulated in asylum districts of the metropolis by the 
Metropolitan Poor Act 1867 (30 & 31 Vict. c. 6). In connexion 
with medical relief must be noted the Medical Relief Disqualifica- 
tion Removal Act 1885. This act relieved voters from disquali- 
fication which would otherwise attach in consequence of the receipt 
by them or their families of medical or surgical assistance, or of 
medicine, at the expense of the poor rate. This does not apply 
to guardian elections, and it does not include persons who, in 
addition to medical relief, receive nourishment or other relief from 
the poor rate. The provisions which require the removal of the 
names of paupers from the electoral roll are, it is understood, very 
perfunctorily carried out. The Outdoor Relief Friendly Societies 
Act 1894 authorized guardians, in calculating the proper allowance 
to be made, to disregard an income derived from a friendly society, 
and to give relief as if the applicant in receipt of such an allowance 
was wholly destitute. This act is a curious illustration of the 
English poor law system. In earlier years, notably in what is 
known as Paget's letter (22nd Rep. Poor Law Board, p. 108), the 
central board, had, in answer to inquiry, pointed out that such 
preferential treatment given to men receiving benefit, insufficient 
to maintain them, from a friendly society, could not in equity 
be withheld from persons in receipt of an adequate benefit, or from 
those whose savings took the form of a deposit in a bank, of a share 
in a co-operative society, or of cottage property; and further, that 
an engagement on the part of guardians to supplement insufficient 
allowance from a friendly society was a bounty on inadequate and 
insolvent friendly society finance. The central board went so 
far as to say that relief given in such disregard of the pauper's 
income was illegal. They had, however, issued no peremptory 
order on the subject, nor had guardians been surcharged for neglect 
of the rule. The local authorities followed their own discretion, 
and a very general practice was to reckon friendly society allowances 
at half their value. The above act set aside the central board's 
earlier interpretation of the law. It -made, however, no attempt 
to enforce its procedure on the numerous boards of guardians who 
regard the course thereby authorized as contrary to public policy. 

A lunatic asylum is required to be provided by a county or 
borough for the reception of pauper lunatics, with a committee of 
visitors who, among other duties, fix a weekly sum to , ana tics 
be charged for the lodging, maintenance, medicine and 
clothing of each pauper lunatic confined in such asylum. Several 
acts were passed. The Lunacy Act 1890 consolidated the acts 
affecting lunatics. It was further amended by the Lunacy Act 1891. 



POOR LAW 



77 



An explanatory letter issued by the local government board will 
be found in the 20th Annual Report, p. 23. The tendency of this and 
of all recent legislation for an afflicted class has been to increase the 
care and the safeguards for their proper treatment. 

A settlement is the right acquired in any one of the modes pointed 
out by the poor laws to become a recipient of the benefit of those 
laws in that parish or place where the right has been last acquired. 

No relief is given from the poor rates of a parish to any person 
who does not reside within the union, except where such person 
The Ques- being casually within a parish becomes destitute by 
tioa ot sudden distress, or where such person is entitled to 

•'Settle' receive relief from any parish where non-resident 
meat." under justice's order (applicable to persons under 

orders of removal and to non-resident lunatics), and except to 
widows and legitimate children where the widow was resident with 
her husband at the time of his death out of the union in which she 
was not settled, or where a child under sixteen is maintained in a 
workhouse or establishment for the education of pauper children 
not situate in the union, and in some other exceptional cases. 

Immediately before the passing of the Poor Law Amendment 
Act 1834 settlements were acquired by birth, hiring and service, 
apprenticeship, renting a tenement, estate, office or payment of 
rates. In addition to these an acknowledgment (by certificate), by 
relief or acts of acquiescence) has practically the effect of a settle- 
ment, for, if unexplained, such an acknowledgment stops the parish 
from disputing a settlement in the parish acknowledging. The 
Poor Law Amendment Act 1834 abolished settlement by hiring 
and service (or by residence under it) and by serving an office, and 
by apprenticeship in the sea service. Moreover the guardians of 
a union might agree (subject to the approval of the commissioners) 
that all the parishes forming it should for the purposes of settle- 
ment be considered as one parish. 

It is to be observed that, for the purposes of relief, settlement 
and removal and burial, the workhouse of any parish is considered 
as situated in the parish to which each poor person is chargeable. 

There may be a settlement by parentage, for legitimate children 
take the settlement of their father, or if he has no settlement they 
are entitled to the settlement of their mother; and it is only when 
both these sources fail discovery that their right of settlement by 
birth accrues; for until the settlement of the father or mother has 
been ascertained the settlement of a legitimate child, like that of a 
bastard, is in the place where the birth took place. 

A settlement attaches to those persons who have a settlement of 
some kind. Foreigners born out of the country and not acquiring 
any in one of the modes pointed out must be provided for, if requiring 
relief, where they happen to be. 

As the burden of maintaining the poor is thrown on the parish 
of settlement, when the necessity for immediate relief arises in 
another parish, the important question arises whether the pauper 
can be removed ; for, although the parish where the pauper happens 
to be must afford immediate relief without waiting for removal, 
the parish of settlement cannot in general be charged with the 
cost unless the pauper is capable of being removed. The question 
of removability is distinct from settlement. A pauper often 
acquires a status or irremovability without gaining a settlement. 

Irremovability is a principle of great public importance quite 
irrespective of the incident of cost as between one parish or another. 
Before the introduction of a status of irremovability removal might 
take place (subject to powers of suspension in case of sickness and 
otherwise) after any interval during which no legal settlement 
was obtained ; mere length of residence without concurrent cir- 
cumstances involving the acquisition of a settlement on obtaining 
relief gave no right to a person to remain in the parish where he 
resided. 

In 1846 it was enacted that no person should be removed nor 
any warrant granted for the removal of any person from any parish 
in which such persons had resided for five years (9 & 10 Vict. c. 66). 
In 1861 three years was submitted for five (24 & 25 Vict. c. 55); 
and only four years later one year was substituted for three (28 & 
29 Vict. c. 79). Apart from these reductions of time in giving 
the status of irremovability, actual removals to the parish of settle-, 
ment were narrowed by provisions giving to residence in any 
part of a union the same effect as a residence in any parish of that 
union (24 & 25 Vict. c. 55). On the other hand the time during 
which parish relief is received, or during which the person is in any 
poorhouse or hospital or in a prison, is excluded from the computa- 
tion of time (9 & 10 Vict. c. 66). 

The removability as well as the settlement of the family, i.e. 
of the wife and unemancipated children, are practically subject to 
one and the same general rule. Wherever any person has a wife 
or children having another settlement, they are removable where 
he is removable, and are not removable from any parish or place 
from which he is not removable (n & 12 Vict. c. 211). 

It is to be borne in mind that no person exempted from liability 
to be removed acquires, by reason of such exemption, any settle- 
ment in any parish ; but a residence for three years gives a qualified 
settlement (39 & 40 Vict. C. 61). 

The cost of relief of paupers rendered irremovable is borne by the 
common fund of the union (11 & 12 Vict. c. no, § 3) as union expenses 
(§ 6), and any question arising in the union with reference to the 



charging relief may be referred to and decided by the local govern- 
ment board (§4). 

The poor rate is the fund from which the cost of relief is princi- 
pally derived. The statute of Elizabeth (extended in some respects 
as to places by 13 & 14 Charles II. c. 12) embraced „ „ . 
two classes of persons subject to taxation — occupiers oor ^ e - 
of real property and inhabitants in respect of personal property, 
although the rateability under the latter head was reluctantly 
conceded by the courts of law, and was in practice only partially 
acted upon. 

As regards occupiers of land and houses, the correct principles as 
to the persons liable to be rated were, after many erroneous views 
and decisions, established by the House of Lords in 1865 in the 
case of the Mersey docks. The only occupier exempt from the 
operation of the act of Elizabeth is the Crown, on the general prin- 
ciple that such liabilities are not imposed on the sovereign unless 
expressly mentioned, and that principle applies to the direct and 
immediate servants of the Crown, whose occupation is the occupa- 
tion of the Crown itself. If there is a personal private beneficial 
occupation, so that the occupation is by the subject, that occupa- 
tion is rateable. Thus for apartments in a royal palace, gratui- 
tously assigned to a subject, who occupies them by permission of 
the sovereign but for the subject's benefit, the latter is rateable; 
on the other hand, where a lease of private property is taken in 
the name of a subject, but the occupation is by the sovereign or 
his subjects on his behalf, no rate can be imposed. 

So far the ground of exemption is perfectly intelligible, but it 
has been carried a good deal further, and applied to many cases in 
which it can scarcely be said naturally, but only theoretically, that 
the sovereign or the servants of the sovereign are in occupation. 
A long series of cases have established that when property is occu- 
pied for the purposes of the government of the country, including 
under that head the police, and the administration of justice, no 
one is rateable in respect of such occupation. And this applies not 
only to property occupied for such purposes by the servants of the 
great departments of state and the post office, the Horse Guards, and 
the Admiralty, in all which cases the occupiers might strictly be 
called the servants of the Crown, but to county buildings occupied 
for the assizes and for the judge's lodgings, to stations for the local 
constabulary, to jails and to county courts where undertakings 
are carried out by or for the government and the government is in 
occupation; the same principles of exemption have been applied 
to property held by the office of works. 

When the property is not de facto occupied by the Crown or for 
the Crown, it is rateable; and, although formerly the uses of property 
for public purposes, even where the Crown was not constructively 
interested in the way above pointed out, was treated as a ground 
for exemption, it is now settled that trustees who are in law the 
tenants and occupiers of valuable property in trust for public and 
even charitable purposes, such as hospitals or lunatic asylums, are 
in principle rateable notwithstanding that the buildings are actually 
occupied by paupers who are sick or insane, and that the notion 
that persons in the legal occupation of valuable property are not 
rateable if they occupy in a merely fiduciary character cannot be 
sustained. 

With respect to the particular person to be rated where there is 
a rateable occupation, it is to be observed that the tenant, as dis- 
tinguished from the landlord, is the person to be rated under the 
statute of Elizabeth ; but occupiers of tenements let for short terms 
may deduct the poor rate paid by them from their rents, or the 
vestries may order such owners to be rated instead of the occupiers ; 
such payments or deductions do not affect qualification and fran- 
chises depending on rating (Poor Rate Assessment and Collection 
Act 1869 and Amendment Act 1882). 

To be rated the occupation must be such as to be of value, and 
in this sense the word beneficial occupation has been used in many 
cases. But it is not necessary that the occupation should be bene- 
ficial to the occupier; for, if that were necessary, trustees occupying 
for various purposes, having no beneficial occupation, would not be 
liable, and their general liability has been established as indicated 
in the examples just given. 

As to the mode and amount of rating it is no exaggeration to 
say that the application of a landlord-and-tenant valuation in the 
terms already given in the Parochial Assessment Act, with the 
deductions there mentioned, has given rise to litigation on which 
millions of pounds have been spent with respect to the rating of 
railways alone, although the established principle applied to them, 
after much consideration, is to calculate the value of the land as 
increased by the line. 

The Parochial Assessment Act referred to (6 & 7 Will. IV. c. 96), 
comprising various provisions as to the mode of assessing the rate 
so far as it authorized the making of a valuation, was repealed in 
1869, in relation to the metropolis, and other provisions made for 
securing uniformity of the assessment of rateable property there 
(32 & 33 Vict. c. 67). 

The mode in which a rate is made and recovered may be concisely 
stated thus. The guardians appoint an assessment committee of 
their body for the investigation and supervision of valuations, which 
are made out in the first instance by the overseers according to specific 
regulations and in a form showing among other headings the gross 



7 8 



POOR LAW 



estimated rental of all property and the names of occupiers and 
owners, and the rateable value after the deductions specified in the 
Assessment Act already mentioned, and as prescribed by the central 
board. This valuation list, made and signed by the overseers, is 
published, and all persons assessed or liable to be assessed, and other 
interested parties, may, including the officers of other parishes, 
inspect and take copies of and extracts from that list. A multitude 
of provisions exist in relation to the valuation and supplemental 
valuation lists. Objections on the ground of unfairness or incorrect- 
ness are dealt with by the committee, who hold meetings to hear 
and determine such objections. The valuation list, where approved 
by the committee, is delivered to the overseers, who proceed to 
make the rate in accordance with the valuation lists and in a 
prescribed form of rate book. The parish officers certify to the 
examination and comparison of the rate book with the assessments, 
and obtain the consent of justices as required by the statute of 
Elizabeth. This consent or allowance of the rate is merely a 
ministerial act, and if the rate is good on the face of it the justices 
cannot inquire into its validity. 

The rate is then published and open to inspection. Appeals may 
be made to special or quarter sessions against the rate, subject to the 
restriction that, if the objection were such that it might have been 
dealt with on the valuation lists, no appeal to sessions is permitted 
unless the valuation list has been duly objected to and the objector 
had failed to obtain such relief in the matter as he deemed to be just. 
In the metropolis a common basis of value for the purposes of 
government and local taxation is provided, including the promotion 
of uniformity in the assessment of rateable property. Provision is 
made for the appointment of an assessment committee by guardians 
or vestries, and for the preparation of valuation lists, and the 
deposit and distribution of valuation lists, and for the periodical 
revision of valuation lists. 

Many endeavours have been made to readjust the burden of 
local expenditure. The system of making grants from the national 
taxes in aid of local rates has been extended. The principle of the 
metropolitan common poor fund, a device for giving metropolitan 
grants assessed on the whole of London in aid of the London local 
poor law authorities, has been followed, mutatis mutandis, in the 
relations between the national and the local exchequers. At the 
time of the repeal of the corn laws, Sir Robert Peel expressed an 
opinion that this fiscal change necessitated some readjustment 
of local rates. In that year, 1846, a beginning of grants from the 
national exchequer in aid of local expenditure was made. The 
salaries of poor-law teachers, medical officers and auditors were 
provided from the larger area of taxation, and in 1867 the salaries 
of public vaccinators were added to the list. In 1874 a grant of 
4s. per head per week was made for each pauper lunatic passed by 
the guardians to the care of a lunatic asylum. By the Local 
Government Act 1888, supplemented by the Local Taxation 
(Customs and Excise) Act 1890, this principle was more widely 
extended. The various grants in aid were abolished, and in 
substitution the proceeds of certain specified taxes were set aside 
for local purposes. From this source, the gross amount of which 
of course varies, there are now distributed to local poor-law authori- 
ties some 4s. a week for lunatics in asylums, and allowances based 
on their average expenditure in previous years in salaries of officials 
and other specified charges. In London, in order not to conflict 
with the operation of the common poor fund, which had already 
spread these charges over a wide area, the grant takes the form 
of a sum equivalent to about 4d. per diem for each indoor pauper. 
The number on which this calculation is based is not, however, to 
be the actual number, but the average of the last five years previous 
to the passing of the act. By this legislation something like one- 
quarter of the total expenditure on* poor law relief is obtained from 
national taxes as opposed to local rates. By the Agricultural 
Rates Act 1896 the occupier of agricultural land was excused 
one-half of certain rates, including the poor rate. The deficiency 
is supplied by a contribution from the national exchequer. 
Meanwhile, the spending authority continue to be elected by the 
local ratepayers. In this connexion two further anomalies deserve 
notice. By the Poor Rate Assessment and Collection Act 1869 
owners who compound to pay the- rates in respect of tenement 
property are entitled to certain deductions by way of commission. 
Such payments by the owner are constructively payments by the 
occupier, who thereby is to be deemed duly rated for any qualifi- 
cation or franchise. Under these arrangements a large number 
of electors do not contribute directly to the rate. A converse 
process is also going on, whereby the ownership of an important 
and increasing body of property is practically unrepresented. 
This is due to the great growth of property in the hands of railway 
companies, docks and limited liability companies generally. The 
railways alone are said to pay considerably over 13% of the local 
taxation of the country, and they have no local representation. 
There is, in fact, in local administration a divorce between repre- 
sentation and taxation to a greater extent than is generally supposed, 
and it is impossible not to connect the fact with the rapid growth of 
local expenditure and indebtedness. 

Royal Commission of iqos-iqoq. — The main points of the 
system of English poor relief, as still in force in 1910, are as 



outlined above. That it has been inadequate in dealing with 
the various problems of unemployment and pauperism, which the 
constantly changing conditions of the industrial world necessarily 
evolve had however been long acknowledged. Accordingly 
in 1905 a royal commission was appointed to inquire into the 
working of the law relating to the relief of poor persons, and 
into the various means adopted outside of the poor laws for 
meeting distress arising from want of employment, particularly 
during the periods of severe industrial depression. The commis- 
sion took voluminous evidence 1 and its report was issued in 
1 The appendix volumes to the Report of the Royal Commission 
number thirty-four. Their contents are as follows- vol. i. English 
Official Evidence, minutes of evidence mainly of the officers of the 
Local Government Board for England and Wales; vol. ii. London 
Evidence, minutes of evidence mainly of London witnesses; vol. iii. 
Associations and Critics, minutes of evidence mainly of critics 
of the Poor Law and of witnesses representing Poor Law and 
Charitable Associations; vol. iv Urban Centres, minutes of 
evidence containing the oral and written evidence of the British 
Medical Association and of witnesses from the following provincial 
urban centres — Liverpool and Manchester districts, West Yorkshire, 
Midland Towns; vol. v. Minutes of Evidence containing the oral 
and written evidence of witnesses from urban centres in the following 
districts — South Wales and North Eastern Counties; vol. vi. Minutes 
of Evidence relating to Scotland; vol. vii. Minutes of Evidence 
containing the oral and written evidence of witnesses from various 
rural centres in the South Western, Western and Eastern Counties, 
from the parish of Poplar Borough and from the National Con- 
ference of Friendly Societies; vol. viii. Minutes of Evidence con- 
taining the oral and written evidence of witnesses relating chiefly 
to the subject of " unemployment "; vol. ix. Evidence of further 
witnesses on the subject of unemployment; vol. x. Minutes of 
Evidence relating to Ireland ; vol. xi. Miscellaneous Papers. Com- 
munications from Boards of Guardians and others, &c, 
vol. xii. Reports, Memoranda and Tables prepared by certain of 
the Commissioners; vol. xiii. Diocesan Reports on the Methods 
of administering charitable assistance and the extent and intensity 
of poverty in England and Wales; vol. xiv. Report on the Methods 
and Results of the present system of administering indoor and 
outdoor poor law medical relief in certain unions in England and 
Wales, by Dr J. C. McVail; vol. xv. Report on the Administrative 
Relation of Charity and the Poor Law, and the extent and the 
actual and potential utility of Endowed and Voluntary Charities 
in England and Scotland, by A. C. Kay and H. V. Toynbee; vol. xvi. 
Reports on the Relation of Industrial and Sanitary Conditions 
to Pauperism, by Steel Maitland and Miss R. E. Squire; vol. xvii. 
Reports on the effect of Outdoor Relief on Wages and the Conditions 
of Employment, by Thomas Jones and Miss Williams; vol. xviii. 
Report on the Condition of the Children who are in receipt of the 
various forms of Poor Law Relief in certain Unions in London 
and in the Provinces, by Dr Ethel Williams and Miss Longman 
and Miss Phillips; vol. xix. Reports on the Effects of Employment 
or Assistance given to the Unemployed since 1886 as a means of 
relieving distress outside the Poor Law in London, and generally 
throughout England and Wales, and in Scotland and Ireland, by 
Cyril Jackson and Rev. J. C. Pringle; vol. xx. Report on Boy 
Labour in London and certain other typical towns, by Cyril Jackson, 
with a Memorandum from the General Post Office on the Conditions 
of Employment of Telegraph Messengers; vol. xxi. Reports on the 
Effect of the Refusal of Out-Relief on the Applicants for such 
Relief, by Miss G. Harlock; vol. xxii. Report on the Overlapping 
of the work of the Voluntary General Hospitals with that of Poor 
Law Medical Relief in certain districts of London, by Miss M. B. 
Roberts; vol. xxii;. Report on the Condition of the Children who 
are in receipt of the various forms of Poor Law Relief in certain 
parishes in Scotland, by Dr C. T. Parsons and Miss Longman and 
Miss Phillips; vol. xxiv. Report on a Comparison of the Physical 
Condition of " Ordinary " Paupers in certain Scottish Poorhouses 
with that of the Able-bodied Paupers in certain English Workhouses 
and Labour Yards, by Dr C. T. Parsons; vol. xxv. Statistical 
Memoranda and Tables relating to England and Wales, prepared 
by the Staff of the Commission and by Government Departments 
and others, and Actuarial Reports; vol. xxvi. Documents relating 
more especially to the administration of charities; vol. xxvii. 
Replies by Distress Committees in England and Wales to Questions 
circulated on the subject of the Unemployed Workmen Act 1905 ; 
vol. xxviii. Reports of Visits to Poor Law and Charitable Institutions 
and to Meetings of Local Authorities in the United Kingdom; 
vol. xxix. Report on the Methods of Administering Charitable 
Assistance and the extent and intensity of Poverty in Scotland, 
prepared by the Committee on Church Interests appointed by the 
General Assembly of the Church of Scotland ; vol. xxx. Documents 
relating especially to Scotland ; vol. xxxi. Statistical Memoranda 
and Tables relating to Ireland, &c. ; vol. xxxii. Report on Visits 
paid by the Foreign Labour Colonies Committee of the Commis- 
sion to certain Institutions in Holland, Belgium, Germany and 
Switzerland; vol. xxxiii. Foreign and Colonial Systems of Poor 



POOR LAW 



79 



1909. It consists jf a majority report, signed by the chairman 
and 13 other members, and a minority report signed by 4 dis- 
sentient members. To this report and its appendices those 
who wish to obtain an exhaustive account of the working of 
the English poor law must necessarily have recourse. 

The " majority " report opens with a statistical survey of 
poor law problems, gives an historical sketch of the poor laws 
Majority down to 1834, and proceeds to deal in detail with 
Report. thg historical development and present condition 
of the various branches of the poor law under their appro- 
priate headings: (a) the central authority; (b) the local 
authority; (c) the officers of the local authority; (d) areas of 
administration; (e) indoor relief; (/) outdoor relief; (g) the aged; 
ih) the children; (i) the able-bodied under the poor law and 
(7) the causes of pauperism. Other portions of the report 
deal with medical relief, distress due to unemployment, and 
charities and the relief of distress. In reviewing these various 
subjects the commission lay bare the main defects of the 
present system, which they briefly summarize as follows: — 

i. The inadequacy of existing poor law areas to meet the 
growing needs of administration. 

ii. The excessive size of many boards of guardians. 

iii. The absence of any general interest in poor law work 
and poor law elections, due in great part to the fact that poor 
lav/ stands in no organic relation to the rest of local govern- 
ment. 

iv. The lack of intelligent uniformity in the application 
of principles and in general administration. 

v. The want of proper investigation and discrimination 
in dealing with applicants. 

vi. The tendency in many boards of guardians to give out- 
door relief without plan or purpose. 

vii. The unsuitability of the general workhouse as a test 
or deterrent for the able-bodied; the aggregation in it of all 
classes without sufficient classification; and the absence of any 
system of friendly and restorative help. 

viii. The lack of co-operation between poor law and charity. 

ix. The tendency of candidates to make lavish promises 
of out-relief and of guardians to favour their constituents in 
its distribution. 

x. General failure to attract capable social workers and 
leading citizens. 

xi. The general rise in expenditure, not always accompanied 
by an increase of efficiency in administration. 

xii. The want of sufficient control and continuity of policy 
on the part of the central authority. 

The commission stated that these defects have produced a 
want of confidence in the local administration of the poor law, 
and that they have been mainly the cause of the introduction 
of other forms of relief from public funds which are unaccom- 
panied by such conditions as are imperatively necessary as 
safeguards. 

The commission proceed to formulate a scheme of reform, the 
main features of which are summarized below: — 

Public Assistance. — The commissioners state that the name 
" poor law " has gathered about it associations of harshness, and 
still more of hopelessness, which might seriously obstruct the 
reforms they recommend, and they suggest that the title " public 
assistance " better expresses the system of help outlined in their 
report. They propose the abolition of the existing boards of 
guardians, the separation of their duties into two categories, and 
the calling into existence of two bodies for the discharge of the 
two sets of functions, viz. a local authority, known as the public 
assistance authority, with an area conterminous with the area 
of the county or county borough, for central administration and 
control; and local committees in existing union area.- for dealing 
with applications, investigating and supervising cases and under- 
taking such other duties as may be delegated by the public assistance 
authority. They recommend that the public assistance authority 
should be a statutory committee of the County Council, with one-half 
of its members appointed by the council from persons who are 
members of the council, and the other half of its members appointed 
by the council from outside their number, and to consist of persons 
experienced in the local administration of public assistance or 

Relief, with a memorandum on the Relief of Famines in India; vol. 
xxxiv. Alphabetical Lists of Oral and Non-oral Witnesses. 



other cognate work, women to be eligible for appointment in 
either case. 

Working in co-operation with the public assistance authorities 
are to be voluntary aid councils and committees (the former super- 
vising, the latter executive) for aiding persons in distress whose 
cases do not appear to be suitable for treatment by the public 
assistance committee. The commission epitomize what they 
consider to be the main principles of a reformed poor law. They 
are (1) that the treatment of the poor who apply for public assistance 
should be adapted to the needs of the individual, and, if institutional, 
should be governed by classification; (2) that the public adminis- 
tration established for the assistance of the poor should work in 
co-operation with the local and private charities of the district; 
(3) that the system of public assistance thus established should 
include processes of help which would be preventive, curative, and 
restorative, and (4) that every effort should be made to foster the 
instincts of independence and self-maintenance amongst those 
assisted. They proceed to recommend : — 

Indoor or " Institutional " Relief. — That general workhouses 
should be abolished. That indoor relief should be given in separate 
institutions appropriate to the following classes of applicants, 
viz. (a) children, (b) aged and infirm, (c) sick, (d) able-bodied men, 
(e) able-bodied women, (/) vagrants, and (g) feeble-minded and 
epileptics. Powers of removal to and detention in institutions 
should be given, with proper safeguards, to the public assistance 
authority. The treatment of inmates should be made as far as 
possible curative and restorative. 

Outdoor Relief or " Home Assistance." — This should be given only 
after thorough inquiry, except in cases of sudden and urgent 
necessity; it should be adequate to meet the needs of those to whom 
it is given; persons so assisted should be subject to supervision; 
that Such supervision should include in its purview the conditions, 
moral and sanitary, under which the recipient is living; that 
voluntary agencies should be utilized as far as possible for the 
personal care of individual cases, and that there should be one 
uniform order governing outdoor relief or home assistance. 

Children. — Effective steps should be taken to secure that the 
maintenance of children in the workhouse be no longer recognized 
as a legitimate way of dealing with them. Boarding-out might 
and should be greatly extended. Power to adopt children of 
vicious parents should be more frequently exercised and accom- 
panied by a strict dealing with the parent, and the public assistance 
authorities should retain supervision of adopted children up to the 
age of twenty-one. A local government board circular of June 
1910 to boards of guardians embodied many of the recommenda- 
tions of the commission. Some recommendations, of course, the 
guardians are not empowered, under existing legislation, to carry out. 

The Aged. — As regards institutional relief, the aged should . 
have accommodation and treatment apart from the able-bodied, 
and be housed on a separate site, and be further subdivided into 
classes as far as practicable with reference to their physical condition 
and their moral character. As regards outdoor relief, greater 
care should be taken to ensure adequacy of relief. 

Medical Relief or Assistance. — A general system of provident 
dispensaries should be established, of which existing voluntary 
outdoor medical organizations should be invited to form an integral 
part, and every inducement should be offered to the working classes 
below a certain wage to become, or continue to be, members of a 
provident dispensary. 

Unemployment. — The commission review the social and industrial 
developments since 1834, deal with the new problems, criticize the 
existing methods of relief, and on their summing up of the new 
factors and developments, arrive at the conclusions: (a) that there 
is an increasing aggregation of unskilled labour at the great ports 
and in certain populous districts ; (6) that this aggregation of 
low-grade labour is so much in excess of the normal local wants as 
to promote and perpetuate under-employment, and (c) that this 
normal condition of under-employment, when aggravated by periodic 
contraction of trade or by inevitable changes in methods of pro- 
duction, assumes such dimensions as to require special machinery 
and organization for its relief and treatment. The commission 
proceed to make the following recommendations : — 

Labour Exchanges. — A national system of labour exchanges 
should be established and worked by the board of trade for the 
general purpose of assisting the mobility of labour and of collecting 
accurate information as to unemployment. (These were established 
by the Labour Exchanges Act 1909; see Unemployment.) 

Education and Training of the Young for Industrial Life. — The 
education in the public elementary schools should be much less 
literary and more practical, and better calculated than at present 
to adapt the child to its future occupation. Boys should be kept 
at school until the age of fifteen; exemption below fifteen should be 
granted only for boys leaving to learn a skilled trade, and there 
should be school supervision till sixteen and replacing in school if not 
properly employed. 

Regularization of Employment. — Government departments and 
local and public authorities should be enjoined to regularize their 
Work as far as possible, and to endeavour, as far as possible, to 
undertake their irregular work when the general demand for labour 
is slack. 



8o 



POPAYAN 



Unemployment Insurance. — The establishment and promotion 
of unemployment insurance, especially amongst unskilled and 
unorganized labour, is of paramount importance in averting 
distress arising from unemployment, and is of such national im- 
portance as to justify, under specified conditions, contributions 
from public funds towards its furtherance. The commission 
further state that this insurance can best be promoted by utilizing 
the agency of existing trade organizations, or of organizations of 
a similar character. They are of opinion that no scheme of 
unemployment insurance, either foreign or British, which has been 
brought before them, is so free from objections as to justify them 
in recommending it for general adoption. 

Labour Colonies. — The commission recommend their establish- 
ment and use. (For these see Vagrancy.) 

Four out of the seventeen members of the commission, being 
unable to agree with their colleagues, issued a separate report, 

which is very nearly as voluminous as that of the 
Report! majority. Their recommendations were more drastic 

than those of the majority, and had for their aim 
not a reform of the poor law as it exists, but its entire break- 
up. The minority agree with the majority in recommending 
the abolition of workhouses, but instead of setting up new 
authorities, they consider that the duties of the guardians should 
be transferred to the county authorities, with an appropriate 
distribution among four existing committees of the county 
council. They recommend that the education committee 
become responsible for the entire care of children of school 
age. That the health committee should care for the sick and 
permanently incapacitated, infants under school age, and the 
aged requiring institutional care. The asylums committee 
should have charge of the mentally defective and the 
pension committee of the aged to whom pensions are awarded. 
The minority consider there should be some systematic co- 
ordination, within each local area, of all forms of public assis- 
tance and, if possible, of all assistance dispensed by voluntary 
agencies, and they recommend the appointment, by the county 
or county borough council, of one or more responsible officers, 
called " registrars of public assistance." Their duties would 
be to keep a register of all persons receiving any form of public 
assistance within their districts; they would assess the charge 
to be made on individuals liable to pay any part of the cost 
of the service rendered to them or their dependants, and re- 
cover the amount thus due. They would also have to consider 
the proposals of the various committees of the council for the 
payment of out-relief, or, as the minority prefer to term it, 
" home aliment." Other various duties are allotted to them 
in the report. 

The subject of unemployment was considered by the minority 
and they made the following recommendations: — 

Ministry of Labour. — The duty of organizing the national labour 
market should be placed upon a minister responsible to parliament. 
The ministry of labour should have six distinct and separately 
organized divisions; viz. the national labour exchange; the trade 
insurance division; the maintenance and training division; the 
industrial regulation division; the emigration and immigration 
division, and the statistical division. 

National Labour Exchange. — The function of the national labour 
exchange should be, not only, (a) to ascertain and report the surplus 
or shortage of labour of particular kinds, at particular places; and 
(6) to diminish the time and energy now spent in looking for work, 
and the consequent leaking between jobs; but also (c) so to dovetail 
casual and seasonal employments as to arrange for practical con- 
tinuity of work for those now chronically unemployed. 

Absorption of Surplus Labour. — To reduce the surplus of labour 
the minority recommend (a) that no child should be employed, in 
any occupation whatsoever, below the age of fifteen; no young 
person under eighteen for more than thirty hours per week, and all 
so employed should be required to attend some suitable public 
institution for not less than thirty hours per week for physical 
training and technical education; (6) the hours of labour of railway, 
omnibus and tramway employees should be reduced to a maximum 
of sixty, if not of forty-eight in any one week; and (c) wage-earning 
mothers of young children should be withdrawn from the industrial 
world by giving them sufficient public assistance for the support of 
their families. 

Regularization of the National Demand for Labour. — In order to 
meet the periodically recurrent general depressions of trade the 
government should take advantage of there being at these periods 
as much unemployment of capital as there is unemployment of 
labour; that it should definitely undertake, as far as practicable, 



the regularization of the national demand for labour; and that it 
should, for this purpose, and to the extent of at least £4,000,000 a 
year, arrange a portion of the ordinary work required by each 
department on a ten years' programme ; £40,000,000 worth of work 
for the decade being then put in hand, not by equal annual instal- 
ments, but exclusively in the lean years of the trade cycle ; being 
paid for out of loans for short terms raised as they are required, 
and being executed with the best available labour, at standard 
rates, engaged in the ordinary way. That in this ten years' 
programme there should be included works of afforestation, coast 
protection and land reclamation; to be carried out by the board 
of agriculture exclusively in the lean years of the trade cycle; by 
the most suitable labour obtainable, taken on in the ordinary way 
at the rates locally current for the work, and paid for out of loans 
raised as required. 

Trade Union Insurance.— -In view of its probable adverse effect 
on trade union membership and organization the minority com- 
missioners cannot recommend the establishment of any plan of 
government or compulsory insurance against unemployment. 
They recommend, however, a government subvention not exceeding 
one half of the sum actually paid in the last preceding year as out- 
of-work benefit should be offered to trade unions or other societies 
providing such benefit. 

Maintenance and Training. — For the ultimate residuum of men 
in distress from want of employment the minority recommend 
that maintenance should be freely provided, without disfranchise- 
ment, on condition that they submit themselves to the physical 
and mental training that they may prove to require. Suitable 
day training depots or residential farm colonies should be estab- 
lished, where the men's whole working time would be absorbed 
in such varied beneficial training of body and mind as they proved 
capable of; their wives and families being, meanwhile, provided 
with adequate home aliment. 

Authorities. — The Report and Evidence of the Royal Com- 
mission of 1905-1909 is a library in itself on the subject of pauperism. 
The contents of the various volumes are given supra. Other im- 
portant publications are Report and Evidence of Royal Commission 
on Aged Poor (1895) ; Report and Evidence of Select Committee of House 
of Commons on Distress from Want of Employment (1895); Report 
of Departmental Committee on Vag r ancy (1906). See also the 
references in the bibliography to Charity and Charities; and 
Sir G. Nicholls and T. Mackay, A History of the English Poor Law 
(3 vols., 1899) ; the publications of the Charity Organization Society; 
Reports of Poor Law Conferences. For list of subjects discussed, 
see index to Report of Central Conferences. 

POPAYAN, a city of Colombia, capital of the department of 
Cauca, about 240 m. S.W. of Bogota, on the old trade route 
between that city and Quito, in 2° 26' N., 76 49' W. Pop. 
(1870), 8485; (1906, estimate), 10,000. Popayan is built on 
a great plain sloping N.W. from the foot of the volcano Purace, 
near the source of the Cauca and on one of its small tribu- 
taries, 5712 ft. above the sea. Its situation is singularly pic- 
turesque, the Purace rising to an elevation of 15,420 ft. about 
20 m. south-east of the city, the Sotara volcano to approxi- 
mately the same height about the same distance south by 
east, and behind these at a greater distance the Pan de 
Azucar, 15,978 ft. high. The ridge forming the water-parting 
between the basins of the Cauca and Patia rivers crosses 
between the Central and Western Cordilleras at this point 
and culminates a few miles to the south. Popayan is the 
seat of a bishopric dating from 1547, whose cathedral was 
built by the Jesuits; and in the days of its prosperity it 
possessed a university of considerable reputation. It has 
several old churches, a college, two seminaries founded about 
1870 by the French Lazarists, who have restored and occupy 
the old Jesuit convent, and a mint established in 1749. The 
city was at one time an important commercial and mining 
centre, but much of its importance was lost through the transfer 
of trade to Cali and Pasto, through the decay of neighbouring 
mining industries, and through political disturbances. Earth- 
quakes have also caused much damage to Popayan, especially 
those of 1827 and 1834. The modern city has some small 
manufacturing industries, including woollen fabrics for cloth- 
ing, but its trade is much restricted, and its importance is 
political rather than commercial. 

Popayan was founded by Sebastian Benalcazar in 1538 on the 
site of an Indian settlement, whose chief, Payan, had the un- 
usual honour of having his name given to the usurping town. 
In 1558 it received a coat of arms and the title of " Muy noble y 
muy leal " from the king of Spain — a distinction of great 



POPE 



81 



significance in that disturbed period of colonial history. It I 
is noted also as the birthplace of Caldas, the Colombian 
naturalist, and of Mosquera, the geographer. There are hot 
sulphurous springs near by on the flanks of the volcano 
Purace, especially at Coconuco, which are much frequented 
by Colombians. 

POPE (Gr. voLTTras, post-classical Lat. papa, father), an 
ecclesiastical title now used exclusively to designate the head 
of the Roman Catholic Church. In the 4th and 5th 
Titles. centuries it was frequently used in the West of any 
bishop (Du Cange, s.v.); but it gradually came to be 
reserved to the bishop of Rome, becoming his official title. 
In the East, on the other hand, only the bishop of Alexandria 
seems to have used it as a title; but as a popular term it 
was applied to priests, and at the present day, in the 
Greek. Church and in Russia, all the priests are called pappas, 
which is also translated " pope." Even in the case of the 
sovereign pontiff the word pope is officially only used as a less 
solemn style: though the ordinary signature and heading of 
briefs is, e.g. " Pius P.P.X.," the signature of bulls is " Pius 
episcopus ecclesiae catholicae," and the heading, " Pius epi- 
scopus, servus servorum Dei," this latter formula going back to 
the time of St Gregory the Great. Other styles met with in 
official documents are Pontifex, Summus pontifex, Romanus 
pontifex, Sanctissimus, Sanctissimus pater, Sanctissimus domi- 
nus nosier, Sanctitas sua, Beatissimus pater, Beatitudo sua; 
while the pope is addressed in speaking as " Sanctitas vestra," 
or " Beatissime pater." In the middle ages is also found 
" Dominus apostolicus " (cf. still, in the litanies of the saints), 
or simply " Apostolicus." 

The pope is pre-eminently, as successor of St Peter, bishop 
of Rome. Writers are fond of viewing him as representing 
Various an tne degrees of the ecclesiastical hierarchy; they 
Degrees say that he is bishop of Rome, metropolitan of the 
of Juris- Roman province, primate of Italy, patriarch of the 
western Church and head of the universal Church. 
This is strictly correct, but, with the exception of the first 
and last, these titles are seldom to be found in documents. And 
if these terms were intended to indicate so many degrees in the 
exercise of jurisdiction they would not be correct. As a matter 
of fact, from the earliest centuries (cf. can. 6 of Nicaea, in 325), 
we see that the popes exercised a special metropolitan juris- 
diction not only over the bishops nearest to Rome, the future 
cardinal bishops, but also over all those of central and southern 
Italy, including Sicily (cf. Duchesne, Origines du culte, ch. 1), 
all of whom received their ordination at his hands. Northern 
Italy and the rest of the western Church, still more the eastern 
Church, did not depend upon him so closely for their administra- 
tion. His influence was exercised, however, not only in 
dogmatic questions but in matters of discipline, by means 
of appeals, petitions and consultations, not to mention spon- 
taneous intervention. This state of affairs was defined and 
developed in the course of centuries, till it produced the present 
state of centralization, according to a law which can equally 
be observed in other societies. In practice the different 
degrees of jurisdiction, as represented in the pope, are of no 
importance: he is bishop of Rome and governs his diocese 
by direct episcopal authority; he is also the head of the 
Church, and in this capacity governs all the dioceses, though the 
regular authority of each bishop in his own diocese is also 
ordinary and immediate, i.e. he is not a mere vicar of the pope. 
But the mode of exercise of a power and its intensity are 
subject to variation, while the power remains essentially the 
same. This is the case with the power of the pope 
and his primacy, the exercise and manifestation of 
which have been continually developing. This primacy, a 
primacy of honour and jurisdiction, involving the plenitude of 
power over the teaching, the worship, the discipline and 
administration of the Church, is received by the pope as 
part of the succession of St Peter, together with the episcopate of 
Rome. The whole episcopal body, with the pope at its head, 
should be considered as succeeding to the apostolic college, 



presided over by St Peter; and the head of it, now as then, as 
personally invested with all the powers enjoyed by the whole 
body, including the head. Hence the pope, as supreme in mat- 
ters of doctrine, possesses the same authority and the same in- 
fallibility as the whole Church; as legislator and judge he pos- 
sesses the same power as the episcopal body gathered around and 
with him in oecumenical council. Such are the two essential 
prerogatives of the papal primacy: infallibility in his supreme 
pronouncements in matters of doctrine (see Infallibility); 
and immediate and sovereign jurisdiction, under all its aspects, 
over all the pastors and the faithful. These two privileges, 
having been claimed and enjoyed by the popes in the course 
of centuries, were solemnly defined at the Vatican Council by 
the constitution " Pastor aeternus " of the 18th of July 1870. 
The two principal passages in it are the following. (1) In the 
matter of jurisdiction: " If any one say that the Roman Pontiff 
has an office merely of inspection and direction, and not the 
full and supreme power of jurisdiction over the whole Church, 
not only in matters of faith and morals, but also as regards 
discipline and the government of the Church scattered through- 
out the whole world; or that he has only the principal portion 
and not the plenitude of that supreme power; or that his power 
is not ordinary and immediate, as much over each and every 
church as over each and every pastor and believer: anathema 
sit." (2) In the matter of infallibility: " We decree that when 
the Roman Pontiff speaks ex cathedra, that is to say, when, in 
his capacity as Pastor and Doctor of all Christians he defines, 
in virtue of his supreme apostolic authority, a certain doctrine 
concerning faith or morals to be held by the whole Church, he 
enjoys, by the divine assistance promised to him in the Blessed 
Peter, that infallibility with which the divine Redeemer has 
thought good to endow His Church in order to define its 
doctrine in matters of faith and morals; consequently, these 
definitions of the Roman Pontiff are irreformable in themselves 
and not in consequence of the consent of the Church." 

For the history of the papacy, and associated questions, 
see Papacy, Conclave, Curia Romana, Cardinal, &c. 

The ordinary costume of the pope is similar to that of the 
other clergy and bishops, but white in colour; his shoes alone 
are different, being low open shoes, red in colour, with a cross 
embroidered on the front; these are what are called the " mules," 
a substitute for the compagi of ancient times, formerly reserved 
to the pope and his clergy (cf. Duchesne, op. cit. ch. n, 6). Over 
this costume the pope wears, on less solemn occasions, the lace 
rochet and the red mozetta, bordered with ermine, or the 
camauro, similar to the mozetta, but with the addition of a hood, 
and over all the stole embroidered with his arms. The pope's 
liturgical costume consists, in the first place, of all the elements 
comprising that of the bishops: stockings and sandals, amice, 
alb, cincture, tunicle and dalmatic, stole, ring, gloves, chasuble 
or cope, the latter, however, with a morse ornamented with 
precious stones, and for head-dress the mitre (see Vestments). 
The tiara (q.v.), the pontifical head-dress, is not used strictly 
speaking in the course of the liturgical functions, but only for 
processions. To these vestments or insignia the pope adds: 
the falda, a kind of long skirt trailing on the ground all round, 
which the chaplains hold up while he is walking. Over the 
chasuble he wears the fanone (see Amice) ; and after that the 
pallium (q.v.). He is preceded by the papal cross, carried with 
the crucifix turned towards him. When going to solemn 
ceremonies he is carried on the sedia, a portable chair of red 
velvet with a high back, and escorted by two flabelli of peacock 
feathers. The papal mass, now rarely celebrated, has preserved 
more faithfully the ancient liturgical usages of the 8th and 9th 
centuries. 

Bibliography. — Bellarmine, Be romano pontifice; Wilmers, De 
christi ecclesia (Regensburg, 1897) ; Turmel, Histoire de la iheo- 
logie positive, vol. ii. (Paris, 1906) ; Hinschius, Kirchenrecht, vol. i. 
(Berlin, 1869); Rudolph Sohm, Kirchenrecht (1892); Duchesne, Les 
Origines du culte Chretien (4th ed., Paris, 1908); Bouix, De papa 
(Paris, 1869) ; Vacant, Etudes theologiques sur les constitutions du 
concile du Vatican (Paris, 1895); Barbier de Montault, Le Costume 
el les usages ecclesiastiques (Paris, 1897). (A. Bo.*) 



82 



POPE, ALEXANDER 



POPE, ALEXANDER (1688-1744), English poet, was born in 
Lombard Street, London, on the 21st of May 1688. His father, 
Alexander Pope, a Roman Catholic, was a linen-draper who 
afterwards retired from business with a small fortune, and fixed 
his residence about 1700 at Binfield in Windsor Forest. Pope's 
education was desultory. His father's religion would have 
excluded him from the public schools, even had there been no 
other impediment to his being sent there. Before he was twelve 
he had obtained a smattering of Latin and Greek from various 
masters, from a priest in Hampshire, from a schoolmaster at 
Twyford near Winchester, from Thomas Deane, who kept a 
school in Marylebone and afterwards at Hyde Park Corner, 
and finally from another priest at home. Between his twelfth 
and his seventeenth years excessive application to study under- 
mined his health, and he developed the personal deformity 
which was in so many ways to distort his view of life. He 
thought himself dying, but through a friend, Thomas (after- 
wards the abbe) Southcote, he obtained the advice of the famous 
physician John Radcliffe, who prescribed diet and exercise. 
Under this treatment the boy recovered his strength and spirits. 
" He thought himself the better," Spence says, " in some 
respects for not having had a regular education. He (as he 
observed in particular) read originally for the sense, whereas 
we are taught for so many years to read only lor words." He 
afterwards learnt French and Italian, probably in a similar 
way. He read translations of the Greek, Latin, French and 
Italian poets, and by the age of twelve, when he was finally 
settled at home and left to himself, he was not only a confirmed 
reader, but an eager aspirant to the highest honours in poetry. 
There is a story, which chronological considerations make 
extremely improbable, that in London he had crept into Will's 
coffee-house to look at Dryden, and a further tale that the old 
poet had given him a shilling for a translation of the story of 
Pyramus and Thisbe; he had lampooned his schoolmaster; he 
had made a play out of John Ogilby's Iliad for his school- 
fellows; and before he was fifteen he had written an epic, his 
hero being Alcander, a prince of Rhodes, or, as he states else- 
where, Deucalion. 

There were, among the Roman Catholic families near Bin- 
field, men capable of giving a direction to his eager ambition, 
men of literary tastes, and connexions with the literary world. 
These held together as members of persecuted communities 
always do, and were kept in touch with one another by the 
family priests. Pope was thus brought under the notice of Sir 
William Trumbull, a retired diplomatist living at Easthamp- 
stead, within a few miles of Binfield. Thomas Dancastle, lord 
of the manor of Binfield, took an active interest in his writings, 
and at Whiteknights, near Reading, lived another Roman 
Catholic, Anthony Englefield, " a great lover of poets and 
poetry." Through him Pope made the acquaintance of 
Wycherley and of Henry Cromwell, who was a distant cousin of 
the Protector, a gay man about town, and something of a pedant. 
Wycherley introduced him to William Walsh, then of great 
renown as a critic. 1 Before the poet was seventeen he was 
admitted in this way to the society of London " wits " and 
men of fashion, and was cordially encouraged as a prodigy. 
Wycherley's correspondence with Pope was skilfully manipu- 
lated by the younger man to represent Wycherley as sub- 
mitting, at first humbly and then with an ill-grace, to Pope's 
criticisms. The publication (Elwin and Courthope, vol. v.) 
of the originals of Wycherley's letters from MSS. at Longleat 
showed how seriously the relations between the two friends, 
which ceased in 17 10, had been misrepresented in the version 
of the correspondence which Pope chose to submit to the public. 
Walsh's contribution to his development was the advice to 
study " correctness." " About fifteen," he says, " I got 
acquainted with Mr. Walsh. He used to encourage me much, 
and used to tell me that there was one way left of excelling; 

1 The dates of Pope's correspondence with Wycherley are 1704- 
1710; with Walsh, 1705-1707, and with Cromwell, 1708-1727; 
with John Caryll (1666-1736) and his son, also neighbours, 1710- 
1735- 



for, though we had several great poets, we never had any one 
great poet that was correct, and he desired me to make that 
my study and aim " (Spence, p. 280). Trumbull turned Pope's 
attention to the French critics, out of the study of whom grew 
the Essay on Criticism; he suggested the subject of Windsor 
Forest, and he started the idea of translating Homer. 

It says something for Pope's docility at this stage that he 
recognized so soon that a long course of preparation was needed 
for such a magnum opus, and began steadily and patiently 
to discipline himself. The epic was put aside and afterwards 
burnt; versification was industriously practised in short 
"essays"; and an elaborate study was made of accepted 
critics and models. He learnt most, as he acknowledged, 
from Dryden, but the harmony of his verse also owed something 
to an earlier writer, George Sandys, the translator of Ovid. 
At the beginning of the 18th century Dryden's success had given 
great vogue to translations and modernizations. The air was 
full of theories as to the best way of doing such things. What 
Dryden had touched Pope did not presume to meddle with — 
Dryden was his hero and master; but there was much more of 
the same kind to be done. Dryden had rewritten three of the 
Canterbury tales; Pope tried his hand at the Merchant's Tale, 
and the Prologue to the Wife of Bath's Tale, and produced also 
an imitation of the House of Fame. Dryden had translated 
Virgil; Pope experimented on the Thebais of Statius, Ovid's 
Heroides and Metamorphoses, and the Odyssey. He knew little 
Latin and less Greek, but there were older versions in English 
which helped him to the sense; and, when the correspondents 
to whom he submitted his versions pointed out mistranslations, 
he could answer that he had always agreed with them, but 
that he had deferred to the older translators against his own 
judgment. It was one of Pope's little vanities to try to give 
the impression that his metrical skill was more precocious 
even than it was, and we cannot accept his published versions 
of Statius and Chaucer (published in " miscellanies " at intervals 
between 1709 and 17 14) as incontrovertible evidence of his pro- 
ficiency at the age of sixteen or seventeen, the date, according to 
his own assertion, of their composition. But it is indisputable 
that at the age of seventeen his skill in verse astonished a 
veteran critic like Walsh, and some of his pastorals were in 
the hands of Sir George Granville (afterwards Lord Lansdowne) 
before 1706. His metrical letter to Cromwell, which Elwin 
dates in 1707, when Pope was nineteen, is a brilliant feat of 
versification, and has turns of wit in it as easy and spirited as 
any to be found in his mature satires. Pope was twenty-one 
when he sent the " Ode on Solitude " to Cromwell, and said 
it was written before he was twelve years old. 

Precocious Pope was, but he was also industrious; and he 
spent some eight or nine years in arduous and enthusiastic 
discipline, reading, studying, experimenting, taking the advice 
of some and laughing in his sleeve at the advice of others, 
" poetry his only business," he said, " and idleness his only 
pleasure," before anything of his appeared in print. In these 
preliminary studies he seems to have guided himself by the 
maxim formulated in a letter to Walsh (dated July 2, 1706) 
that " it seems not so much the perfection of sense to say things 
that had never been said before, as to express those best that 
have been said oftenest." His first publication was his 
" Pastorals. " Jacob Tonson, the bookseller, had seen these 
pastorals in the hands of Walsh and Congreve, and sent a 
polite note (April 20, 1706) to Pope asking that he might have 
them for one of his miscellanies. They appeared accordingly 
in May 1709 at the end of the sixth volume of Tonson's 
Poetical Miscellanies, containing contributions from Ambrose 
Philips, Sheffield, Garth and Rowe, with " January and May," 
Pope's version of Chaucer's " Merchant's Tale." 

Pope's next publication was the Essay on Criticism (1711), 
written two years earlier, and printed without the author's 
name. " In every work regard the writer's end " (1. 255) is one of 
its sensible precepts, and one that is often neglected by critics 
of the essay, who comment upon it as if Pope's end had been 
to produce an original and profound treatise on first principles. 



POPE, ALEXANDER 



83 



His aim was simply to condense, methodize, and give as perfect 
and novel expression as he could to floating opinions about 
the poet's aims and methods, and the critic's duties, to " what 
oft was thought, but ne'er so well expressed " (1. 298). " The 
town " was interested in belles leltres, and given to conversing 
on the subject; Pope's essay was simply a brilliant contribution 
to the fashionable conversation. The youthful author said 
that he did not expect the sale to be quick because " not one 
gentleman in sixty, even of liberal education, could understand 
it." The sales were slow until Pope caused copies to be sent 
to Lord Lansdowne and others, but its success was none the 
less brilliant for the delay. The town was fairly- dazzled by 
the young poet's learning, judgment, and felicity of expression. 
Many of the admirers of the poem doubtless would have 
thought less of it if they had not believed all the maxims to 
be original. " I admired," said Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, 
" Mr Pope's Essay on Criticism at first very much, because I 
had not then read any of the ancient critics, and did not know 
that it was all stolen." Pope gained credit for much that might 
have been found, where he found it, in the Institutes of 
Quintilian, in the numerous critical writings of Rene Rapin, 
and in Rene le Bossu's treatise on epic poetry. Addison has 
been made responsible for the exaggerated value once set on 
the essay, but Addison's paper (Spectator, No. 253) was not 
unmixed praise. He deprecated the attacks made by Pope 
on contemporary literary reputations, although he did full 
justice to the poet's metrical skill. Addison and Pope became 
acquainted with one another, and Pope's sacred eclogue, 
" Messiah," was printed as No. 378 of the Spectator. In the 
Essay on Criticism Pope provoked one bitter personal enemy, 
in John Dennis, the critic, by a description of him as Appius, 
who " stares, tremendous, with a threat'ning eye." Dennis 
retorted in Reflections . . upon a late Rhapsody . . (17 11), abusing 
Pope among other things for his personal deformity. Pope 
never forgot this brutal attack, which he described in a note 
inserted after Dennis's death, as late as 1743, as written " in 
a manner perfectly lunatic." 

The Rape of the Lock in its first form appeared in 17 12 in 
Linlot's Miscellanies; the " machinery " of sylphs and gnomes 
was an afterthought, and the poem was republished as we now 
have it early in 17 14. William, 4th Baron Petre, had surrep- 
titiously cut off a lock of Miss Arabella Fermor's hair, and the 
liberty had been resented; Pope heard the story from his friend 
John Caryll, who suggested that the breach between the 
families might be healed by making the incident the subject 
of a mock-heroic poem like Boileau's Lutrin. Pope caught at 
the hint; the mock-heroic treatment of the pretty frivolities of 
fashionable life just suited his freakish sprightliness of wit, and 
his studies of the grand epic at the time put him in excellent 
vein. The Rape of the Lock is admitted to be a masterpiece of 
airiness, ingenuity, and exquisite finish. But the poem struck 
Taine as a piece of harsh, scornful, indelicate buffoonery, a mere 
succession of oddities and contrasts, of expressive figures un- 
expected and grinning, an example of English insensibility 
to French sweetness and refinement. Sir Leslie Stephen 
objected on somewhat different grounds to the poet's tone 
towards women. His. laughter at Pope's raillery was checked 
by the fact that women are spoken of in the poem as if they 
were all like Belinda. The poem shows the hand of the 
satirist who was later to assert that " every woman is at 
heart a rake," in the epistle addressed to Martha Blount. 

Windsor Forest, modelled on Sir John Denham's Cooper's Hill, 
had been begun, according to Pope's account, when he was 
sixteen or seventeen. It was published in March 17 13 with a 
flattering dedication to the secretary for war, George Granville, 
Lord Lansdowne, and an opportune allusion to the peace of 
Utrecht. This was a nearer approach to taking a political side 
I han Pope had yet made. His principle had been to keep clear of 
politics, and not to attach himself to anv of the sets into which 
literary men were divided by parcy. Although inclined to the 
Jacobites by his religion, he never took any part in the plots for 
the restoration of the Stuarts, and he was on friendly terms with 



the Whig coterie, being a frequent guest at the coffee-house 
kept by Daniel Button, where Addison held his " little senate." 
He had contributed his poem, " The Messiah " to the Spectator; 
he had written an article or two in the Guardian, and he wrote 
a prologue for Addison's Cato. Nevertheless he induced 
Lintot the bookseller to obtain from John Dennis a criti- 
cism of Cato. On the publication of Dennis's remarks, the 
violence of which had, as Pope hoped, made their author ridicu- 
lous, Pope produced an anonymous pamphlet, The Narrative 
of Dr Robert Norris concerning the . . . Frenzy of Mr 
John Dennis (1713), which, though nominally in defence of 
Addison, had for its main purpose the gratification of Pope's 
own hostility to Dennis. Addison disavowed any connivance 
in this coarse attack in a letter written on his behalf by Steele 
to Lintot, saying that if he noticed Dennis's attack at all it 
would be in such a way as to allow him no just cause of 
complaint. Coolness between Addison and Pope naturally 
followed this episode. When the Rape of the Lock was 
published, Addison, who is said to have praised the poem 
highly to Pope in private, dismissed it in the Spectator with two 
sentences of patronizing faint praise to the young poet, and, 
coupling it with Tickell's " Ode on the Prospect of Peace," 
devoted the rest of the article to an elaborate puff of " the 
pastorals of Mr Philips." 

When Pope showed a leaning to the Tories in Windsor Forest, 
the members of Addison's coterie made insidious war on him. 
Within a few weeks of the publication of the poem, and when it 
was the talk of the town, there began to appear in the Guardian 
(Nos. 22, 23, 28, 30, 32) a series of articles on " Pastorals." Not 
a word was said about Windsor Forest, but everybody knew 
to what the general principles referred. Modern pastoral 
poets were ridiculed for introducing Greek moral deities, Greek 
flowers and fruits, Greek names of shepherds, Greek sports and 
customs and religious rites. They ought to make use of English 
rural mythology — hobthrushes, fairies, goblins and witches; 
they should give English names to their shepherds; they should 
mention flowers indigenous to English climate and soil; and 
they should introduce English proverbial sayings, dress, 
and customs. All excellent principles, and all neglected by 
Pope in Windsor Forest. The poem was fairly open to criticism 
in these points; there are many beautiful passages in it, show- 
ing close though somewhat professional observation of nature, 
but the mixture of heathen deities and conventional archaic 
fancies with modern realities is incongruous, and the com- 
parison of Queen Anne to Diana was ludicrous. But the 
sting of the articles did not lie in the truth of the oblique 
criticisms. The pastorals of Ambrose Philips, published four 
years before, were again trotted out. Here was a true pastoral 
poet, the eldest born of Spenser, the worthy successor of 
Theocritus and Virgil! 

Pope took an amusing revenge, which turned the laugh 
against his assailants. He sent Steele an anonymous paper 
in continuation of the articles in the Guardian on pastoral 
poetry, reviewing the poems of Mr Pope by the light of the 
principles laid down. Ostensibly Pope was censured for 
breaking the rules, and Philips praised for conforming to them, 
quotations being given from both. The quotations were 
sufficient to dispose of the pretensions of poor Philips, and Pope 
did not choose his own worst passages, accusing himself of 
actually deviating sometimes into poetry. Although the 
Guardian's principles were also brought into ridicule by bur- 
lesque exemplifications of them after the manner of Gay's 
Shepherd's Week, Steele, misled by the opening sentences, was 
at first unwilling to print what appeared to be a direct attack 
on Pope, and is said to have asked Pope's consent to the 
publication, which was graciously granted. 

The links that attached Pope to the Tory party were strength- 
ened by a new friendship. His first letter to Swift, who 
became warmlv attached to him, is dated the 8th of December 
1713. Swift had been a leading member of the Brothers' 
Club, from which the famous Scriblerus Club seems to have 
been an offshoot. The leading members of this informal 



8 4 



POPE, ALEXANDER 



literary society were Swift, Arbuthnot, Congreve, Bishop 
Atterbury, Pope, Gay and Thomas Parnell. Their chief object 
was a general war against the dunces, waged with great spirit 
by Arbuthnot, Swift and Pope. 

The estrangement from Addison was completed in connexion 
with Pope's translation of Homer. This enterprise was 
definitely undertaken in 17 13. The work was to be published 
by subscription, as Dryden's Virgil had been. Men of all 
parties subscribed, their unanimity being a striking proof of 
the position Pope had attained at the age of twenty-five. It 
was as if he had received a national commission as by general 
consent the first poet of his time. But the unanimity was 
broken by a discordant note. A member of fhe Addison clique, 
Tickell, attempted to run a rival version. Pope suspected 
Addison's instigation; Tickell had at least Addison's encourage- 
ment. Pope's famous character of Addison as " Atticus " in 
the Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot (ii. 193-215) was, however, in- 
spired by resentment at insults that existed chiefly in his own 
imagination, though Addison was certainly not among his 
warmest admirers. Pope afterwards claimed to have been 
magnanimous, but he spoiled his case by the petty inventions 
of his account of the quarrel. 

The translation of Homer was Pope's chief employment for 
twelve years. The new pieces in the miscellanies published in 
1717, his " Elegy on an Unfortunate Lady," and his " Eloisa 
to Abelard," were probably written some years before their 
publication. His " Eloisa to Abelard " was based on an 
English translation by John Hughes of a French version of the 
Letters, which differed very considerably from the original 
Latin. The Iliad was delivered to the subscribers in instal- 
ments in 1715, 1717, 1718 and 1720. Pope's own defective 
scholarship made help necessary. William Broome and John 
Jortin supplied the bulk of the notes, and Thomas Parnell the 
preface. For the translation of the Odyssey he took Elijah 
Fen ton and Broome as coadjutors, who between them trans- 
lated twelve out of the twenty-four books. 1 It was completed 
in 1725. The profitableness of t the work was Pope's chief 
temptation to undertake it. His receipts for his earlier poems 
had totalled about £150, but he cleared more than £8000 by the 
two translations, after deducting all payments to coadjutors — 
a much larger sum than had ever been received by an English 
author before. 

The translation of Homer had established Pope's reputation 
with his contemporaries, and has endangered it ever since it 
was challenged. Opinions have varied on the purely literary 
merits of the poem, but with regard to it as a translation few 
have differed from Bentley's criticism, " A fine poem, Mr Pope, 
but you must not call it Homer." His collaboration with 
Broome (q.v.) and Fenton (q.v.) 2 involved him in a series of 
recriminations. Broome was weak enough to sign a note at 
the end of the work understating the extent of Fenton's assist- 
ance as well as his own, and ascribing the merit of their trans- 
lation, reduced to less than half its real proportions, to a 
regular revision and correction — mostly imaginary — at Pope's 
hands. These falsehoods were deemed necessary by Pope to 
protect himself against possible protests from the subscribers. 
In 1722 he edited the poems of Thomas Parnell, and in 1725 
made a considerable sum by an unsatisfactory edition of Shake- 
speare, in which he had the assistance of Fenton and Gay. 

Pope, with his economical habits, was rendered independent 
by the pecuniary success of his Homer, and enabled to live near 
London. The estate at Binfield was sold, and he removed 
with his parents to Mawson's Buildings, Chiswick, in 1716, and 
in 1719 to Twickenham, to the house with which his name is 
associated. Here he practised elaborate landscape gardening 
on a small scale, and built his famous grotto, which was really 
a tunnel under the road connecting the garden with the lawn 
on the Thames. He was constantly visited at Twickenham 
by his intimates, Dr John Arbuthnot, John Gay, Bolingbroke 

1 I, 4, 19 and 20 are by Fenton; 2, 6, 8, 11, 12, 16, 18, 23, with 
notes to all the books, by Broome. 

2 The correspondence with them is given in vol. viii. of Elwin and 
Courthope's edition. 



(after his return in 1723), and Swift (during his brief visits to 
England in 1726 and 1727), and by many other friends of the 
Tory party. With Atterbury, bishop of Rochester, he was on 
terms of affectionate intimacy, but he blundered in his evidence 
when he was called as a witness on his behalf in 1723. 

In 1 71 7 his father died, and he appears to have turned to the 
Blounts for sympathy in what was to him a very serious 
bereavement. He had early made the acquaintance of Martha 
and Teresa Blount, both of them intimately connected with 
his domestic history. Their home was at Mapledurham, near 
Reading, but Pope probably first met them at the house of 
his neighbour, Mr Englefield of Whiteknights, who was their 
grandfather. He begun to correspond with Martha Blount 
in 1712, and after 17 17 the letters are much more serious 
in tone. He quarrelled with Teresa, who had apparently 
injured or prevented his suit to her sister; and although, after 
her father's death in 1718, he paid her an annuity, he seems 
to have regarded her as one of his most dangerous enemies. 
His friendship with Martha lasted all his life. So long as his 
mother lived he was unwearying in his attendance on her, but 
after her death in 1733 his association with Martha Blount was 
more constant. In defiance of the scandal-mongers, they 
paid visits together at the houses of common friends, and at 
Twickenham she spent part of each day with him. His earlier 
attachment to Lady Mary Wortley Montagu was apparently a 
more or less literary passion, which perished under Lady Mary's 
ridicule. 

The year 1725 may be taken as the beginning of the third 
period of Pope's career, when he made his fame as a moralist 
and a satirist. It may be doubted whether Pope had the stay- 
ing power necessary for the composition of a great imaginative 
work, whether his crazy constitution would have held together 
through the strain. He toyed with the idea of writing a grand 
epic. He told Spence that he had it all in his head, and gave him 
a vague (and it must be admitted not very promising) sketch 
of the subject and plan of it. But he never put any of it on 
paper. He shrank as with instinctive repulsion from the stress 
and strain of complicated designs. Even his prolonged task 
of translating weighed heavily on his spirits, and this was a much 
less formidable effort than creating an epic. He turned rather 
to designs that could be accomplished in detail, works of which 
the parts could be separately laboured at and put together with 
patient care, into which happy thoughts could be fitted that 
had been struck out at odd moments and in ordinary levels of 
feeling. 

Edward Young's satire, The Universal Passion, had just 
appeared, and been received with more enthusiasm than any 
thing published since Pope's own early successes. This alone 
would have been powerful inducement to Pope's emulous tem- 
per. Swift was finishing Gulliver's Travels, and came over to 
England in 1726. The survivors of the Scriblerus Club — Swift, 
Pope, Arbuthnot, and Gay — resumed their old amusement of 
parodying and otherwise ridiculing bad writers, especially bad 
writers in the Whig interest. Two volumes of their Mis- 
cellanies in Prose and Verse were published in 1727. A third 
volume appeared in 1728, and a fourth was added in 1732. 
According to Pope's own history of the Dunciad, an Heroic 
Poem in Three Books, which first appeared on the 28th of May 
1728, the idea of it grew out of this. Among the Miscellanies 
was a " Treatise of the Bathos or the Art of Sinking in Poetry," 
in which poets were classified, with illustrations, according to 
their eminence in the various arts of debasing instead of elevating 
their subject. No names were mentioned, but the specimens 
of bathos were assigned to various letters of the alphabet, which, 
the authors boldly asserted, were taken at random. But no 
sooner was the treatise published than the scribblers proceeded 
to take the letters to themselves, and in revenge to fill the news- 
papers with the most abusive falsehoods and scurrilities they 
could devise. This gave Pope the opportunity he had hoped 
for, and provided him with an excuse for the personalities 
of the Dunciad, which had been in his mind as early as 1720. 
Among the most prominent objects of his satire were Lewis 



POPE, ALEXANDER 



85 



Theobald, Colley Cibber, John Dennis, Richard Bentley, Aaron 
Hill and Bernard Lintot, who, in spite of his former relations 
with Pope, was now classed with the piratical Edmund Curll. 
The book was published with the greatest precautions. It was 
anonymous, and professed to be a reprint of a Dublin edition. 
When the success of the poem was assured, it was republished 
in 1729, and a copy was presented to the king by Sir Robert 
Walpole. Names took the place of initials, and a defence 
of the satire, written by Pope himself, but signed by his friend 
William Cleland, was printed as " A letter to the Publisher." 
Various indexes, notes and particulars of the attacks on Pope 
made by the different authors satirized were added. To avoid 
any danger of prosecution, the copyright was assigned to Lord 
Oxford, Lord Bathurst and Lord Burlington, whose position 
rendered them practically unassailable. We may admit that 
personal spite influenced Pope at least as much as disinte- 
rested zeal for the honour of literature, but in the dispute as to 
the comparative strength of these motives, a third is apt to be 
overlooked that was probably stronger than either. This was 
an unscrupulous elfish love of fun, and delight in the creations 
of a humorous imagination. Certainly to represent the Dun- 
ciad as the outcome of mere personal spite is to give an exag- 
gerated idea of the malignity of Pope's disposition, and an 
utterly wrong impression of the character of his satire. He was 
not, except in rare cases, a morose, savage, indignant satirist, 
but airy and graceful in his malice, revengeful perhaps and 
excessively sensitive, but restored to good humour as he thought 
over his wrongs by the ludicrous conceptions with which he 
invested his adversaries. The most unprovoked assault was 
on Richard Bentley, whom he satirized in the reconstruction 
and enlargement of the Dunciad made in the last years of his 
life at the instigation, it is said, of William Warburton. In 
the earlier editions the place of hero had been occupied by 
Lewis Theobald, who had ventured to criticize Pope's Shake- 
speare. In the edition which appeared in Pope's Works (1742), 
he was dethroned in favour of Colley Cibber, who had just 
written his Letter from Mr Cibber to Mr Pope inquiring into 
the motives that might induce him hi his satyrical writings to be 
so frequently fond of Mr Cibber's name (1742). Warburton's 
name is attached to many new notes, and one of the preliminary 
dissertations by Ricardus Aristarchus on the hero of the poem 
seems to be by him. 

The four epistles of the Essay on Man (1733) were also 
intimately connected with passing controversies. They belong 
to the same intellectual movement with Butler's Analogy— the 
effort of the 18th century to put religion on a rational basis. 
But Pope was not a thinker like Butler. The subject was 
suggested to him by Henry St John, Lord Bolingbroke, who 
had returned from exile in 1723, and was a fellow-member of 
the Scriblerus Club. Bolingbroke is said — and the statement 
is supported by the contents of his posthumous works — to 
have furnished most of the arguments. Pope's contribution 
t.o the controversy consisted in brilliant epigram and illustra- 
tion. In this didactic work, as in his Essay on Criticism, he 
put together on a sufficiently simple plan a series of happy 
sayings, separately elaborated, picking up the thoughts as he 
found them in miscellaneous reading and conversation, and 
trying only to fit them with perfect expression. His readers 
were too dazzled by the verse to be severely critical of the sense. 
Pope himself had not comprehended the drift of the arguments 
he had adopted from Bolingbroke, and was alarmed when he 
found that his poem was generally interpreted as an apology 
for the free-thinkers. Warburton is said to have qualified 
its doctrines as " rank atheism, " and asserted that it was put 
together from the " worst passages of the worst authors." The 
essay was soon translated into the chief European languages, 
and in 1737 its orthodoxy was assailed by a Swiss professor, 
Jean Pierre de Crousaz, in an Examen de Pessay de M. Pope 
sur rhomme. Warburton now saw fit to revise his opinion 
of Pope's abilities and principles — for what reason does not 
appear. In any case he now became as enthusiastic in his 
praise of Pope's orthodoxy and his genius as he had before been 



scornful, and proceeded to employ his unrivalled powers of 
sophistry in a defence of the orthodoxy of the conflicting and 
inconsequent positions adopted in the Essay on Man. Pope 
was wise enough to accept with all gratitude an ally who was 
so useful a friend and so dangerous an enemy, and from that 
time onward Warburton was the authorized commentator of 
his works. 

The Essay on Man was to have formed part of a series of 
philosophic poems on a systematic plan. The other pieces 
were to treat of human reason, of the use of learning, wit, 
education and riches, of civil and ecclesiastical polity, of the 
character of women, &c. Of the ten epistles of the Moral 
Essays, the first four, written between 1731 and 1735, are 
connected with this scheme, which was never executed. 

There was much bitter, and sometimes unjust, satire in the 
Moral Essays and the Imitations of Horace. In these epistles 
and satires, which appeared at intervals, he was often the mouth- 
piece of his political friends, who were all of them in opposition 
to Walpole, then at the height of his power, and Pope chose 
the object of his attacks from among the minister's adherents. 
Epistle III., " Of the Use of Riches," addressed to Allen Bath- 
urst, Lord Bathurst, in 1732, is a direct attack on Walpole's 
methods of corruption, and on his financial policy in general; 
and the two dialogues (1738) known as the "Epilogue to the 
Satires," professedly a defence of satire, form an eloquent 
attack on the court. Pope was attached to the prince of Wales's 
party, and he did not forget to insinuate, what was indeed the 
truth, that the queen had refused the prince her pardon on 
her deathbed. The " Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot " contains a de- 
scription of his personal attitude towards the scribblers and is 
made to serve as a " prologue to the satires." The gross and 
unpardonable insults bestowed on Lord Hervey and on Lady 
Mary Wortley Montagu in the first satire " to Mr Fortescue " 
provoked angry retaliation from both. The description of 
Timon's ostentatious villa in Epistle IV., addressed to the earl 
of Burlington, was generally taken as a picture of Canons, the 
seat of John Brydges, duke of Chandos, one of Pope's patrons, 
and caused a great outcry, though in this case Pope seems to 
have been innocent of express allusion. Epistle II., addressed 
to Martha Blount, contained the picture of Atossa, which 
was taken to be a portrait of Sarah Jennings, duchess of 
Marlborough. One of the worst imputations on Pope's character 
was that he left this passage to be published when he had in 
effect received a bribe of £1000 from the duchess of Marl- 
borough for its suppression through the agency of Nathanael 
Hooke (d. 1763). As the passage eventually stood, it might 
be applied to Katherine, duchess of Buckingham, a natural 
daughter of James II. Pope may have altered it with the 
intention of diverting the satire from the original object. 
He was scrupulously honest in money matters, and always in- 
dependent in matters of patronage; but there is some evidence 
for this discreditable story beyond the gossip of Horace Wal- 
pole (Works, ed. P. Cunningham, i. cxliv.), though not suffi- 
cient to justify the acceptance it received by some of Pope's 
biographers. To appreciate fully the point of his allusions 
requires an intimate acquaintance with the political and social 
gossip of the time. But apart from their value as a brilliant 
strongly-coloured picture of the time Pope's satires have a 
permanent value as literature. It is justly remarked by Mark 
Pattison 1 that "these Imitations are among the most original 
of his writings." The vigour and terseness of the diction i» 
still unsurpassed in English verse. Pope had gained complete 
mastery over his medium, the heroic couplet, before he used 
it to express his hatred of the political and social evils which 
he satirized. The elaborate periphrases and superfluous orna- 
ments of his earlier manner, as exemplified in the Pastorals and 
the Homer, disappeared; he turned to the uses of verse the 
ordinary language of conversation, differing from everyday 
speech only in its exceptional brilliance and point. It is in 
these satires that his best work must be sought, and by them 
that his position among English poets must be fixed. It was 
1 In his edition of the Satires and Epistles (1866). 



86 



POPE, ALEXANDER 



the Homer chiefly that Wordsworth and Coleridge had in their 
eye when they began the polemic against the " poetic diction " 
of the 18th century, and struck at Pope as the arch-corrupter. 
They were historically unjust to Pope, who did not originate 
this diction, but only furnished the most finished examples 
of it. At the beginning of the 19th century Pope still had 
an ardent admirer in Byron, whose first satires are written in 
Pope's couplet. The much abused pseudo-poetic diction in 
substance consisted in an ambition to " rise above the vulgar 
style," to dress nature to advantage — a natural ambition when 
the arbiters of literature were people of fashion. If one com- 
pares Pope's " Messiah " or " Eloisa to Abelard," or an im- 
passioned passage from the Iliad, with the originals that he 
paraphrased, one gets a more vivid idea of the consistence of 
pseudo-poetic diction than could be furnished by pages of an- 
alysis. But Pope merely made masterly use of the established 
diction of his time, which he eventually forsook for a far more 
direct and vigorous style. A passage from the Guardian, in 
which Philips was commended as against him, runs: "It is 
a nice piece of art to raise a proverb above the vulgar style 
and still keep it easy and unaffected. Thus the old wish, ' God 
rest his soul,' is very finely turned: — 

" ' Then gentle Sidney liv'd, the shepherd's friend, 
Eternal blessings on his shade attend ! ' " 

Pope would have despised so easy a metamorphosis as this 
at any period in his career, and the work of his coadjutors in 
the Odyssey may be distinguished by this comparative cheapness 
of material. Broome's description of the clothes-washing by 
Nausicaa and her maidens in the sixth book may be compared 
with the original as a luminous specimen. 

Pope's wit had won for him the friendship of many distin- 
guished men, and his small fortune enabled him to meet them 
on a footing of independence. He paid long visits at many 
great houses, especially at Stanton Harcourt, the home of his 
friend Lord Chancellor Harcourt; at Oakley, the seat of Lord 
Bathurst; and at Prior Park, Bath, where his host was Ralph 
Allen. With the last named he had a temporary disagree- 
ment owing to some slight shown to Martha Blount, but he 
was reconciled to him before his death. 

He died on the 30th of May 1744, and he was buried in the 
parish church of Twickenham. He left the income from his 
property to Martha Blount till her death, after which it was to 
go to his half-sister Magdalen Rackett and her children. His 
unpublished MSS. were left at the discretion of Lord Boling- 
broke, and his copyrights to Warburton. 

If we are to judge Pope, whether as a man or as a poet, with 
human fairness, and not merely by comparison with standards 
of abstract perfection, there are two features of his times that 
must be kept steadily in view — the character of political strife 
in those days and the political relations of men of letters. As 
long as the succession to the Crown was doubtful, and political 
failure might mean loss of property, banishment or death, 
politicians, playing for higher stakes, played more fiercely and 
unscrupulously than in modern days, and there was no con- 
trolling force of public opinion to keep them within the bounds 
of common honesty. Hence the age of Queen Anne is pre- 
eminently an age of intrigue. The government was almost as 
unsettled as in the early days of personal monarchy, and there 
was this difference — that it was policy rather than force upon 
which men depended for keeping their position. Secondly, 
men of letters were admitted to the inner circles of intrigue as 
they had never been before and as they have never been since. A 
generation later Walpole defied them, and paid the rougher 
instruments that he considered sufficient for his purpose in 
solid coin of the realm; but Queen Anne's statesmen, whether 
from difference of tastes or difference of policy, paid their prin- 
cipal literary champions with social privileges and honourable 
public appointments. Hence men of letters were directly in- 
fected by the low political morality of the unsettled time. And 
the character of their poetry also suffered. The most promi- 
nent defects of the age — the lack of high and sustained 
imagination, the genteel liking for " nature to advantage 



dressed," the incessant striving after wit — were fostered, if 
not generated, by the social atmosphere. 

Pope's own ruling passion was the love of fame, and he had 
no scruples where this was concerned. His vanity and his 
childish love of intrigue are seen at their worst in his petty 
manoeuvres to secure the publication of his letters during his 
lifetime. These intricate proceedings were unravelled with 
great patience and ingenuity by Charles Wentworth Dilke, 
when the false picture of his relations with his contemporaries 
which Pope had imposed on the public had been practically 
accepted for a century. Elizabeth Thomas, the mistress of 
Henry Cromwell, had sold Pope's early letters to Henry 
Cromwell to the bookseller Curll for ten guineas. These 
were published in Curll's Miscellanea in 1726 (dated 1727), and 
had considerable success. This surreptitious publication seems 
to have suggested to Pope the desirability of publishing his own 
correspondence, which he immediately began to collect from 
various friends on the plea of preventing a similar clandestine 
transaction. The publication by Wycherley's executors of a 
posthumous volume of the dramatist's prose and verse fur- 
nished Pope with an excuse for the appearance of his own 
correspondence with Wycherley, which was accompanied by a 
series of unnecessary deceptions. After manipulating his cor- 
respondence so as to place his own character in the best light, 
he deposited a copy in the library of Edward, second earl of 
Oxford, and then he had it printed. The sheets were offered 
to Curll by a person calling himself P.T., who professed a desire 
to injure Pope, but was no other than Pope himself. The copy 
was delivered to Curll in 1735 after long negotiations by an 
agent who called himself R. Smythe, with a few originals to 
vouch for their authenticity. P. T. had drawn up an adver- 
tisement stating that the book was to contain answers from 
various peers. Curll was summoned before the House of Lords 
for breach of privilege, but was acquitted, as the letters from 
peers were not in fact forthcoming. Difficulties then arose 
between Curll and P. T., and Pope induced a bookseller named 
Cooper to publish a Narrative of the Method by which Mr 
Pope's Private Letters were procured by Edmund Curll, Book- 
seller (1735). These preliminaries cleared the way for a show 
of indignation against piratical publishers and a " genuine " 
edition of the Letters of Mr Alexander Pope (1737, fol. and 
4to). Unhappily for Pope's reputation, his friend Caryll, who 
died before the publication, had taken a copy of Pope's letters 
before returning them. This letter-book came to light in the 
middle of the 19th century, and showed the freedom which 
Pope permitted himself in editing. The correspondence with 
Lord Oxford, preserved at Longleat, afforded further evidence 
of his tortuous dealings. The methods he employed to secure 
his correspondence with Swift were even more discreditable. 
The proceedings can only be explained as the measures of a 
desperate man whose maladies seem to have engendered a 
p'assion for trickery. They are related in detail by Elwin in 
the introduction to vol. i. of Pope's Works. A man who is said 
to have " played the politician about cabbages and turnips," 
and who " hardly drank tea without a stratagem," was not 
likely to be straightforward in a matter in which his ruling 
passion was concerned. Against Pope's petulance and " general 
love of secrecy and cunning " have to be set, in any fair judg- 
ment of his character, his exemplary conduct as a son, the 
affection with which he was regarded in his own circle of 
intimates, and many well-authenticated instances of genuine 
and continued kindliness to persons in distress. 

Bibliography. — Various collected editions of Pope's Works 
appeared during his lifetime, and in 1751 an edition in nine volumes 
was published by a syndicate of booksellers " with the commentaries 
of Mr Warburton." Warburton interpreted his editorial rights very 
liberally. By his notes_ he wilfully misrepresented the meaning of 
the allusions in the satires, and made them more agreeable to his 
friends and to the court, while he made opportunities for the gratifi- 
cation of his own spite against various individuals. Joseph Warton's 
edition in 1797 added to the mass of, commentary without giving 
much new elucidation to the allusions of the text, which even Swiit, 
with his exceptional facilities, had found obscure. In 1 769-1 807 an 
I edition was issued which included Owen Ruffhead's Life of Alexander 



POPE, A.— POPE, SIR T. 



87 



Pope (1769), inspired by Warburton. The notes of many com- 
mentators, with some letters and a memoir, were included in the 
Works of Alexander Pope, edited by W. L. Bowles (10 vols., 1806). 
His Poetical Works were edited by Alexander Dyce (1856); by R. 
Carruthers (1858) for Bohn's Library; by A. W. Ward (Globe Edition, 
1869), &c. Materials for a definitive edition were collected by John 
Wilson Croker, and formed the basis of what has become the standard 
version, The. Works of Alexander Pope (10 vols., 1871-1898), including 
unpublished letters and other new material, with introduction and 
notes by W. Elwin and W. J. Courthope. The life of Pope in 
vol. v. was contributed by Professor Courthope. The chief original 
authority besides Pope's correspondence and Ruffhead's Life is 
Joseph Spence's Anecdotes, published by S. W. Singer in 1820. 
Samuel Johnson gives a good estimate of Pope in his Lives of the 
Poets. The best modern lives are that by Professor Courthope, 
already mentioned; and Alexander Pope, by Sir L. Stephen, in the 
English Men of Letters series (1880). See also George Paston, Mr 
Pope: His Life and Times (1909). The first check to the admiration 
that prevailed during Pope's lifetime was given by the publication of 
Joseph Warton's Essay on the Writings and Genius of Pope (vol. i., 
1757; vol. ii., 1782). Warton had a sincere appreciation of Pope's 
work, but he began the reaction which culminated with the 
romantic writers of the beginning of the 19th century, and set the 
fashion of an undue disparagement of Pope's genius as a poet with 
enduring effects on popular opinion. Thomas Campbell's criticism 
in his Specimens of the British Poets provoked a controversy to which 
William Hazlitt, Byron and W. L. Bowles contributed. For a 
discussion of Pope's position as one of the great men of letters in the 
1 8th century who emancipated themselves from patronage, see 
A. Beljame, Le Public et les hommes de lettres en Angleterre au dix- 
huitieme siecle (1881); a section of Isaac D'Israeli's Quarrels of 
Authors is devoted to Pope's literary animosities; and most impor- 
tant contributions to many vexed questions in the biography of 
Pope, especially the publication of his letters, were made by C. W. 
Dilke in Notes and Queries and the Athenaeum. These articles 
were reprinted by his grandson, Sir Charles Dilke, in 1875, as The 
Papers of a Critic. (W. M.; M. Br.) 

POPE, ALEXANDER (1763-1835), Irish actor and painter, 
was born in Cork, and was educated to follow his father's 
profession of miniature painting. He continued to paint 
miniatures and exhibit them at the Royal Academy as late as 
1821; but at an early date he took the stage, first appearing 
in London as Oroonoko in 1785 at Covent Garden. He remained 
at this theatre almost continuously for nearly twenty years, 
then at the Haymarket until his retirement, playing leading 
parts, chiefly tragic. He was particularly esteemed as Othello 
and Henry VIII. He died on the 22nd of March 1835. Pope 
was thrice married. His first wife, Elizabeth Pope (c. 1744- 
1797), a favourite English actress of great versatility, was billed 
before her marriage as Miss Younge. His second wife, Maria Ann 
Pope (1775-1803), also a popular actress, was a member of an 
Irish family named Campion. His third wife, Clara Maria Pope 
(d. 1838), was the widow of the artist Francis Wheatley, and 
herself a skilful painter of figures and of flowers. 

POPE, JANE (1742-1818), English actress, daughter of a 
London theattical wig-maker, who began playing in a Lilli- 
putian company for Garrick in 1756. From this she speedily 
developed into soubrette roles. She was Mrs Candour in The 
School for Scandal at its first presentation (1777), and thereafter 
she had many important parts confided to her. She was the 
life-long friend of Mrs Clive, and erected the monument at 
Twickenham to the latter's memory. She was not only an 
admirable actress, but a woman of blameless life, and was 
praised by all the literary critics of her day — unused to such a 
combination. She died on the 30th of July 1818. 

POPE, JOHN (1822-1892), American soldier, was the son of 
Nathaniel Pope (1784-1850), U.S. judge for the district of 
Illinois, and was born at Louisville, Kentucky, on the 16th of 
March 1822. He graduated at the United States Military 
Academy in 1842 and was assigned to the engineers. He served 
in the Mexican War, receiving the brevets of 1st lieutenant and 
captain for his conduct at Monterey and Buena Vista. Sub- 
sequently he was engaged in engineering and exploring work, 
mainly in New Mexico, and in surveying the route for a Pacific 
railroad. He was commissioned captain in 1856. He was 
actively opposed to the Buchanan administration, and a speech 
which he made in connexion with the presidential campaign 
of i860 caused him to be summoned before a court-martial. 
Early in the Civil War he was placed, as a brigadier-general 



U.S. V., in charge of the district of Missouri, which by vigorous 
campaigning against /guerrilla bands and severe administration of 
the civil population he quickly reduced to order. In 1862, along 
with the gunboat flotilla (commanded by Commodore A. H. 
Foote) on the Mississippi, Pope obtained a great success by the 
capture of the defences of New Madrid and Island No. 10, with 
nearly 7000 prisoners. Pope subsequently joined Halleck, and in 
command of the Army of the Mississippi took part in the siege of 
Corinth. He was now a major-general U.S.V. The repu- 
tation he had thus gained as an energetic leader quickly 
placed him in a high command, to which he proved to be quite 
unequal. The " Army of Virginia," as his new forces were 
styled, had but a brief career. At the very outset of his Virginian 
campaign Pope, by a most ill-advised order, in which he con- 
trasted the performances of the Western troops with the failures 
of the troops in Virginia, forfeited the confidence of his officers 
and men. The feeling of the Army of the Potomac (which was 
ordered to his support) was equally hostile, and the short opera- 
tions culminated in the disastrous defeat of the second battle of 
Bull Run. Pope was still sanguine and ready for another trial of 
strength, but he was soon compelled to realize the impossibility 
of retrieving his position, and resigned the command. Bitter 
controversy arose over these events. Halleck, the general-in- 
chief, was by no means free from blame, but the public odium 
chiefly fell upon generals McClellan and Fitz-John Porter, against 
whom Pope, while admitting his own mistakes, made grave 
charges. Pope was not again employed in the Civil War, but in 
command of the Department of the North- West he showed his 
former skill and vigour in dealing with Indian risings. In 1865 
he was made brevet major-general U.S.A. (having become 
brigadier-general on his appointment to the Army of Virginia), 
and he subsequently was in charge of various military districts 
and departments until his retirement in 1886. In 1882 he was 
promoted to the full rank of major-general U.S.A. General 
Pope died at Sandusky, Ohio, on the 23rd of September 1892. 

He was the author of various works and papers, including railway 
reports (Pacific Railroad Reports vol. iii.) and The Campaign of 
Virginia (Washington, 1865). 

POPE, SIR THOMAS (c. 1507-1559), founder of Trinity College, 
Oxford, was born at Deddington, near Banbury, Oxfordshire, 
probably in 1507, for he was about sixteen years old when his 
father, a yeoman farmer, died in 1523. He was educated at 
Banbury school and Eton College, and entered the court of 
chancery. He there found a friend and patron in the lord- 
chancellor Thomas Audley. As clerk of briefs in the star 
chamber, warden of the mint (1534-1536), clerk of the Crown in 
chancery (1537), and second officer and treasurer of the court 
for the settlement of the confiscated property of the smaller 
religious foundations, he obtained wealth and influence. In this 
last office he was superseded in 1541, but from 1547 to 1553 he 
was again employed as fourth officer. He himself won by grarit 
or purchase a considerable share in the spoils, for nearly thirty 
manors, which came sooner or later into his possession, were 
originally church property. " He could have rode," said Aubrey, 
" in his owne lands from Cogges (by Witney) to Banbury, about 
18 miles." In 1537 he was knighted. The religious changes 
made by Edward VI. were repugnant to him, but at the beginning 
of Mary's reign he became a member of the privy council. In 
1556 he was sent to reside as guardian in Elizabeth's house. 
As early as 1555 he had begun to arrange for the endowment of a 
college at Oxford, for which he bought the site and buildings of 
Durham College, the Oxford house of the abbey of Durham, from 
Dr George Owen and William Martyn. He received a royal 
charter for the establishment and endowment of a college of the 
" Holy and Undivided Trinity " on the 8th of March 1 556. The 
foundation provided for a president, twelve fellows and eight 
scholars, with a schoolhouse at Hooknorton. The number of 
scholars was subsequently increased to twelve, the schoolhouse 
being given up. On the 28th of March the members of the 
college were put in possession of the site, and they were formally 
admitted on the 29th of May 1556. Pope died at Clerkenwell 
on the 29th of January 1559, and was buried at St Stephen's, 



88 



POPE-JOAN— POPILIA, VIA 



VValbrook; but his remains were subsequently removed to 
Trinity College, where his widow erected a semi-Gothic alabaster 
monument to his memory. He was three times married, but 
left no children. Much of his property was left to charitable 
and religious foundations, and the bulk of his Oxfordshire 
estates passed to the family of his brother, John Pope of 
Wroxton, and his descendants, the viscounts Dillon and the 
earls of Guilford and barons North. 

The life, by H. E. D. Blakiston, in the Diet. Nat. Biog., corrects 
many errors in Thomas Warton's Life of Sir Thomas Pope (1772). 
Further notices by the same authority are in his Trinity College 
(1898), in the " College Histories " Series, and in the English 
Historical Review (April, 1896). 

POPE-JOAN, a round game of cards, named after a legendary 
female Pope of the 9th century. An ordinary pack is used, from 
which the eight of diamonds has been iemoved, and a special 
round board in the form of eight compartments, named respec- 
tively Pope- Joan, Matrimony, Intrigue, Ace, King, Queen, Knave 
and Game (King, Queen and Knave are sometimes omitted). 
Each player — any number can play — contributes a stake, of 
which one counter is put into the divisions Ace, King, Queen, 
Knave and Game, two into Matrimony and Intrigue, and the 
rest into Pope- Joan. This is called " dressing the board." The 
cards are dealt round, with an extra hand for " stops," i.e. cards 
which stop, by their absence, the completion of a suit; thus the 
absence of the nine of spades stops the playing of the ten. The 
last card is turned up for trumps. Cards in excess may be dealt 
to " stops," or an agreed number may be left for the purpose, so 
that all players may have an equal number of cards. If an 
honour or " Pope " (nine of diamonds) is turned up, the dealer 
takes the counters in the compartment so marked. Sometimes 
the turning-up of Pope settles the hand, the dealer taking the 
whole pool. The Ace is the lowest card, the King the highest. 
The player on the dealer's left plays a card and names it; the 
player who has the next highest then plays it, till a stop is played, 
i.e. a card of which no one holds the next highest. All Kings are 
of course stops, also the seven of diamonds; also the cards next 
below the dealt stops, and the cards next below the played cards. 
After a stop the played cards are turned over, and the player of 
the stop (the card last played) leads again. The player who gets 
rid of all his cards first takes the counters in " Game," and 
receives a counter from each player for every card left in his 
hand, except from the player who may hold Pope but has not 
played it. The player of Ace, King, Queen or Knave of trumps 
takes the counters from that compartment. If King and Queen 
of trumps are in one hand, the holder takes the counters in 
" Matrimony "; if a Queen and Knave, those in " Intrigue "; if 
all three, those in the two compartments ; if they are in different 
hands these counters are sometimes divided. Unclaimed stakes 
are left for the next pool. Pope is sometimes considered a 
universal " stop." 

POPERINGHE, an ancient town of West Flanders, 12 m. W. of 
Ypres. Pop. (1904), 11,680. It contains a fine church of the 
nth century, dedicated to St Betin. In the 14th century it 
promised to become one of the principal communes in Flanders; 
but having incurred the resentment of Ypres on a matter of trade 
rivalry it was attacked and captured by the citizens of that 
place, who reduced it to a very subordinate position. There are 
extensive hop gardens, bleaching grounds and tanneries in the 
neighbourhood of the town. 

POPHAM, SIR HOME RIGGS (1762-1820), British admiral, 
was the son of Stephen Popham, consul at Tetuan, and was 
his mother's twenty-first child. He entered the navy in 1778, 
and served with the flag of Rodney till the end of the war. In 
1783 he was promoted lieutenant, and was for a time engaged 
on survey service on the coast of Africa. Between 1787 and 1793 
he was engaged in a curious series of adventures of a commercial 
nature in the Eastern Sea — sailing first for the Imperial Ostend 
Company, and then in a vessel which he purchased and in part 
loaded himself. During this time he took several surveys and 
rendered some services to the East India Company, which were 
officially acknowledged; but in 1793 his ship was seized, partly 



on the ground that he was carrying contraband and partly 
because he was infringing the East India Company's monopoly. 
His loss was put at £70,000, and he was entangled in litigation. 
In 1805 he obtained compensation to the amount of £25,000. 
The case was a hard one, for he was undoubtedly sailing with the 
knowledge of officials in India. While this dispute was going 
on Popham had resumed his career as a naval officer. He 
served with the army under the duke of York in Flanders as 
" superintendent of Inland Navigation " and won his confidence. 
The protection of the duke was exercised with so much effect that 
Popham was promoted commander in 1794 and post captain in 
1795. He was now engaged for years in co-operating in a naval 
capacity with the troops of Great Britain and her allies. In the 
Red Sea he was engaged in transporting the Indian troops em- 
ployed in the expulsion of the French from Egypt. His bills 
for the repair of his ship at Calcutta were made the excuse for 
an attack on him and for charging him with the amount. It 
was just the time of the general reform of the dockyards, and 
there was much suspicion in the air. It was also the case that 
St Vincent did not like Popham, and that Benjamin Tucker 
(1762-1829), secretary to the admiralty, who had been the 
admiral's secretary, was his creature and sycophant. Popham 
was not the man to be snuffed out without an effort. He 
brought his case before Parliament, and was able to prove that 
there had been, if not deliberate dishonesty, at least the very 
grossest carelessness on the part of his assailants. In 1806 he 
co-operated with Sir David Baird in the occupation of the Cape. 
He then persuaded the authorities that, as the Spanish Colonies 
were discontented, it would be easy to promote a rising in Buenos 
Ayres. The attempt was made with Popham's squadron and 
1400 soldiers; but the Spanish colonists, though discontented, 
were not disposed to accept British help, which would in all 
probability have been made an excuse for establishing dominion. 
They rose on the soldiers who landed, and took them prisoners. 
Popham was recalled, and censured by a court martial for leaving 
his station; but the City of London presented him with a sword 
of honour for his endeavours to " open new markets," and the 
sentence did him no harm. He held other commands in con- 
nexion with the movements of troops, was promoted rear admiral 
in 1 8 14, and made K.C.B. in 1815. He died at Cheltenham on 
the 10th of September 1820, leaving a large family. Popham 
was one of the most scientific seamen of his time. He did much 
useful, survey work, and was the author of the code of signals 
adopted by the admiralty in 1803 and used for many years. 

POPHAM, SIR JOHN (c. 1531-1607), English judge, was 
born at Huntworth, in Somerset, about 1531. He was educated at 
Balliol College,Oxford, and called to the bar at the Middle Temple. 
Concerning his early life little is known, but he was probably a 
member of the parliament of 1558. He was recorder of Bristol, 
and represented that city in parliament in 1571 and from 1572 
to 1583. He was elected Speaker in 1580, and in 1581 became 
attorney-general, a post which he occupied until his appoint- 
ment as lord chief justice in 1592. He presided at the 
trials of Sir Walter Raleigh and Guy Fawkes. Towards the end 
of his life Popham took a great interest in colonization, and was 
instrumental in procuring patents for the London and Plymouth 
companies for the colonization of Virginia. Popham was an 
advocate, too, of transportation abroad as a means of punishing 
rogues and vagabonds. His experiment in that direction, the 
Popham colony, an expedition under the leadership of his brother 
George (c. 1550-1608), had, however, but a brief career in its 
settlement (1607) on the Kennebec river. Popham died on the 
10th of June 1607, and was buried at Wellington, Somerset. 

See Foss, Lives of the Judges; J. Winsor, History of America, 
vol. iii. 

POPILIA (or Popiixia), VIA, the name of two ancient roads in 
Italy. (1) A highroad running from the Via Appia at Capua to 
Regium, a distance of 321 m. right along the length of the 
peninsula, and the main road through the interior of the country, 
not along the coast. It was built in 159 B.C. by the censor M. 
Popilius Laenias or in 132 B.C. by the consul P. Popilius. (2) A 



POPINJAY— POPLAR 



89 



highroad from Ariminum to Aquileia along the Adriatic coast. 
It no doubt originally came into use when Aquileia was founded 
as a frontier fortress of Italy in 181 B.C., and Polybius gives the 
distance correctly as 178 m. In 132 it was reconstructed (munita) 
by the consul P. Popilius, one of whose milestones has been 
found near Atria. It ran along the shore strip (Lido) from Ari- 
minum to Ravenna {33 m.), where it was usual in imperial times 
for travellers to take ship and go by canal to Altinum (q.v.), 
and there resume their journey by road, though we find the 
stations right through on the Tabula Peutingeriana, and Narses 
marched in 552 from Aquileia to Ravenna. (T. As.) 

POPINJAY (O. Fr. papegai, or popingay, onomatopoeic, 
original), an old name for a parrot. Except in its transferred 
sense of a dressed-up, vain or conceited, empty-headed person, 
the word is now only used historically of a representation or 
image of a parrot swinging from a high pole and used as a mark 
for archery or shooting matches. This shooting at the popinjay 
(see Archery) was formerly a favourite sport. " Popinjay " 
is still the proper heraldic term for a parrot as a bearing or 
charge. 

POPLAR, an eastern metropolitan borough of London, 
England, bounded N. by Hackney, S. by the river Thames, and 
W. by Stepney and Bethnal Green, and extending E. to the 
boundary of the county of London. Pop. (1001), 168,822. 
The river Lea, which the eastern boundary generally follows, is 
believed to have been crossed towards the north of the modern 
borough by a Roman road, the existence of which is recalled by 
the district-name of Old Ford; while Bow (formerly Stratford- 
le-Bow or Stratford-atte-Bowe) was so named from the " bow " 
or arched bridge which took the place of the ford in the time of 
Henry II. South of these districts lies Bromley; in the south- 
east the borough includes Blackwall; and a deep southward bend 
of the Thames here embraces the Isle of Dogs. Poplar falls 
within the great area commonly associated with a poor and 
densely crowded population under the name of the " East End." 
It is a district of narrow, squalid streets and mean houses, among 
which, however, the march of modern improvement may be seen 
in the erection of model dwellings, mission houses and churches, 
and various public buildings. In the north a part of Victoria 
Park is included. In Blackwall and the Isle of Dogs streets 
give place to the extensive East and West India Docks (opened 
in 1806) and Millwall Dock, with shipbuilding, engineering, 
chemical and other works along the river. Blackwall has been 
a shipping centre from early times. From the south of the 
Isle of Dogs (the portion called Cubitt Town) a tunnel for foot- 
passengers (1902) connects with Greenwich on the opposite 
shore of the Thames, and lower down the river is the fine Black- 
wall tunnel, carrying a wide roadway, completed by the London 
County Council in 1897 at a cost, inclusive of incidental expenses, 
01 £ I .383,502. Among institutions the Poplar Accidents Hospital 
may be mentioned. Near the East India Docks is the settlement 
of St Frideswide, supported by Christ Church, Oxford. In 
Canning Town, which continues this district of poverty across 
the Lea, and so outside the county of London, are Mansfield 
House, founded from Mansfield College, Oxford; and a Women's 
Settlement, especially notable for its medical work. The 
metropolitan borough of Poplar includes the Bow and Bromley 
and the Poplar divisions of the Tower Hamlets parliamentary 
borough, each returning one member. The borough council 
consists of a mayor, 7 aldermen and 42 councillors. Area, 
2327-7 acres. 

POPLAR (Lat. Populus), the name of a small group of catkin- 
bearing trees belonging to the order Salicaceae. The catkins 
of the poplars differ from those of the nearly allied willows in 
the presence of a rudimentary perianth, of obliquely cup-shaped 
form, within the toothed bracteal scales; the male flowers 
contain from eight to thirty stamens; the fertile bear a one- 
celled (nearly divided) ovary, surmounted by the deeply cleft 
stigmas; the two-valved capsule contains several seeds, each 
furnished with a long tuft of silky or cotton-like hairs. The 
leaves are broader than in most willows, and are generally 
either deltoid or ovate in shape, often cordate at the base, and 



frequently with slender petioles vertically flattened. Many of 
the species attain a large size, and all are of very rapid growth. 
The poplars are almost entirely confined to the north temperate 
zone, but a few approach or even pass its northern limit, and they 
are widely distributed within that area; they show, like the 
willows, a partiality for moist ground and often line the river-sides 
in otherwise treeless districts. There are about twenty species, 
but the number cannot be very accurately defined — several, 
usually regarded as distinct, being probably merely variable 
forms of the same type, and the ease with which the trees inter- 
cross has led to the appearance of many hybrids. All yield a 
soft, easily-worked timber, which, though very perishable when 
exposed to weather, possesses sufficient durability when kept 
dry to give the trees a certain economic value. Many of the 
species are used for paper-making. 

Of the European kinds one of the most important and best 
marked forms is the white poplar or abele, P. alba, a tree of 
large size, with rounded spreading head and curved branches, 
which, like the trunk, are covered with a greyish white bark, 
becoming much furrowed on old stems. The leaves are ovate 
or nearly round in general outline, but with deeply waved, 
more or less lobed and indented margins and cordate base; 
the upper side is of a dark green tint, but the lower surface is 
clothed with a dense white down, which likewise covers the 
young shoots — giving, with the bark, a hoary aspect to the whole 
tree. As in all poplars, the catkins expand in early spring, long 
before the leaves unfold; the ovaries bear four linear stigma lobes; 
the capsules ripen in May. A nearly related form, which may 
be regarded as a sub-species, canescens, the grey poplar of the 
nurseryman, is distinguished from the true abele by its smaller, 
less deeply cut leaves, which are grey on the upper side, but not 
so hoary beneath as those of P. alba; the pistil has eight stigma 
lobes. Both trees occasionally attain a height of 90 ft. or more, 
but rarely continue to form sound timber beyond the first half- 
century of growth, though the trunk will sometimes endure for 
a hundred and fifty years. The wood is very white, and, from 
its soft and even grain, is employed by turners and toy-makers, 
while, being tough and little liable to split, it is also serviceable 
for the construction of packing cases, the lining of carts and 
waggons, and many similar purposes; when thoroughly seasoned 
it makes good flooring planks, but shrinks much in drying, 
weighing about 58 lb per cubic foot when green, but only 335 lb 
when dry. The white poplar is an ornamental tree, from its 
graceful though somewhat irregular growth and its dense 
hoary foliage; it has, however, the disadvantage of throwing up 
numerous suckers for some yards around the trunk. 

The grey and white poplars are usually multiplied by long 
cuttings; the growth is so rapid in a moist loamy soil that, 
according to Loudon, cuttings 9 ft. in length, planted beside 
a stream, formed in twelve years trunks 10 in. in diameter. 
Both these allied forms occur throughout central and southern 
Europe, but, though now abundant in England, it is doubtful 
whether they are there indigenous. P. alba suffers much from 
the ravages of wood-eating larvae, and also from fungoid growths, 
especially where the branches have been removed by pruning or 
accident. 

P. nigra, the black poplar, is a tree of large growth, with dark, 
deeply-furrowed bark on the trunk, and ash-coloured branches; 
the smooth deltoid leaves, serrated regularly on the margin, are 
of the deep green tint which has given name to the tree; the 
petioles, slightly compressed, are only about half the length of 
the leaves. The black poplar is common in central and southern 
Europe and in some of the adjacent parts of Asia, but, though 
abundantly planted in Britain, is not there indigenous. The 
wood is of a yellowish tint. In former days this was the preva- 
lent poplar in Britain, and the timber was employed for the 
purposes to which that of other species is applied, but has been 
superseded by P. monilifera and its varieties; it probably fur- 
nished the poplar wood of the Romans, which, from its lightness 
and soft tough grain, was in esteem for shield-making; in con- 
tinental Europe it is still in some request; the bark, in Russia, 
is used for tanning leather, while in Kamchatka it is sometimes 



9° 



POPLIN— POPOCATEPETL 



ground up and mixed with meal; the gum secreted by the buds 
was employed by the old herbalists for various medicinal 
purposes, but is probably nearly inert; the cotton-like down of 
the seed has been converted into a kind of vegetable felt, and 
has also been used in paper-making. A closely related form is 
the well-known Lombardy poplar, P. fastigiata, remarkable for 
its tall, cypress-like shape, caused by the nearly vertical growth 
of the branches. Probably a mere variety of the black poplar, 
its native land appears to have been Persia or some neighbouring 
country; it was unknown in Italy in the days of Pliny, while 
from remote times it has been an inhabitant of Kashmir, the 
Punjab, and Persia, wheie it is often planted along roadsides 
for the purpose of shade; it was probably brought from these 
countries to southern Europe, and derives its popular name 
from its abundance along the banks of the Po and other rivers 
of Lombardy, where it is said now to spring up naturally from 
seed, like the indigenous black poplar. It was introduced 
into France in 1749, and appears to have been grown in Germany 
and Britain soon after the middle of the last century, if not 
earlier. The Lombardy poplar is valuable chiefly as an orna- 
mental tree, its timber being of very inferior quality; its tall, 
erect growth renders it useful to the landscape-gardener as a 
relief to the rounded forms of other trees, or in contrast to the 
horizontal lines of the lake or river-bank where it delights to 
grow. In Lombardy and France tall hedges are sometimes 
formed of this poplar for shelter or shade, while in the suburban 
parks of Britain it is serviceable as a screen for hiding buildings 
or other unsightly objects from view; its growth is extremely 
rapid, and it often attains a height of 100 ft. and upwards, 
while from 70 to 80 ft. is an ordinary size in favourable situa- 
tions. 

P. canadensis, the " cotton-wood " of the western prairies, and 
its varieties are perhaps the most useful trees of the genus, often 
forming almost the only arborescent vegetation on the great 
American plains. It is a tree of rather large growth, sometimes 
100 ft. high, with rugged grey trunk 7 or 8 ft. in diameter, and with 
the shoots or young branches more or less angular; the glossy 
deltoid leaves are sharply pointed, somewhat cordate at the base, 
and with flattened petioles; the fertile catkins ripen about the middle 
of June, when their opening capsules discharge the cottony seeds 
which have given the tree its common western name; in New England 
it is sometimes'' called the " river poplar." The cotton-wood 
timber, though soft and perishable, is of value in its prairie habitats, 
where it is frequently the only available wood either for carpentry 
or fuel ; it has been planted to a considerable extent in some parts of 
Europe, but in England a form of this species known as P. monilifera 
is generally preferred from its larger and more rapid growth. In 
this well-known variety the young shoots are but slightly angled, 
and the branches in the second year become round; the deltoid 
short-pointed leaves are usually straight or even rounded at the base, 
but sometimes are slightly cordate; the capsules ripen in Britain 
about the middle of May. This tree is of extremely rapid growth, 
and has been known to attain a height of 70 ft. in sixteen years; 
it succeeds best in deep loamy soil, but will flourish in nearly any 
moist but well-drained situation. The timber is much used in some 
rural districts for flooring, and is durable for indoor purposes when 
protected from dry-rot ; it has, like most poplar woods, the property 
of resisting fire better than other timber. The native country of 
this form has been much disputed; but, though still known in many 
British nurseries as the " black Italian poplar," it is now well ascer- 
tained to be an indigenous tree in many parts of Canada and the 
States, and is a mere variety of P. canadensis; it seems to have been 
first brought to England from Canada in 1772. In America it 
seldom attains the large size it often acquires in England, and it is 
there of less rapid growth than the prevailing form of the western 
plains; the name of " cotton-wood " is locally given to other species. 
P. macrophylla or candicans, commonly known as the Ontario 
poplar, is_ remarkable for its very large heart-shaped leaves, some- 
times 10 in. long;_it is found in New England and the milder parts 
of Canada, and is frequently planted in Britain; its growth is 
extremely rapid in moist land ; the buds are covered with a balsamic 
secretion. The true balsam poplar, or tacamahac, P. balsamifera, 
abundant in most parts of Canada and the northern States, is a 
tree of rather large growth, often of somewhat fastigiate habit, with 
round shoots and oblong-ovate sharp- pointed leaves, the base never 
cordate, the petioles round, and the disk deep glossy green above 
but somewhat downy below. This tree, the " Hard " of the 
Canadian voyageur, abounds on many of the river sides of the north- 
western plains; it occurs in the neighbourhood of the Great Slave 
Lake and along the Mackenzie River, and forms much of the drift- 
wood of the Arctic coast. In these northern habitats it attains 
a large size; the wood is very soft; the buds yield a gum-like balsam, 



from which the common name is derived ; considered valuable as an 
antiscorbutic, this is said also to have diuretic properties; it was 
formerly imported into Europe in small quantities under the name of 
" baume focot," being scraped off in the spring and put into shells. 
This balsam gives the tree a fragrant odour when the leaves are 
unfolding. The tree grows well in Britain, and acquires occasionally 
a considerable size. Its fragrant shoots and the fine yellow green 
of the young leaves recommend it to the ornamental planter. It is 
said by Aiton to have been introduced into Britain about the end 
of the 17th century. 

P. euphratica, believed to be the weeping willow of the Scriptures, 
is a large tree remarkable for the variability in the shape of its leaves, 
which are linear in young trees and vigorous shoots, and broad and 
ovate on older branches. It is a native of North Africa and Western 
and Central Asia, including North-West India. With the date 
palm it is believed to have furnished the rafters for the buildings of 
Nineveh. 

POPLIN, or Tabinet, a mixed textile fabric consisting of a 
silk warp with a weft of worsted yarn. As the weft is in the form 
of a stout cord the fabric has a ridged structure, like rep, which 
gives depth and softness to the lustre of the silky surface. 
Poplins are used for dress purposes, and for rich upholstery 
work. The manufacture is of French origin; but it was brought 
to England by the Huguenots, and has long been specially 
associated with Ireland. The French manufacturers distinguish 
between popelines unies or plain poplins and popelines a dis- 
positions or £cossaises, equivalent to Scotch tartans, in both of 
which a large trade is done with the United States from Lyons. 

POPOCATEPETL (Aztec popoca " to smoke," tepetl " moun- 
tain "), a dormant volcano in Mexico in lat. 18 59' 47" N., 
long. 98 33' 1" W., which with the neighbouring Ixtaccihuatl 
(Aztec " white woman ") forms the south-eastern limit of the 
great basin known as the " Valley of Mexico." As it lies in 
the state of Puebla and is the dominating feature in the views 
from the city of that name, it is sometimes called the Puebla 
volcano. It is the second highest summit in Mexico, its shapely, 
snow-covered cone rising to a height of 17,876 ft., or 438 ft. 
short of that of Orizaba. This elevation was reported by the 
Mexican geological survey in 1895, and as the Mexican Geo- 
graphical Society calculated the elevation at 17,888 ft., it may 
be accepted as nearly correct. The bulk of the mountain con- 
sists of andesite, but porphyry, obsidian, trachyte, basalt, and 
other similar rocks are also represented. It has a stratified 
cone showing a long period of activity. At the foot of the 
eastern slope stretches a vast lava field— the " malpays " 
(malapais) of Atlachayacatl — which, according to Humboldt, 
lies 60 to 80 ft. above the plain and extends 18,000 ft. east to 
west with a breadth of 6000 ft. Its formation must be of great 
antiquity. The ascent of Popocatepetl is made on the north- 
eastern slope, where rough roads are kept open by sulphur 
carriers and timber cutters. Describing his ascent in 1904, 
Hans Gadow states that the forested region begins in the foot- 
hills a little above 8000 ft., and continues up the slope to an 
elevation of over 13,000 ft. On the lower slopes the forest is 
composed in great part of the long-leaved Pinus liophylla, 
accompanied by deciduous oaks and a variety of other trees 
and shrubs. From about 9500 ft. to 11,500 ft. the Mexican 
" oyamel," or fir {Abies religiosa) becomes the principal species, 
interspersed with evergreen oak, arbutus and elder. Above this 
belt the firs gradually disappear and are succeeded by the short- 
leaved Pinus montezumae, or Mexican " ocote " — one of the 
largest species of pine in the republic. These continue to the 
upper tree-line, accompanied by red and purple Penlslemon and 
light blue lupins in the open spaces, some ferns, and occasional 
masses of alpine flowers. Above the tree line the vegetation 
continues only a comparatively short distance, consisting 
chiefly of tussocks of coarse grass, and occasional flowering 
plants, the highest noted being a little Draba. At about 14,500 ft. 
horses are left behind, though they could be forced farther 
up through the loose lava and ashes. On the snow-covered 
cone the heat of the sun is intense, though the thermometer 
recorded a temperature of 34 in September. The reflection 
of light from the snow is blinding. The rim of the crater is 
reached at an elevation of about 17,500 ft. Another descrip- 
tion places the snow-line at 14,268 ft., and the upper tree-line 



POPPER— POPPY OIL 



a thousand feet lower. A detailed description of the volcano 
was published by the Mexican geological survey in 1895 accord- 
ing to which the crater is elliptical in form, 2008 by 131 2 ft., and 
has a depth of 1657 ft. below the summit of the highest pinnacle 
and 673 ft. below the lowest part of the rim, which is very 
irregular in height. The steep, ragged walls of the crater show 
a great variety of colours, intensified by the light from the deep 
blue sky above. Huge patches of sulphur, some still smouldering, 
are everywhere visible, intermingled with the white streaks of 
snow and ice that fill the crevices and cover the ledges of the 
black rocks. The water from the melted snow forms a small 
lake at the bottom of the crater, from which it filters through 
fissures to the heated rocks below and thence escapes as steam 
or through other fissures to the mineral springs at the moun- 
tain's base. The Indian sulphur miners go down by means 
of ladders, or are lowered by rope and windlass, and the mineral 
is sent down the mountain side in a chute 2000 to 3000 ft. Some 
observers report that steam is to be seen rising from fissures in 
the bottom of the crater, and all are united in speaking of the 
fumes of burning sulphur that rise from its depths. That 
volcanic influences are still present may be inferred from the 
circumstance that the snow cap on Popocatepetl disappeared 
just before the remarkable series of earthquakes that shook the 
whole of central Mexico on the 30th and 31st of July 1909. 

It is believed that Diego de Ordaz was the first European to 
reach the summit of Popocatepetl, though no proof of this remains 
further than that Cortes sent a party of ten men in 15 19 to ascend 
a burning mountain. In 1522 Francisco Montano made the 
ascent and had himself let down into the crater a depth of 400 or 
500 ft. No second ascent is recorded until April and November 
1827 (see Brantz Mayer, Mexico, vol. ii.). Other ascents were 
made in 1834, 1848 and subsequent years, members of the 
Mexican geological survey spending two days on the summit in 

189.V 

POPPER, DAVID (1846- ), Bohemian violoncellist, was 
born at Prague, and educated musically at the conservatorium 
there, adopting the 'cello as his professional instrument. He was 
soon recognized, largely through von Btilow, as one of the 
finest soloists of the time, and played on tours throughout the 
European capitals. In 1872 he married the pianist Sophi 
Menter, from whom he was separated in 1886. In 1896 he 
became professor at the Royal Conservatoire at Budapest. He 
published various works, mainly compositions for the 'cello, 
together with four volumes of studies arranged as a violoncello 
school. 

POPPO, ERNST FRIEDRICH (1794-1866), German classical 
scholar and schoolmaster, was born at Guben in Brandenburg 
on the 13th of August, 1794. In 1818 he was appointed director 
of the gymnasium at Frankfort-on-the-Oder, where he died on 
the 6th of November 1866, having resigned his post three years 
before. Poppo was an extremely successful teacher and 
organizer, and in a few years doubled the number of pupils 
at the gymnasium. He is chiefly known, however, for his 
exhaustive and complete edition of Thucydides in four parts 
(11 vols., 1821-1840), containing (i.) prolegomena on Thucydides 
as an historian and on his language and style (Eng. trans, by 
G. Burges, 1837), accompanied by historical and geographical 
essays; (ii.) text with scholia and critical notes; (iii.) commentary 
on the text and scholia; (iv.) indices and appendices. For the 
ordinary student a smaller edition (1843-1850) was prepared, 
revised after the author's death by J. M. Stahl (1875-1889). 

See R. Schwarze in Allgemeine deutsche Biographie and authorities 
there referred to. 

POPPY, in botany, a genus of plants known botanically as 
papaver, the type of the family or natural order Papaveraceae. 
They are annual and perennial erect herbs containing a milky 
juice, with lobed or cut leaves and generally long-stalked regular 
showy flowers, which are nodding in the bud stage. The 
sepals, very rarely three, which are two in number, fall off as 
the flower opens, the four (very rarely five or six) petals, which 
are crumpled in the bud stage, also fall readily. The numerous 
stamens surround the ovary, which is composed of 4 to 16 carpels 



and is surmounted by a flat or convex rayed disk bearing the 
stigmas. The ovary is incompletely divided into many chambers 
by the ingrowth of the placentas which bear numerous ovules 
and form in the fruit a many-seeded short capsule opening by 
small valves below the upper edge. The valves are hydroscopic, 
responding to increase in the amount of moisture in the atmo- 
sphere by closing the apertures. In dry weather the valves 
open, and the small seeds are ejected through the pores when 
the capsule is shaken by the wind on its long stiff slender stalk: 
The flowers contain no honey and are visited by pollen-seeking 
insects, which alight on the broad stigmatic surface. The 
genus contains about 40 species, mostly natives of central and 
south Europe and temperate Asia. Five species are British; 
P. Rhoeas is the common scarlet poppy found in cornfields and 
waste places. Cultivated forms of this, with exquisite shades 
of colour and without any blotch at the base of the petals, are 
known as Shirley poppies. P. somniferum, the opium poppy, 
with large white or blue-purple flowers, is widely cultivated (see 
Opium). The Oriental poppy (P. orientate) and its several 
varieties are fine garden plants, having huge bright crimson 
flowers with black blotches at the base. Many hybrid forms of 
varying shades of colour have been raised of late years. The 
Iceland poppy (P. undicaule), is one of the showiest species, 
having grey-green pinnate leaves and flowers varying in colour 
from pure white to deep orange-yellow, orange-scarlet, &c. 
Specially fine varieties with stalks 18-24 m - high are cultivated 
on a large scale by some growers for market. The Welsh poppy 
belongs to an allied genus, Meconopsis; it is a perennial herb 
with a yellow juice and pale yellow poppy-like flowers. It is 
native in the south-west and north of England, and in Wales; 
also in Ireland. The prickly poppy (Argemone grandiflora) is 
a fine Mexican perennial with large white flowers. 

To the same family belongs the horned poppy, Glaucium 
luteum, found in sandy sea-shores and characterized by the waxy 
bloom of its leaves and large golden-yellow short-stalked 
flowers. Another member of the family is Eschscholtzia cali- 
fornica, a native of western North America, and well-known 
in gardens, with orange-coloured flowers and a long two-valved 
fruit pod. 

The plume poppy {Bocconia cordate and B. microcarpa) are 
ornamental foliage plants of great beauty. The cyclamen 
poppy (Eomecon chionantha) is a pretty Chinese perennial, 
having roundish slightly lobed leaves and pure white flowers 
about 2 in. across. The tree poppy (Dendromecon rigidum) is 
a Californian shrub about 3 ft. high, having golden-yellow flowers 
about 2 in. across. The Californian poppy (Platystemon cali- 
fornicus) is a pretty annual about a foot high, having yellow 
flowers with 3 sepals and 6 petals; and the white bush poppy 
(Romneya Coulteri) is a very attractive perennial and semi- 
shrubby plant 2-8 ft. high, with pinnatifid leaves and large 
sweet scented white flowers often 6 in. across. 

POPPY HEADS, a term, in architecture, given to the finials 
or other ornaments which terminate the tops of bench ends, 
either to pews or stalls. They are sometimes small human heads, 
sometimes richly carved images, knots of foliages or finials, and 
sometimes fleurs-de-lis simply cut out of the thickness of the 
bench end and chamfered. The term is probably derived 
from the French poupie, doll, puppet, used also in this sense, 
or from the flower, from a resemblance in shape. 

POPPY OIL {Oleum papaveris), a vegetable oil obtained by 
pressure from the minute seeds of the garden or opium poppy, 
Papaver somniferum. The white-seeded and black-seeded 
varieties are both used for oil-pressing; but, when the production 
of oil is the principal object of the culture, the black seed is 
usually preferred. The qualities of the oil yielded by both 
varieties and the proportion they contain (from 50 to 60%) are 
the same. By cold pressing seeds of fine quality yield from 30 to 
40% of virgin or white oil (huile blanche), a transparent limpid 
fluid with a slight yellowish tinge, bland and pleasant to taste, 
and with almost no perceptible smell. On second pressure with 
the aid of heat an additional 20 to 25% of inferior oil {huile de 
fabrique or huile russe) is obtained, reddish in colour, possessed 



9 2 



POPULATION 



of a biting taste, and a linseed-like smell. The oil belongs to 
the linoleic or drying series, having as its principal constituent 
linolein; and it possesses greater drying power than raw linseed 
oil. Its specific gravity at 15° C. is 0-925. Poppy oil is a valu- 
able and much used medium for artistic oil painting. The fine 
qualities are largely used in the north of France (huile d' ceillette) 
and in Germany as a salad oil, and are less liable than olive oil 
to rancidity. The absence of taste and characteristic smell in 
poppy oil also leads to its being much used for adulterating olive 
oil. The inferior qualities are principally consumed in soap- 
making and varnish-making, and for burning in lamps. The 
oil is very extensively used in the valley of the Ganges and 
other opium regions for food and domestic purposes. By native 
methods in India about 30% of oil is extracted, and the remain- 
ing oleaginous cake is used as food by the poor. Ordinary 
poppy-oil cake is a valuable feeding material, rich in nitrogenous 
constituents, with an ash showing an unusually large proportion 
of phosphoric acid. The seed of the yellow horned poppy, 
Glaucium luteum, yields from 30 to 35% of an oil having the 
same drying and other properties as poppy oil; and from the 
Mexican poppy, Argemone mexicana, is obtained a non-drying 
oil used as a lubricant and for burning. 

POPULATION (Lat. populus, people; populare, to populate), a 
term used in two different significations, (1) for the total number 
of human beings existing within certain area at a given time, and 
(2) for the " peopling " of the area, or the influence of the 
various forces of which that number is the result. The popu- 
lation ota country, in the former sense of the word, is ascertained 
by means of a census (q.v.), which periodically records the number 
of people found in it on a certain date. Where, as is generally 
the case, detail of sex, age, conjugal condition and birthplace 
is included in the return, the census results can be co-ordinated 
with those of the parallel registration of marriages, births, deaths 
and migration, thus forming the basis of what are summarily 
termed vital statistics, the source of our information regarding 
the nature and causes of the process of " peopling," i.e. the 
movement of the population between one census and another. 
Neither of these two operations has yet reached perfection, 
either in scope or accuracy, though the census, being the subject 
of special and concentrated effort, is generally found the superior 
in the latter respect, and is in many cases taken in countries 
where registration has not yet been introduced. The countries 
where neither is in force aie still, unfortunately, very 
numerous. 

The Population of the World, and its Geographical Distribution. 
— Man is the only animal which has proved able to pass from 
dependence upon its environment to a greater or less control 
over it. He alone, accordingly, has spread over every quarter 
of the globe. The area and population of the world, as a whole, 
have been the subject of many estimates in scientific works for 
the last three centuries and are still to a considerable extent 
matters of rough approximation. Every decade, however, 
brings a diminution of the field of conjecture, as some form of 
civilized administration is extended over the more backward 
tracts, and is followed, in due course, by a survey and a census. 
It is not necessary, therefore, to cite the estimates framed before 
1882, when a carefully revised summary was published by Boehm 
and H. Wagner. Since then the laborious investigations of 
P. F. Levasseur and L. Bodio have 
been completed in the case of Europe 
and America, and, for the rest of the 
world, the figures annually brought up 
to date in the Statesman's Year Book 
may be taken to be the best avail- 
able. From these sources the 
abstract at foot of page has been 
derived. 

The principal tracts still un- 
measured and unenumerated (in any 
strict sense) in the Old World are the 
Turkish Empire, Persia, Afghanistan, 
China and the Indo-Chinese peninsula 



and nearly nine-tenths of Africa. In the same category must be 
placed a considerable proportion of central, southern and Polar 
America (see Census). There is little of the world which is 
entirely uninhabited; still less permanently uninhabitable and 
unlikely to be required to support a population in the course of 
the expansion of the race beyond its present abodes. Probably 
the polar regions alone do not fall within the category of the poten- 
tially productive, as even sandy and alkaline desert is rendered 
habitable where irrigation can be introduced; and vast tracts 
of fertile soil adapted for immediate exploitation, especially 
in the temperate zones, both north and south, only remain 
unpeopled because they are not yet wanted for colonization. 
The geographical distribution of the population of the world 
is therefore extremely irregular, and, omitting from consideration 
areas but recently colonized, the density is regulated by the 
means of subsistence within reach. " La population," says 
G. de Molinari, " a tendance de se proportionner a son debouche." 
These, in their turn, depend mainly upon the character of the 
people who inhabit the country. Even amongst savages there 
are few communities, and those but sparse, which subsist entirely 
upon what is directly provided by nature. As human intelli- 
gence and industry come into play the means of livelihood are 
proportionately extended; population multiplies, and with this 
multiplication production increases. Thus, the higher densities 
are found in the eastern hemisphere, within the zone in which 
arose the great civilizations of the world, or, roughly speaking, 
between north parallels 25 and 40 towards the east, and 25 and 
55 in the west. Here large areas with a mean density of over 
500 to the sq. m. may be found either supported by the 
food directly produced by themselves, as in the great agricultural 
plains of the middle kingdom of China and the Ganges valley and 
delta; or else, as in western Europe, relying largely upon food 
from abroad, purchased by the products of manufacturing 
industry. In the one class the density is mainly rural, in the 
other it is chiefly due to the concentration of the population 
into large urban aggregates. It is chiefly from the populations 
of the south-west of Europe that the New World is being colo- 
nized; but the territories over which the settlers and their recruits 
from abroad are able to scatter are so extensive that even the 
lower densities of the Old World have not yet been attained, 
except in a few tracts along the eastern coasts of Australia and 
North America. Details of area and population are given under 
the headings of the respective countries, and the only general 
point in connexion with the relation between these two facts 
which may be mentioned here is the need to bear in mind that the 
larger the territory the less likely is its mean density-figure to 
be typical or really representative. Even in the case of small 
and comparatively homogeneous countries such as Holland, 
Belgium or Saxony there is considerable deviation from the 
mean in the density of the respective component subdivisions, 
a difference which when extended over more numerous aggre- 
gates often renders the general mean misleading or of little value. 
Distribution of Population by Sex. — After geographical dis- 
persion, the most general feature amongst the human race is its 
division by sex. The number of speculations as to the nature 
of this distinction has been, it is said, well-nigh doubled since 
Drelincourt, in the 18th century, brought together 262 " ground- 
less hypotheses," and propounded on his own part a theory 

Table I. 



Continent. 


Sq. m. in 

thousands 
(1907). 


Population, in 
thousands. 


Population 

per sq. m. 

(1907). 


Unascertained 
Percentage of : 


1882. 


1907. 


Area un- 
surveyed. 


Population 
Unenumerated. 


Europe . 
Asia . 
Africa . . 
America . 
Oceania . 


3,828* 
15.773 
n.507 
17,208* 

3.448 


327.743 
795.591 
205,823 
100,415 
4.232 


405.759 
918,324 
126,734 
149,944 
5,881 


I06f 

58 

11 
9t 
i-7 


2-5* 
43-2 
90-1 
50-0* 

5-4 


1-3 
59-4 
77-4 

9-1 
19-6 


Total . . 


51.764 


1,433,804 


1,606,542 


3i-7t 


50-4* 


41-4 



+ Including Polar regions. 



t Excluding Polar regions. 



POPULATION 



93 



which has since been held to be the 263rd in the series. It is 
not proposed to deal here with incidents appertaining to the 
" ante-natal gloom," and we are concerned only with human 
beings when once they have been born. In regard to the division 
of these into male and female, the first point to be noted is that, 
in all communities of western civilization, more boys are born 
than girls. The excess ranges from 20 to 60 per thousand. 
In Greece and Rumania it is exceptionally high, and in some 
Oriental or semi-Oriental countries it is said to give place to a 
deficit, though in the latter case the returns are probably not 
trustworthy. From the more accurate statistics available it 
appears that the excess of male births varies amongst different 
races and also at different times in the same community. It 
is high in new colonies and amongst the Latin races, with the 
exception of the French. These, with the English, show a 
much smaller excess of boy-births than the average of western 
Europe, and the proportion, moreover, seems to be somewhat 
declining in both these countries and in Belgium, from causes 
which have not yet been ascertained. As the mortality amongst 
boys, especially during the first year, is considerably above that 
of the other sex, numerical equilibrium between the two .is estab- 
lished in early youth, and in most cases girls outnumber boys, 
except for a few years between twelve and sixteen. Then follows 
the chequered period of the prime of life and middle age, during 
which the liability of men to industrial accidents, war and other 
causes of special mortality, irrespective of their greater incli- 
nation to emigrate, is generally sufficient to outweigh the dangers 
of childbirth or premature decay among the women, who tend, 
accordingly, to predominate in number at this stage. In old 
age, again, their vitality rises superior to that of the men, and 
they continue to form the majority of the community. The 
general results are an excess of females over males throughout 
western Europe: but though the relative proportions vary from 
time to time, remaining always in favour of what is conventionally 
called the weaker sex, it is impossible, owing to disturbing factors 
like war and migration, to ascertain whether there is any general 
tendency for the proportion of females to increase or not. In 
comparatively new settlements, largely fed by immigration, the 
number of males is obviously likely to be greater than that of 
females, but in the case of countries in Asia and eastern Europe 
in which also a considerable deficiency of the latter sex is indi- 
cated by the returns, it is probable that the strict seclusion 
imposed by convention on women and the consequent reticence 
regarding them on the part of the householders answering 
the official inquiry tend towards a short count. On the other 
hand, the lower position there assigned to women and the very 
considerable amount of hard work exacted from them, may 
cause them to wear out earlier than under higher conditions, 
though not to the extent implied in the statistics. In the 
Table II. 





JH s 


e- 1 




Mi 


e . 
2$. 




ga 


J5J5 




a a 


j,i 


Country. 


— 


bo 


Country. 


— 


■5,8 




© 


.*. 




"8 8 


^ 




is 


i s 




" 


i 2 


f Sweden 


1049 


946 


' Galicia . 


1019 


941 


J Norway 






1064 


944 


Hungary 




1009 


949 


] Finland 






1022 


948 


Rumania 




964 


902 


I Denmark 






1053 


950 


, Greece . 




921 


879 


f England 






1069 


966 


Servia . 




946 


945 


■i Scotland 






1057 


956 


Bulgaria 




959 


927 


( Ireland 






1028 


946 


Russia . 








("Holland 






1025 


950 


1 (Europe) 


IOII 


948 


J Belgium 






1013 


956 


C Russia (Asia) . 
J Japan . . . 


893 




J Germany 






1029 


950 


983 


— 


(.Austria . 






1042 


947 


| India 

I Egypt . . . 


9 6 3 


— 


f France . 






1033 


960 


967 


— 


J Italy . 






IOII 


947 


'United States . 


' 958 


— 


1 Spain 






1049 


938 


Canada 


952 


— 


t Portugal 






1093 


899 


J Argentine . 


893 


— 






I 


Cape Colony . 


977 


— 






1 


Australia 


906 


950 






I 


^ New Zealand . 


900 





following table the latest available information on this head is 
given for representative countries of western and eastern Europe, 
the East and the New World. 

Distribution by Age. — Few facts are more uncertain about an 
individual than the number of years he will live. Few, on 
the contrary, as was pointed out by C. Babbage, are less subject 
to fluctuation than the duration of life amongst people taken in 
large aggregates. The age-constitution of a community does 
indeed vary, and to a considerable extent, in course of time, but 
the changes are usually gradual, and often spread over a genera- 
tion or more. At the same time, it must be admitted that 
those which have recently taken place amongst most of the 
communities of western Europe are remarkable for both their 
rapidity and their extent; and are probably attributable, in 
part at least, to influences which were almost inoperative at the 
time when Babbage wrote. The distribution of a population 
amongst the different periods of life is regulated, in normal 
circumstances, by the birth-rate, and, as the mortality at some 
of the periods is far greater than at others, the death-rate falls 
indirectly under the same influence. The statistics of age, there- 
fore, may be said to form a link between those of the population, 
considered as a fixed quantity, as at a census, and those which 
record its movement from year to year. To the correct interpre- 
tation of the latter, indeed, they are essential, as will appear 
below. Unfortunately, the return of age is amongst the less 
satisfactory results of a general enumeration, though its inaccu- 
racy, when spread over millions of persons, is susceptible of 
correction mathematically, to an extent to make it serve its 
purpose in the directions above indicated. The error in the 
original return generally arises from ignorance. An illiterate 
population is very prone to state its age in even multiples of five, 
and even where education is widely spread this tendency is not 
altogether absent, as may be seen from the examples given in 
Table III. 





Number returned at each age 


per 10,000 of Population. 




United States, 


Russia 


, 1897. 




Age. 


Germany, 


1900. 






India, 
1891 


















Native 






Asia, 


Females. 






Whites. 


Negroes. 


Europe. 


Females. 




19 


180 


196 


204 


166 


112 


64 


20 


182 


200 


252 


223 


385 


505 


21 


181 


191 


204 


143 


113 


54 


29 


130 


146 


119 


92 


60 


42 


30 


149 


170 


218 


269 


456 


624 


31 


145 


125 


76 


74 


74 


30 


49 


88 


72 


62 


45 


38 


12 


50 


94 


84 


156 


196 


257 


386 


51 


89 


61 


38 


35 


34 


12 


59 


62 


43 


30 


25 


18 


10 


60 


70 


49 


105 


163 


179 


281 


61 


60 


33 


15 


22 


25 


11 



Table III. Deliberate mis-statements, too, are not unknown, 
especially amongst women. This has been repeatedly illustrated 
in the English census reports. Irrespective of the wish of women 
between 25 and 40 to return themselves as under 25, there appears 
to be the more practical motive of obtaining better terms in 
industrial insurance, whilst an overstatement of age often has, it 
is said, the object of getting better wages in domestic service, or 
better dietary in the workhouse! In all countries, moreover, 
there seems to be an inclination to exaggerate longevity after the 
three score years and ten have been passed. In order to minimize 
the results of such inaccuracy, the return of ages is compiled in 
aggregates of five or ten years and then redistributed over single 
years by the method of differences. The present purpose being 
merely to illustrate the variation of distribution amongst a few 
representative countries, it is unnecessary to enter into more 
detail than such as will serve to distinguish the proportions of 
the population in main divisions of life. Thus it may be said 
that in the west of Europe about one-third of the people, roughly 
speaking, are under fifteen; about one-half, between that age and 
fifty, and the remaining sixth older than fifty. The middle period 



94 



POPULATION 



may conveniently be extended to sixty and subdivided at forty, 
as is done in Table IV. The differences between the several 
countries in their age-constitution can best be appreciated by 
reference to some recognized general standard. The one here 
adopted is the result of the co-ordination of a long series 
of enumerations taken in Sweden during the last century and 
a half, prepared by Dr G. Sundbarg of Stockholm. It is true 
that for practical use in connexion with vital statistics for a 
given period, the aggregate age-distribution of the countries 
concerned would be a more accurate basis of comparison, but 
the wide period covered by the Swedish observations has the 
advantage of eliminating temporary disturbances of the balance 
of ages, and may thus be held to compensate for the compara- 
tively narrow geographical extent of the field to which it relates. 

Table IV. 



Country. 


Census 
Year. 


Per 1000 of Population. 


Under 15. 


15-40. 


40-60. 


Over 60. 


Standard . 

Sweden . 
Norway . 
Finland . 
Denmark 

F.ngland . 
Scotland . 
Ireland . 

Holland . . . 
Belgium . 
Germany 
Austria . 

France 

Italy . . . 

Portugal . 

Galicia 

Hungary 

Servia 

Bulgaria 

Greece 

Russia (Furope) 
India (males) 
Japan . . . 

United States 
Canada . 
Australasia . 
Cape Colony 


1900 

1901 

1899 
1900 

1901 
1900 

1S89 

1897 
1891 
1898 

1900 
1901 

1904 


336 

324 
354 
345 
339 

324 
334 
304 

348 
317 
348 
344 

261 

34i 
338 

377 
356 
419 
414 
393' 

35o 
39i 
335 

334 
346 
349 
415 


389 

366 
36i 

386 
376 

423 
416 

407 

384 
404 

395 
402 

389 
366 

375 

399 
379 
395 
322 
400 

385 
399 
384 

422 
409 

431 
409 


192 

191 
176 

187 
186 

179 

173 
180 

175 
184 

179 

182 

226 
196 
191 

178 
189 
142 
172 
155 

180 
163 
193 

169 

168 

157 
129 


83 

119 
109 

82 
99 

74 

77 

109 

93 
95 

78 
72 

124 

97 
96 

46 
76 

44 
92 

52 

85 
47 
88 

75 
77 
63 
47 



As regards correspondence with the standard distribution, it 
will be noted that Finland, the next country to Sweden geo- 
graphically, comes after Japan, far detached from northern 
Europe by both race and distance, and is followed by Portugal, 
where the conditions are also very dissimilar. The other 
Scandinavian countries, Norway and Denmark, appear, like 
Sweden itself in the present day, to bear in their age-distribution 
distinct marks of the emigration of adults, or, at least, the 
temporary absence from home of this class at the time of enume- 
ration. The same can be said of Italy in its later returns and of 
Germany in those before 1895. On the contrary, the effect of 
the inflow of adult migrants is very marked, as is to be expected, 
in the returns for the new countries, such as the United States, 
Canada and Australasia. In the case of the Old World, the 
divergence from the standard which most deserves notice is the 
remarkable preponderance of the young in all the countries of 
eastern Europe, as well as in India, accompanied by an equally 
notable deficiency of the older elements in the population. 
Again, there are in the west two well-known instances of deficient 
reinforcement of the young, France and Ireland, in which 
countries the proportion of those under 15 falls respectively 
75 and 32 per miile below the standard; throwing those over 
60 up to 41 and 26 per mille above it. The table does not in- 
clude figures for earlier enumerations, but one general character- 



istic in them should be mentioned, viz. the far higher proportion 
borne in them of the young, as compared with the more recent 
returns. In England, for instance, those under. 1 5 amounted to 
360 per mille in 1841, against 324 sixty years later. In Ireland 
the corresponding fall has been still more marked, from 382 to 
304. The ratio in France was low throughout the 19th century, 
and during the last half fell only from 273 to 261, raising the 
proportion of the old above that resulting in northern Europe 
and Italy from emigration. It is remarkable that the same 
tendency for the proportion of the young to fall off is perceptible 
in new countries as well as in the older civilizations, setting aside 
the influence of immigration at the prime of life in depressing 
the proportion of children. The possible causes of this wide- 
spread tendency of the mean age of a western community to 
increase appertain to the subject of the movement of the 
population, which is dealt with below. 

The Movement of Population. — " The true greatness of a 
State " says Bacon, " consisteth essentially in population and 
breed of men " ; and an increasing population is one of the most 
certain signs of the well-being of a community. Successive 
accretions, however, being spread over so long a term as that of 
human life, it does not follow that the population at any given 
time is necessarily the result of contemporary prosperity. Con- 
versely, the traces left by a casual set-back, such as famine, war, 
or an epidemic disease, remain long after it has been succeeded 
by a period of recuperation, and are to be found in the age- 
constitution and the current vital statistics. Population is 
continually in a state of motion, and in large aggregates the 
direction is invariably towards increase. The forces underlying 
the movement may differ from time to time in their respective 
intensity, and, in highly exceptional cases, may approach 
equilibrium, their natural tendencies being interrupted by special 
causes, but the instances of general decline are confined to wild 
and comparatively small communities brought into contact 
with alien and more civilized races. The factors upon which 
the growth of a population depend are internal, operating 
within the community, or external, arising out of the relations 
of the community with other countries. In the latter case, 
population already in existence is transferred from one territory 
to another by migration, a subject which will be referred to 
later. Far more important is the vegetative, or " natural " 
increase, through the excess of births over deaths. The 
principal influences upon this, in civilized life, are the number 
of the married, the age at which they marry or bear children, 
the fertility of marriages and the duration of life, each of which 
is in some way or other connected with the others. 

Marriage.— la every country a small and generally diminish- 
ing proportion of the children is born out of wedlock, but the 
primary regulator of the native growth of a community is the 
institution of marriage. Wherever, it has been said, there, is 
room for two to live up to the conventional standard of comfort, 
a marriage takes place. So close, indeed, up to recent times, 
was the connexion held to be between the prosperity of the 
country and the number of marriages, that Dr W. Farr used to 
call the latter the barometer of the former. The experience 
of the present generation, however, both in England and other 
countries, seems to justify some relaxation of that view, as will 
appear below. The tendency of a community towards matri- 
mony, or its " nuptiality," as it is. sometimes termed, is usually 
indicated by the ratio to the total population of the persons 
married each year. For the purpose of comparing the circum- 
stances of the same community at successive periods this method 
is fairly trustworthy, assuming that there has been no material 
shifting of the age-proportions during the intervals. It is not 
a safe guide, however, when applied to the comparison of 
different communities, the age-composition of which is probably 
by no means identical, but in consideration of its familiarity 
it has been adopted in the first section of Table V. below, at 
three periods for each of the countries selected as representative. 

One of the features which is prominent throughout the return 
is that in every country except Belgium the rate per mille 
attained a maximum in the early seventies, and has since shown 



POPULATION 



95 



a descending tendency, notwithstanding the fact, noted in the 
preceding paragraph, that the youthful population, which, of 
course, weighs down the rate, has also been relatively decreasing. 
Countries of Oriental and semi-Oriental habits have not been 
shown, owing to the difference in their marriage system from 
that of western Europe. It may be mentioned, however, in 
passing, that their marriage rate is generally considerably higher 
than that here indicated, as may be seen from the example of 
Galicia, which is here shown separately from cis-Leithian Austria. 



years of age and decreases rapidly as that period is left behind. 
A Swedish return of 1806-1900 shows that the annual births per 
thousand wives of 20-25 are fewer by nearly 17% than those of 
wives under 20. Between 25 and 30 the number falls off by 
one-fifth, and after 40 by about 44%. In the countries 
mentioned in Table V. the average proportion borne by wive? 
under 30 to the total under 45 is just over one-third. That 
proportion is exceeded in southern Europe, where women develop 
earlier, and in Galicia. In England and France it stands at 



Table V. 



Country. 



Per 1000 of Population. 



Persons Married Yearly. 



1861-1870. 1871-1875. 1895-1904 



Women, 15 to 45 (1900). 



Total. 



Married. 



Unmarried. 



Men, 20-50. 



Unmarried. 



Sweden . 
Norway . 
Finland . 
Denmark 

England . 
Scotland . 
Ireland . 



Holland . . 
Germany 
Belgium . 
Austria (W.) 



France 
Italy . 



Galicia 



I3-I 
13-3 
15-5 
149 

16-7 
14-0 
io-S 

16-4 
17-0 
15-0 
161 

15-6 
15-2 

19-7 



14-0 
14-6 
17-9 
15-9 

17-1 
14-9 
10-7 

16-6 
18-9 

177 

16-9 
15-6 

19-7 



12-0 
13-2 

14-1 
14-6 

15-8 
14-3 

IO-I 

14-9 
16-4 
16-4 
15-7 

15-2 

14-4 

17-6 



215 
218 
219 
221 

250 
242 
235 

218 
226 
230 
227 

228 
214 

225 



91 
103 
104 

117 

102 

76 

96 
114 
108 
106 

120 
116 

125 



123 
102 

"5 
in 

127 
135 
153 

118 
107 
117 
115 

100 
92 

94 



83 
7i 
70 
81 

77 
90 

125 

82 
76 
85 
85 

82 
71 

67 



In the opposite direction will be noted the case of Ireland, 
where the rate is abnormally low; and returns more recent 
than those included in the table show that of late the rates in 
Sweden and Norway have also fallen to but little above 11 per 
mille. In regard to the necessity of taking into consideration 
the factor of age in the return of marriage-rates, an example may 
be here given from the data for England. The rate taken upon 
the total population was 16-7 per mille in 1870-1871 and 15-3 in 
1905; by excluding the population under fifteen the corre- 
sponding figures are 57-2 and 46-6 per mille. Thus the decline, 
which by the first method is only 8%, becomes, by the second, 
19%; and if the age-distribution of 1905 were reduced to that of 
the earlier period, the difference would increase to 22%, the 
most accurate figure of the three. For the present purpose it 
is sufficient to connect the rate of marriage with that of births 
by using as a basis for the former the number of women of 
conceptive age, or between 15 and 45 years old. The propor- 
tion of these is given in the latter portion of the table. Again 
taking England as an example, the women of the above ages 
bore the proportion to the total population of 23% in 
1871 and had risen to 25% in 1901; but at the former time, 
49-6% were married, whilst thirty years later, only 46-8 were 
thus situated. The table also shows that the proportion of 
the women of the ages in question who were married exceeds 
half only in Italy, France and Germany, not to mention Galicia. 
In other countries the average proportion is about 45%. In 
Sweden and Norway it is only 41 and in Ireland less than a 
third. In Scandinavia, and perhaps in Italy, the rate may be 
affected by the emigration of adult males, but the later columns 
of the table indicate that this is not the cause of the low rate in 
Ireland, which appears to be mainly due to abstinence from 
marriage at the ages specified. 

Next to the proportion of the married to the total marriageable 
the most important factor connected with the natural increase 
of the population is the age at which marriage takes place. 
Where the proportion of the married is high, the average age of 
the wives is low, and early marriage is conducive to relatively 
rapid increase. In the first place, the interval between genera- 
tions is shortened, and the elder is contemporaneous with the 
younger for a longer period. Then, again, the fecundity of women 
amongst western peoples is at its maximum between 18 and 25 



36. In Ireland and Sweden it is only 28, and in Denmark, 
Holland and Norway, too, it is below the average. The registrar- 
general of England has pointed out a marked tendency towards 
the postponement of marriage in that country. Between 1876 
and 1905, for instance, the proportion of minors married receded 
by 43% in the case of men and 32% amongst women. The 
mean age of husbands married in 1873 was 25-6 years and of 
wives 24-2, whereas thirty years later the corresponding ages 
were 28-6 and 26-4. The general results of the decline of the 
marriage-rate and the postponement of marriage upon the 
natural growth of population will be discussed in connection 
with the birth-rate, though the statistics available do not permit 
of the accurate measurement of the respective influence of these 
factors, and there are others, too, which have to be taken into 
consideration, as will appear below. 

Births.-*- Apart from the information which the statistics of 
birth furnish as to the growth of population, they have, like 
those of marriage, and perhaps to even a greater extent, a 
special social interest from their bearings upon the moral con- 
ditions of the community to which they relate. It is in their 
former capacity, however, that they enter into the present sub- 
ject. A birth-rate, taken as it usually is upon the total popu- 
lation, old and young, is open to the objections made above 
respecting the marriage-rate, and with even more force, as the 
basis is itself largely the product of the fact which is being 
measured by it. The internal variations of the rate in a single 
community, however, can be fairly indicated in this way, as is 
done in Table VI., which, it is to be noted, refers to those born 
alive only and excludes the still-born, statistics regarding whom 
are incomplete. 

The crude birth-rate, it will be noted, is in general harmony 
with that of marriage. In the countries where the former is 
high the rate of marriage is also above the average. In eastern 
Europe, so far as the figures can be trusted, this is markedly 
the case, and the birth-rates range between 39 per mille in 
Hungary and 49 in Russia, where the tradition of encouraging 
prolificity amongst the peasantry has not been effaced. Among 
the lower rates which prevail in western Europe, however, 
the connexion is not so direct, and a low birth-rate is some- 
times found with a relatively higher marriage rate and vice 
versa, a deviation from the natural course of events which will 



9 6 



POPULATION 



be discussed presently. The birth-rate, like the marriage-rate, 
seems to have reached its acme in the seventies, except 
in the three southern countries, France, Italy and Spain. The 
decline since the above period is very marked and exceeds 
that noted in the case of the rate of marriage. It is worth 
noting, too, that the fall in the crude birth-rate is not confined 
to the Old World, but has attracted special attention in 
Australia and New Zealand, where a rate of 40 per mille in 
the period 1861-1870 has now given place to one of 26. In 
Massachusetts and other of the older settlements of the United 
States, moreover, the same feature has been the subject of 
investigation. 



other than abstinence from marriage, at all events at the princi- 
pal reproductive period; and perhaps to a decrease in marriage 
or remarriage after middle life, a period of which the weight 
in the age-distribution has been increasing of late. On the 
other hand, the postponement of marriage in the case of women 
of conceptive ages is a tendency which seems to be growing in 
other countries as well as in England and undoubtedly has a 
depressing effect upon the rate of births. It would conduce, 
therefore, to further accuracy in the comparison of the rates of 
different countries if the latter were to be correlated with greater 
subdivision of the ages amongst wives between 15 and 45. 
The proportion of wives below 30 to the total of that group was 



Table VI. 



Country. 


(A) Born alive, per 1000 of Total 
Population. 


(B) Legitimate Births, per 

1000 Wives, 

1 5 to 45 years old. 


(C) Illegitimate 

Births, per 1000 

Unmarried and 

Widowed Women, 

15 to 45. 


1841-1850. 


1861-1870. 


1871-1875. 


1900-1905. 


1880-1882. 


1890-1892. 


1 900- 1 902. 


1896-1900. 


Sweden 
Norway 
Finland 
Denmark . 

England . 
Scotland . 
Ireland 

Holland . . . 
Belgium . 
Germany 
Austria (W.) . 

France 

Italy . . . . 

Spain . . . . 


3i-i 
30-7 
35-5 
30-5 

34-6 

33-0 

30-5 
36-1 

35-9 
27-3 


31-4 
309 
34-7 
31-0 

36-0 
34-8 

26-1 

35-3 
31-6 

37-2 

35-7 

26-3 
37-5 
37-8 


30-7 
3o-3 
37-o 
30-8 

360 
35-o 
26-4 

36-1 
32-4 
38-9 
37-2 

25-5 
369 

36-5 


26-7 

29-7 
32-2 

29-7 

29-0 

29-7 
23-2 

32-1 
28-5 
35-5 
34-2 

21-7 

33-5 
34-8 


293 
3H 
309 

287 

286 

3il 

283 

347 
313 
310 
281 

196 
276 

258 


280 

307 
301 

278 

264 
296 

288 

339 
285 
301 
292 

173 
283 
264 


269 
303 

259 

235 
272 
289 

315 
251 

284 
284 

157 
269 

259 


234 
16-9 
18-0 
236 

8-8 

14-1 

3 9 

9-0 
18-9 

27-7 
41-7 

18-1 

2I-I 



The crude rates which have been discussed above afford no 
explanation of this change, nor do they always illustrate its full 
extent. It is necessary, therefore, to eliminate the difference 
in the age-constitution of the countries in question by excluding 
from the field of observation, as before, all except possible 
mothers, basing the rate upon the respective numbers of women 
of the conceptive age, that is between 15 and 45. The pro- 
portion borne by this group to the total population is in most 
cases fairly up to that set forth by Dr Sundbarg in his standard. 
It is well above it in all three parts of the United Kingdom and 
falls materially below it only in Scandinavia and Italy. Indeed, 
during the last generation, this proportion has been in most 
cases slightly increased, in consequence of the fall of the 
birth-rate which set in anterior to this period. The stock, then, 
from which wives are drawn is ample. The question remains, 
how far advantage is taken of it. According to the Sundbarg 
standard the percentage married is 48. As has been shown 
in the preceding paragraph, this is surpassed in Italy, France 
and Germany, and approached in most of the rest, with the 
exception of Sweden, Norway and Scotland, which are six or 
seven points below it, and Ireland, where less than a third 
are married. The proportion married, moreover, has slightly 
increased since 1880, except in the United Kingdom. In 
England the marriage-rate (on the age basis) fell off by 4-6% 
and in Scotland by 2%, whilst the crude birth-rate declined 
by 15 and n % respectively. In Ireland the case was different, 
as the marriage-rate declined by 1 2 % and the birth-rate by no 
more than 5-7%. In New South Wales and New Zealand, too, 
the marriage-rates fell off in the same period by 11 and 28% 
respectively, whilst the decline in the birth-rates amounted to 
35 and 31 %. In the above countries, therefore, abstinence from 
matrimony may be said to have been a factor of some importance 
in the decline. On the continent of Europe, however, looking 
at the divergence in direction between the crude marriage-rate 
and that corrected to an age-basis, it is not improbable that 
the decline in the former may be attributable to some cause 



mentioned in connexion with the marriage-rate, and in the 
figures relating to some 30 years back some traces can be found 
of a connexion between a high birth-rate and a high proportion 
of young wives. In the present day, however, these indications 
do not appear, so it would seem that the tendency in question 
had been interrupted by some other influence, a point to which 
reference will be made below. 

If abstinence from marriage and the curtailment of the 
reproductive period by postponement of marriage be insufficient 
to account for the material change which has taken place in the 
birth-rate within the last few decades, it is clear that the latter 
must be attributable to the diminished fertility of those who are 
married. On this question the figures in the second portion of 
Table VI. throws some light. Here the annual number of 
legitimate births is shown in its proportion to the mean number 
of married women of conceptive age at each of the three latest 
enumerations. The rate, it will be seen, has fallen in all the 
countries specified, except for a slight increase of 2 % in Ireland 
and an almost stationary condition in Austria and Spain. The 
decline in Italy and Norway is small, but in France, where for a 
long time the fertility of the population has been very much 
below that of any other European country, the birth-rate thus 
calculated fell by nearly 20%, the same figure' being approached 
in Belgium, where however, the fertility of married women is 
considerably greater. The case of England is remarkable. In 
the earlier period its crude birth and marriage-rates were above 
the average and its proportion of young wives well up to it. 
Its fertility-rate, however, which was by no means high in 1880, 
fell by nearly 18% by 1901, and since that date a further fall 
is reported by the registrar-general, to 24%, leaving the rate 
below that of all the other European countries except France. 
The States of Australasia, again, have experienced a decline 
even more marked. In 1880-1882 their fertility-rate ranged 
from 300 to 338, a low proportion for a new country, but nearly 
up to the European standard. By 1900-1902, however, the rate 
had fallen in all the larger States by from 23 to 31% and the 



POPULATION 



97 



highest rate recorded, 253 per thousand conceptive wives, was ' 
lower than that of any European country except France and 
Belgium. The cessation of assisted immigration early in the 
life of the present generation is alleged to have had considerable 
influence upon the rate, in Victoria, at least, owing to the curtail- 
ment of the supply of adult women of the more conceptive ages 
and the ageing of those who had reached the country at an 
earlier date. But neither this nor the diminution of the marriage- 
rate amongst women of those ages suffices to account for more 
than a fraction of the decline. The same tendency, moreover, 
is traceable in the New England States of America, so far as 
statistics are available. 

It has been held by some that a phenomenon so widely 
diffused over the western world must be attributable to physio- 
logical causes, such as alcoholism, syphilis, the abuse of narcotics 
and so on. Herbert Spencer, again, before the decline in 
question set in, put forward the hypothesis that " the ability to 
maintain individual life and the ability to multiply vary in- 
versely "; in other words, the strain upon the nervous system 
involved in the struggle for life under the conditions of modern 
civilization, by reacting on the reproductive powers, tends 
towards comparative sterility. These theories, however, being 
supported, according to the authorities of to-day, by no evidence, 
statistical or other, need not be here considered. 

Nor, again, can the decline in fertility be connected with 
any diminution of material prosperity. On the contrary, the 
fertility-rate appears to be best maintained in countries by no 
means distinguished for their high standard of living, such as 
Spain, Italy, Ireland, and, perhaps, Austria. In this respect 
Holland stands by itself; but in the others mentioned, with the 
exception of Ireland, both marriage and birth-rates are high 
and there has been a comparatively insignificant fall in prolifi- 
city. The decline has been greatest where the standard of 
comfort is notoriously high, as in the United States, England 
and Australasia; also in France, where the general wellbeing 
reaches probably a lower depth in the community than in any 
other part of Europe. The comparison of the rates in France 
with those of Ireland is an instructive illustration of the point 
under consideration. In France more than half the women 
of conceptive age are married: in Ireland less than a third, 
and the proportion of youthful wives in the latter is 28 % below 
that in France. In both the crude birth-rate is far below that 
of any other European country. But the fertility of the Irish 
wife exceeded that of her French compeer by 44% in 1880 and 
by no less than 84% twenty years later. So steady, indeed, 
has been the prolificity of Ireland, that from being ninth on the 
list at the earlier period mentioned, it is now inferior only to 
Holland and perhaps Finland in this respect. 

It need not be assumed, however, that because these rates 
cannot be associated with the comparative degree of prosperity 
attained by the individual community they are altogether inde- 
pendent of the economic factors mainly contributing to that 
condition, such as trade, employment and prices. It is difficult, 
indeed, if not impracticable, to disentangle the effects which 
should be respectively attributed to influences so closely related 
to each other; but, of the three, prices alone tend to sufficient 
uniformity in their course in different countries to justify a 
supposition that they are in some way connected with a phenom- 
enon so widely diffused as that of the decline in marriage and 
fertility. It is not improbable, therefore, that the fall in whole- 
sale prices which, with temporary interruptions, persisted between 
1870 and 1900, in general harmony with the other movement, 
may have conduced to reluctance on the part of those who 
have enlarged their notions of the standard of comfort to en- 
danger their prospects of enjoying it by incurring the additional 
expenses of family life. Matrimony may be postponed, or, when 
entered upon, may be rendered a lighter burden upon the bread- 
winner. The economic element in the situation, which is 
imposed upon the individual by circumstances, is thus modified 
voluntarily into a moral or prudential consideration. In this 
case diminished prolificity where unaccompanied by a decrease 
in the number of marriages at reproductive ages, is attributable 
xxii- 4 



to the voluntary restriction of child-bearing on the part of the 
married. This explanation of the decline is supported by 
the almost unanimous opinion of the medical profession in the 
countries in question, and substantial evidence can be 
found everywhere of the extensive prevalence of the doctrine 
and practice of what has been termed, in further derogation of 
the repute of the " much misrepresented Malthus," Neomal- 
thusianism. Preventive measures of this kind have long 
been in use in France, with the result shown in Tables V. 
and VI., and from that country they have spread, mostly since 
1870, nearly all over western Europe, as well as to the Anglo- 
Saxon world beyond the seas; but are scarcely apparent in 
countries where the Roman church has a strong hold on the 
people. It is generally held that the practice of thus limiting 
families usually prevails, in the first instance, among the better- 
off classes, and in time niters down, as " the gospel of comfort " 
is accepted by those of less resources, until the prolificity of the 
whole community is more or less affected by it. The registrar 
general for England, indeed, has stated that whilst no more than 
about 17% of the decline in the birth-rate can be attributed 
to abstinence or postponement of marriage, nearly 70% should 
be ascribed to voluntary restriction. 

The question of illegitimate births is the last to be here 
mentioned. It appears to be connected to a considerable extent 
with the subject dealt with above. In nearly every country the 
rate of these births has of late years shown a marked fall, which 
is by some ascribed to the adoption of the same expedients in 
illicit intercourse as are becoming conventional amongst the 
married. The rates given at the end of Table VI. are calculated 
upon the number of women most likely to produce them, that 
is, the spinsters, widows and divorced of conceptive age. In 
comparing the different countries, it may be noted that in some 
parts of Europe the rate is raised by the inclusion of the off- 
spring of marriages not registered as demanded by law, though 
duly performed in church. Then, again, the possibility of 
legitimization by subsequent marriage tends to raise the rate. 
Italy and Scotland may be taken as examples of these two 
influences, and in Germany, too, the rates in Saxony and Bavaria, 
which are among the highest in Europe, are in part due to the 
non-registration of marriages sanctioned by religious ceremony 
only. The low rates in Ireland, Holland and England are 
especially noticeable, and in the last named, the decrease 
between 1870 and 1905 amounted to more ttian 50%, not, 
however, entirely due, it is said, to improved morality. 

Deaths. — The forces tending towards the natural growth of 
population, which have been described above, differ from that 
which acts in the opposite direction in two material features. 
Marriage and child-bearing, in the first place, are operative 
amongst a fraction of the population only — those of conceptive 
age; whereas to the Urn of Death, as Dr Farr expressed it, all ages 
are called upon to contribute in their differing degrees. Then, 
again, the former are voluntary acts, entirely under the control 
of the individual; but mortality, though not beyond human 
regulation, is far less subject to it, and in order to have sub- 
stantial results the control must be the outcome of collective 
rather than individual co-operation. The course of the marriage 
and birth-rates, set forth above, affords evidence that the 
control over both has been exercised of recent years to an un- 
precedented extent, and it will appear from what is stated 
below, that partly owing to this cause, partly, also, to improved 
hygienic conditions in western life, there has been an even more 
pronounced decline in the rate of mortality. The general 
results of both upon the natural increase of population in the 
countries selected for illustration of this subject will be found 
at the end of this paragraph. For the purpose of showing this, 
the crude death-rate, taken, like that of births, upon the whole 
population, without distinction of age or sex, will suffice. Where, 
however, the tendency to mortality, not its results, is in question, 
both the above factors must be taken into account, as they have 
been above in distinguishing the rate of fertility from that of 
births. The process of correcting the mere numbers of annual 
deaths per thousand of population into a form which renders 

11 



9 8 



POPULATION 



the return comparable with those for communities differently 
constituted is somewhat complicated, but it is amply justified 
by its necessity in adapting the figures to the important services 
they perform in actuarial and sanitary science. This subject 
can only be dealt with here in outline. In the first place, sex 
must be distinguished, because, from infancy upwards, except 
between the ages of 10 and 20, the mortality amongst females 
is considerably less than amongst the other sex, and appears, 
too, to be declining more rapidly. So far as adult life is con- 
cerned this superior vitality is no doubt attributable to com- 
parative immunity from the risks and hardships to which men 
are exposed, as, also, to the weaker inclination of women towards 
intemperance of different kinds. Thus, though the generally 
higher proportion of females in the community may seldom be 
enough to depress more than slightly the death-rate as a whole, 
it has a substantial effect upon it at the ages where women are in 
more marked numerical predominance, as in later life, and in 
places where the number of domestic servants is unusually 
great. Age is a factor still more important than sex in a return 
intended to serve as an index of mortality. The liability to 
death is extremely high amongst infants, decreasing with every 
month of life during the first year, but continuing above the 
mean rate until about the age of five. From the latter period 
until the fifteenth or sixteenth year vitality is at its best. 
The death-rate then gradually rises, slowly till 25, more rapidly 
later, when, from about 45 onward deterioration asserts itself 
more pronouncedly, and by three score years and ten the rate 
begins to exceed that of childhood. Thus, all other considera- 
tions being set aside, mortality tends to vary inversely with 
the proportion of the population at the healthy period 5 to 23. 
As the replenishment of this group depends upon the conditions 
prevailing at the earlier ages, it is to the mortality in childhood 
that most weight, from the standpoint of hygiene, must be 
attached. In most European countries not much less than half 
the annual deaths take place amongst children below five years 
of age, upon the total number of whom the incidence falls to the 
extent of from 40 to 1 20 per mille. The greater part of this is 
debitable, as just pointed out, to the first year, in which the 
mortality, calculated upon the number of births, ranged, in the 



decennium 1895-1904, between 70 per mille, in the exceptionally 
favourable circumstances of the Australasian States, to nearly 
270 in European Russia. It should be remarked, in passing, 
that thesje rates are enormously higher amongst illegitimate 
children than amongst those born in wedlock, and that the 
proportion of still-born amongst the former is also in excess of 
that amongst the latter by some 50%. Infantile mortality is 
higher, too, in urban tracts, especially those associated with 
manufacturing industries. In Table VII. below, in which the 
crude rate alone is dealt with, evidence will be found of the 
general decline which has taken place in the mortality, thus 
expressed in different countries. 

The difference in the rates for the various countries must not 
be taken as a measure of difference in mortality, since, as accord- 
ing to the table, much of it is ascribable to difference in age- 
constitution. At the same time, where the range is very wide, 
as between the rates in Scandinavia and Australia, and those in 
southern and eastern Europe, the variation, to a great extent, 
cannot be accounted for otherwise than by difference in hygienic 
conditions, more especially in the light thrown by the figures 
of infantile mortality in the second part of the table. The 
variations from period to period in the same country are more 
instructive. They show that in the 35 years covered the death- 
rate has generally declined by over 20%. The exceptional 
cases are, first, Ireland and Norway, with their emigrating 
tendencies; then Spain, where the returns have probably to be 
discounted for improved registration, and France, where the 
population is all but stationary. In Finland the death-rate 
at the earlier period taken for the comparison was abnormally 
swollen by epidemic disease, and if it be set on one side the 
decline appears to have been in harmony with that in its Scan- 
dinavian neighbours. The decline in mortality has been much 
greater than that in the crude birth-rate everywhere except in 
France, Australia, and, of course, Ireland; and it is only in the 
two former that it has been exceeded by that in the fertility- 
rate. The standard mortality of each community is deduced 
from a life-table, representing a "generation" of people assumed 
to be born at the same moment and followed throughout their 
hypothetical life, in the light of the distribution by age ascertained 



Table VII. 



Country. 


(A) Death per 1000 of Total 
Population. 


(B) Deaths under one 
year per 1000 Births. 


(C) Decline per cent. 


1 Probable 
Lifetime. 


1861-1870 to 
1895-1904. 


Fertility- 
rate. 


1841-1850. 


1861-1870. 


1895-1904. 


1874-1883. 


1895-1*904. 


Death- 
rate. 


Birth- 
rate. 


1 880-1 882 to 
1900-1902. 


Years. 


Sweden .... 
Norway . . . . 
Finland . . . . 
Denmark 


20-6 

l8-2 

23-5 
205 


20-2 

18-0 
32-6 
198 


15-8 

187 
15-8 


128 
104 
164 
141 


98 
90 

134 
127 


21-7 
10-5 
42-6 2 

20-6 


15-0 

3-9 

7.2 
4-2 


8-2 

3-5 
9-3 


52-3 
52-2 
42-8 
47-8 


England . . . . 
Scotland . ' . 
Ireland . 


23-7 


24-0 

21-8 

166 


17-2 

17-3 
18-0 


149 

122 

96 


150 
126 
103 


28-3 

20-6 

+8-4 


19-4 
147 
ii-i 


17-8 

12-5 
+2-r 


45-9 
46-2 


Holland . . . . 
Belgium . . . . 
Germany 
Austria (W) . . 


26-2 

24-4 
26-8 
298 


25-4 
23-8 
26-9 
29-1 


17-0 
17-8 

20-8 

24-0 


204 
148 
208 3 
255 


147 
156 
198 a 
224 


33 -o 

25-2 

22-6 

i7'5 


90 
9.8 
4-6 
4-2 


9-2 

19-8 
8-4 


27-8 

45-1 
407 


France . . . . 

Italy 

Spain . . . . 


232 


23-6 

30-9 
30-6 


20-4 

22-7 

27-8 


165 
208 


153 
170 

182 


13-5 
26-5 

9-r 


17-5 

107 

8-o 


19-8 
2-5 


47-4 
43-0 


Hungary 

Galicia . . . . 
Servia . . . . 
Russia (Eur.) 


— 


33-0 
33-5 
30-9 
37-1 


27-4 

27-8 

23-6 
31-2 


267 


216 

154 
268 


17-0 
17-0 
23-6 
15-9 


6-2 

2-3 
9.9 

2-2 


— 


40-1 


N. S. Wales . . 
Victoria . . . . 
J New Zealand 


— 


l6-2 

167 

1 I3"2 


117 

13-3 
9-8 


| "7 


108 

105 

79 


27-7 
20-4 
257 


32-2 

37-2 
35-i 


307 

24-1 
24-5 


51-2 
| 55-4 



1 Mean after lifetime at birth. 2 Finland from 1850-1891, decrease 20-4. 3 Prussia only; Saxony, 284 and 272; Bavaria, 308 257. 



POPULATION 



99 



through the census and the number of deaths at each age 
observed for as many years, generally from 10 to 20, as suffice 
to furnish a trustworthy average. The population thus dealt 
with is supposed to be stationary, that is, the loss by death at 
each age is at once made good by the addition of an equal 
number of the same age, whilst the survivors pass on to the 
age above. Of the many calculations set forth in these valuable 
tables there is only room here to refer to the " afterlifetime " 
for such countries as it is available, which is quoted in the last 
column of Table VII. It shows the average number of years 
which persons of a given age, or, as here, of all ages, will live, 
on the assumption that they are subject to the calculated 
probabilities of survival. It is sometimes known as the 
" expectation of life," a term, however, which involves a 
mathematical hypothesis now discarded. 

The relation between the birth and the death rates has been 
the subject of much analysis and controversy. Observation has 
demonstrated that the two rates are generally found to move 
along parallel lines. A high birth-rate is accompanied by high 
mortality; conversely, when one is low, so is the other. A birth- 
rate continuously in excess of the death-rate tends to lower the 
latter through the supply it affords of people annually reaching 
the more healthy ages. If the supply be diminished, the narrower 
field open to the risks of infancy has the immediate effect of 
further decreasing the mortality. In course of time, however, 

Table VIII. 



Country. 

1 


Serial order 
according 
to formula 

b ' 


Per 


1000 of Population. 


Annual ex- 
cess of Births 
over Deaths. 


Total annual 
increase. 


Approximate 

loss by 
emigration. 


1895-1904. 


1861- 
1871. 


1895- 
1904. 


1861- 
1871. 


1891- 
1901. 


1861- 

1871. 


1891- 
1901. 


Sweden . 
Norway . 
Finland . 


7 

4 

10 


1 1 -2 

12-9 

2-1 


10-9 
146 
13-5 


7-7 
7-9 
i-3 


7-i 
n-3 
ii-i 


3-7 

1-0 


3-7 

2-7 

2-3 


Denmark. 


5 


II-I 


13-9 


10-4 


n-5 


o-3 


i-3 


England . 
Scotland . 
Ireland . 


8 

9 

13 


13-6 

13-0 

9-6 


u-8 

119 

5-2 


12-5 

9-3 

-6- 9 


"•5 
io-6 

-5-4 


i-i 

3-6 

15-0 


0-2 

1-2 

IO-7 


Holland . . . 
Belgium . 
Germany. 
Austria (W.). . 


6 
11 
12 
16 


9.9 

7-8 

10-3 

7-9 


151 

10-7 
14-7 

IO-2 


8-4 

7-4 
7-8 
5-6 


12-7 
9-8 

132 
o-5 


2-0 
II 

2-5 
o-8 


i-5 

O-I 

0-7 
o-5 


France 

Italy .... 
Spain. 


18 
15 
19 


2-7 

6-5 

• 7-7 


1-3 

io-8 

7-0 


2-8 

6-o 
5-1 


1-6 

6-2 

4.9 


+ 0-2 

0-9 

2-1 


+ 1-0 

4.6 
0-4 


Russia 
Hungary. 
Servia 
Galicia 


20 
18 

17 


12-7 

8-5 
136 
10-9 


17-5 
u-5 
16-5 

156 


n-7 

8-2 

10-9 


13-5 
9-8 

14-4 
10-4 


0-7 
0-4 

O-I 


1-6 

09 
o-6 
4-1 


New South Wales 
Victoria . 
New Zealand 


2 

3 
1 

.. 


24-8 
247 
27-0 


16-1 

12-7 

16-3 


36-9 
30-8 
63-0 


18-4 

5-2 

19-0 


+ I2-I 

+ 6-i 
+36-0 


+ 2-3 

7-5 

+ 2-7 



under the same influence, those passing from their prime into 
the second period of danger acquire a numerical preponderance 
which throws its weight upon the general death-rate and tends 
to raise it. It is assumed that throughout the above course the 
hygienic conditions of life remain unchanged. If, however, they 
undergo marked improvement, the duration of life is extended 
and both birth and death-rates, being spread over a wider 
field of the living, tend to decrease. On the other hand, an 
accidental set-back to population, such as that caused by famine 
or a disastrous war, leaves room which an increasing birth-rate 
hastens to occupy. A similar result follows in a lesser degree 
a wave of emigration. Examples of all the above tendencies 
may be gleaned from the returns of the countries named in the 
table, though space does not admit of their exhibtion. In 
both France and Germany, for instance, the process of replenish- 
ment after a great war can be traced both early and late in the 



19th century. In England, the decrease in "natality" is in 
itself enough to account for the decline in the death-rate, apart 
from any considerations of improved hygiene. In France, on 
the contrary, the low natality having been so long continued, 
has raised the death-rate, by reason of the balance of propor- 
tion having been shifted by it from youth and the prime of life 
to old age. It may be inferred from the above that a high birth- 
rate does not imply a high rate of increase of population, any 
more than does a decreasing mortality, but the two rates must 
be considered in their relations to each other. The death-rate, 
however, is often taken by itself as the measure of the relatively 
favourable conditions or otherwise of the different countries; 
but it indicates at best the maintaining power of the community, 
whereas the increasing power, as manifested in the birth-rate, 
has also to be taken into account. Here, again, it is not sufficient 
to rely upon the mere rate of natural growth, or the difference 
between the two rates, since this may be the same in a community 
where both the rates are very high as in one where they are 
relatively low, a distinction of considerable importance. It has 
been suggested by Dr Rubin of Copenhagen, that if the death 
rate (d) be squared and divided by the birth-rate (6), due influence 
is allowed to each rate respectively, as well as to the difference 
in the height of the rates in different countries (Journ. R. 
Statist. Soc, London, 1897, p. 154). The quotient thus obtained 
decreases as the conditions are more favourable, and, on the 
whole, it seems to form a good index to the merit of 
the respective countries from the standpoint of vital 
forces. The first column of Table VIII. shows the 
order in which the countries mentioned are found to 
stand according to the above test. 

The three Australasian states head the list in virtue 
of their remarkably low death-rate, which outweighs 
the relative paucity of their births. The next countries 
in order all belong to north-western Europe, and their 
index-quotients are all very close to each other. 
Sweden falls below its geographical neighbours owing 
to its low birth-rate, and Finland because of its higher 
mortality. England and Scotland, in spite of their 
higher birth-rates, are kept below Scandinavia by the 
higher death-rate, but their birth-rate places them 
above Belgium. Ireland and France are pulled down 
by their low natality. The latter, with the same 
mortality as Germany, stands far below it for the 
above reason, as Ireland is raised by its lower death- 
rate above the prolific countries of eastern Europe. 
The rate of natural growth is given in the second part 
of the table. In the case of two of the Australasian 
states, of Holland, Finland, Spain and Italy, the 
order is in accord with that given by the test applied 
above, and the difference between the two in Austria, 
Ireland and France is not large. The great difference 
between the serial rank occupied in the respective lists 
by Russia, Servia and Galicia, with remarkably high 
rates of natural growth, as well as that found in the 
case of most of the other countries in question, shows 
that this factor is by no means a trustworthy guide in 
the estimate of hygienic balance. 
Migration. — Passing from the internal factors in the move- 
ment of population, the influence has to be taken into account 
of the interchange of population between different countries. 
The net results of such exchange can be roughly estimated by 
comparing the rate of natural growth with that of the total 
increase of the community between one census and another, 
as set forth in Table VIII., in the last section of which the approxi- 
mate loss by emigration, as calculated by Dr Sundbarg, is given. 
It will be seen that the only European country which gains by 
the exchange is France, and there the accretion is almost insig- 
nificant. Between many of the countries there is a good deal 
of migration which is only seasonal or temporary, according to 
the demand for labour. From Russia, too, there is a stream of 
colonization across the Urals into western Siberia, and amongst 
the western Mediterranean populations there is constant 



IOO 



POPULONIUM— PORCH 



migration to North Africa The greatest drain from Europe, 
however, has been across the sea to the United States, Canada 
and Australasia, especially to the first-named. Dr Sundbarg's 
returns give about 28 millions as the number which left Europe 
by sea during the 19th century, of whom all but 4 millions 
emigrated during the last half of that period. Between 1821 
and 1904, about 22 millions landed from Europe in the United 
States; about 25 millions in Canada; 2 millions in Australia, 
besides a good number in Brazil, the Argentine and South 
Africa. The return of birthplace which usually forms part of 
the census inquiry, affords supplementary information on the 
subject of immigration. In Canada, for instance, those born 
abroad numbered 17 % of the population in 1871, and about 
13 % thirty years later. In New South Wales, the correspond- 
ing figures were 41 and 28 %, and in Victoria 55 and 27. In New 
Zealand the consequences of the cessation of special encourage- 
ment to emigration were still more marked, the foreign-born 
declining in proportion from 63 to 33 %. On the other hand, 
in the United States, from 9-7 % in 1850 the proportion rose to 
13-7 in 1900, and has since reached still higher figures, as has 
been the case recently in Canada also. Up to the early 'nineties 
the greater part of the immigrants into America were furnished 
by Germany, Ireland and Great Britain, but for the next fifteen 
years the place of those countries was taken by Italy and eastern 
Europe. The general results of the two movements in Europe 
have been thus summarised by Dr Sundbarg: — 

Table IX. 





Annual rate per 1000 of population. 


1801-1850. 


1850-1900. 


Births. 


Deaths. 


Births 

above 

Deaths. 


Census 
Increase. 


Births. 


Deaths. 


Births 

above 

Deaths. 


Census 
Increase. 


Europe, N.W. 
S.W. 
E. . 

Total Europe 


35-4 
33-6 
45-9 


26-5 
28-3 
38-1 


8-9 
5'3 

7-8 


8-i 34-4 
5-2 3i-4 
7-7 j 46-2 


23-4 
26-3 

34-7 


II-O 

5-i 
"•5 


8-6 

4-3 
IO-6 


38-6 


31-2 


7-4 


7-1 J 38-0 


28-4 


9-6 


8-2 


United States 
Canada . 
Australasia . 


— 


— 


■ — 


29-9 — 
38-7 — 
85-9 — 


— 


— 


24-0 
16-2 

48-2 



Differences tend to be smoothened out, of course, in dealing 
with a population so large and varied as that of a continent, 
but the figures suffice to show the contrast between the early 
part of the century and the period following the great migratory 
movements to the new goldfields. In the countries receiving 
the stream of newcomers, the intercensal rate of increase was 
obviously very different from those of the older countries, though 
it seems to have largely spent itself or been counteracted by 
other influences. The latest rates, for instance, were only 18 
per mille per annum in Australia; 11 in Canada and 19 in the 
United States. 

Bibliography. — A very full bibliography up to 1899 is appended 
to von Fircke's Bevolkerungslehre und Bevblkerungspolitik. Reference 
may also be made to Matthews Duncan, Fecundity, Fertility and 
Sterility (ed. 1871); Newsholme, Elements of Vital Statistics (ed. 
1899), and his paper on birth-rates, Journ. R. Statist. Soc. (1906); 
W. Farr, Vital Statistics (1885) ; Coghlan, Report on Decline in Birth- 
rate, New South Wales (1903), and report of Royal Commission on 
that decline (1904); Bonar, Malthus and his Work (1885); Bertillon, 
Elements de dtmographie; Gamier, Du Principe de population; de 
Molinari, Ralentissement du mouvement de la population; Bertheau, 
Essai sur les lots de la population; Starkenburg, Die Bevblkerungs- 
Wissenschaft; Stieda, Das sexual Verhdltniss der Ceborenen; Rubin 
and Westergaard, Statistik der Ehen; Westergaard, Die Lehre von der 
Mortalitdt und Morbilitat, and Die Grundziige der Theorie der Statistik ; 
Gonnard, V Emigration europeenne. (J. A. B.) 

POPULONIUM (Etruscan Pupluna), an ancient seaport town 
of Etruria, Italy, at the north end of the peninsular of Monte 
Massoncello, at the south end of which is situated the town 
of Piombino (q.v.). The place, almost the only Etruscan town 



built directly on the sea, was situated on a lofty hill 1 now 
crowned by a conspicuous medieval castle and a poor modern 
village (Populonia). Considerable remains of its town walls, 
of large irregular, roughly rectangular blocks (the form is that 
of the natural splitting of the schistose sandstone), still exist, 
enclosing a circuit of about ij m. The remains existing within 
them are entirely Roman — a row of vaulted substructions, a 
water reservoir and a mosaic with representations of fishes. 
Strabo mentions the existence here of a look-out tower for the 
shoals of tunny-fish. There are some tombs outside the town, 
some of which, ranging from the Villanova period (9th century 
B.C.) to the middle of the 3rd century B.C., were explored in 
1908. In one, a large circular tomb, were found three sepulchral 
couches in stone, carved in imitation of wood, and a fine 
statuette in bronze of Ajax committing suicide. Close by was 
found a horse collar with 14 bronze bells. The remains of a 
temple, devastated in ancient times (possibly by Dionysius 
of Syracuse in 384 B.C.), were also discovered, with fragments of 
Attic vases of the 5th century B.C., which had served as ex 
votos in it. Coins of the town have also been found in silver 
and copper. The iron mines of Elba, and the tin and copper 
of the mainland, were owned and smelted by the people of 
Populonia; hot springs too lay some 6 m. to the E. (Aquae 
Populaniae) on the high road — Via Aurelia — along the coast. 
At this point a road branched off to Saena (Siena). According 
to Virgil the town sent a contingent to the help of Aeneas, and 
it furnished Scipio with iron in 205 B.C. It 
offered considerable resistance to Sulla, who 
took it by siege; and from this dates its 
decline, which Strabo, who describes it well 
(v. 2, 6, p. 223), already notes as beginning, 
while four centuries later Rutilius describes 
it as in ruins. The harbour, however, 
continued to be of some importance, and 
the place was still an episcopal see in the 
time of Gregory the Great. 

See G. Dennis, Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria 
(London, 1883, ii. 212 sqq.) ; I. Falchi in Notizie 
degli Scavi (1 903-1 904) ; L. A. Milani, ibid. 
(1908), 199 sqq. 

PORBANDAR, a native state of India, 
in the Kathiawar political agency, Bombay, 
extending along the S.W. coast of the 
peninsula of Kathiawar. Area, 636 sq. m.; 
pop. (1901), 82,640, showing a decrease of 4 % in the decade. 
Estimated gross revenue, £65,000; tribute, £3,233. The chief, 
whose title is rana, is a Jethwa Rajput. Limestone is largely 
exported to Bombay. This limestone is used for buildings in 
Porbandar without mortar, and is said to coalesce into a solid 
block under the influence of moisture. The town of Porbandar 
is the maritime terminus of the Kathiawar railway system. Pop. 
(1901), 24,620. A large trade is conducted in native boats as far 
as the east coast of Africa. 

PORCELAIN, the name of that kind of ceramic ware which is 
characterized by a translucent body, also loosely used for the 
finer kinds of ware generally, popularly known as " china " 
(see Ceramics). The French porcelaine, from which the word 
comes into English, is an adaptation of the Italian porcellana, 
a cowrie-shell, the beautifully polished surface of which caused 
the name to be applied to the ware. The Italian word is generally 
taken to be from porcella, diminutive of porco, pig, from a sup- 
posed resemblance of the shell to a pig's back. 

PORCH (through the Fr. porche, from Lat. porticus; the 
Ital. equivalent is portico, corresponding to the Gr. vapd-ql-; 
Ger. Vorhalle), a covered erection forming a shelter to the 
entrance door of a large building. The earliest known are the 
two porches of the Tower of the Winds at Athens; there would 
seem to have been one in front of the entrance door of the villa 
of Diomede outside the gate at Pompeii; in Rome they were 

1 It commands a fine view, and Corsica Is sometimes visible, though 
not Sardinia, as Strabo (and following him, Lord Macaulay) erro- 
neously state. 



PORCUPINE- 



-PORDENONE, IL 



101 



probably not allowed, but on either side of the entrance door of 
a mansion, porticoes set back behind the line of frontage were 
provided, according to F. Mazois, as shelters from sun and rain 
for those who paid early visits before the doors were opened. 
In front of the early Christian basilicas was a long arcaded porch 
called " narthex " (q.v.) In later times porches assume two 
forms — one the projecting erection covering the entrance at 
the west front of cathedrals, and divided into three or more 
doorways, &c, and the other a kind of covered chamber open 
at the ends, and having small windows at the sides as a protection 
from rain. These generally stand on the north or south sides 
of churches, though in Kent there are a few instances (as Snodland 
and Boxley) where they are at the west ends. Those of the Nor- 
man period generally have little projection, and are sometimes 
so flat as to be little more than outer dressings and hood- 
moulds to the inner door. They are often richly ornamented, 
and, as at Southwell in England and Kelso in Scotland, have 
rooms over, which have been erroneously called parvises. Early 
English porches are much longer, and in larger buildings fre- 
quently have rooms above; the gables are generally bold and high 
pitched. In larger buildings also, as at Wells, St Albans, &c, 
the interiors are as rich in design as the exteriors. Decorated 
and Perpendicular porches partake of much the same character- 
istics, the pitch of roof, mouldings, copings, battlements, &c, 
being, of course, influenced by the taste of the time. The later 
porches have rooms over them more frequently than in earlier 
times; these are often approached from the lower storey by small 
winding stairs, and sometimes have fire-places, and are supposed 
to have served as vestries; and sometimes there are the remains 
of a piscina, and relics of altars, as if they had been used as 
chantry chapels. It is probable there were wooden porches at 
all periods,' particularly in those places where stone was scarce ; 
but, as may be expected from their exposed position, the earliest 
have decayed. At Cobham, Surrey, there was one that had 
ranges of semicircular arches in oak at the sides, of strong 
Norman character. It is said there are several in which portions 
of Early English work are traceable, as at Chevington in Suffolk. 
In the Decorated and later periods, however, wooden porches 
are common, some plain, others with rich tracery and large 
boards; these frequently stand on a sort of half storey of stone 
work or bahut. The entrance porches at the west end of cathe- 
drals are generally called portals, and where they assume the 
character of separate buildings, are designated galilees; e.g. the 
porticoes on the west side of the south transept of Lincoln 
Cathedral, and at the west end of the nave of Ely Cathedral, and 
the chapel at the west end of Durham Cathedral. The finest 
example in England of an open projected porch is that of 
Peterborough Cathedral, attached to the Early Norman nave. 

The term " porch " is also given to the magnificent portals 
of the French cathedrals, where the doors are so deeply recessed 
as to become porches, such as those of Reims, Amiens, Chartres, 
Troyes, Rouen, Bourges, Paris, and Beauvais cathedrals, 
St Ouen, Rouen, and earlier Romanesque churches, as in St 
Trophime, Aries and St Gilles. Many, however, have detached 
porches in front of the portals, as in Notre Dame at Avigon, 
Chartres (north and south), Noyon, Bourges (north and south), 
St Vincent at Rouen, Notre Dame de Louviers, the cathedrals 
of Albi and Le Puy, and in Germany those of Spires and Regens- 
burg, and the churches of St Laurence and St Sebald at 
Nuremberg. (R. P. S.) 

PORCUPINE (Fr., pore-epic, " spiny pig "), the name of 
the largest European representative of the terrestrial rodent 
mammals, distinguished by the spiny covering from which it 
takes its name. The European porcupine (Hystrix cristata) is 
the typical representative of a family of Old World rodents, the 
Hystricidae., all the members of which have the same protective 
covering. These rodents are characterized by the imperfectly 
rooted cheek-teeth, imperfect clavicles or collar-bones, cleft 
upper lip, rudimentary first front-toes, smooth soles, six teats 
and many cranial characters. They range over the south of 
Europe, the whole of Africa, India and the Malay Archipelago 
as far eaet as Borneo. They are all stout, heavily-built animals, 



with blunt rounded heads, fleshy mobile snouts, and coats of 
thick cylindrical or flattened spines, which form the whole 
covering of their body, and are not intermingled with ordinary 
hairs. Their habits are strictly terrestrial. Of the three genera 
Hystrix is characterized by the inflated skull, in which the nasal 
chamber is often considerably larger than the brain-case, and 




The Porcupine {Hystrix cristata). 
the short tail, tipped with numerous slender-stalked open quills, 
which make a loud rattling noise whenever the animal moves. 
The common porcupine (H. cristata), which occurs throughout 
the south of Europe and North and West Africa, is replaced in 
South Africa by H. africaeaustralis and in India by the hairy- 
nosed porcupine (H. leucura). 

Besides these large crested species, there are several smaller species 
without crests in north-east India, and the Malay region from Nepal 
to Borneo. The genus Atherura includes the brush-tailed porcupines 
which are much smaller animals, with long tails tipped with bundles 
of flattened spines. Two species are found in the Malay region and 
one in West Africa. Trichys, the last genus, contains two species, 
T. fasciculata of Borneo and T. macrotis of Sumatra, both externally 
very like Atherura, but differing from the members of that genus 
in many cranial characteristics. In the New World the porcupines 
are represented by the members of the family Erethizontidae, or 
Coendidae, which have rooted molars, complete collar-bones, entire 
upper lips, tuberculated soles, no trace of a first front-toe, and four 
teats. The spines are mixed with long soft hairs. They are less 
strictly nocturnal in their habits; and with one exception live 
entirely in trees, having in correspondence with this long and power- 
ful prehensile tails. They include three genera, of which the first 
is represented by the Canadian porcupine (Erethizon dorsatus), 
a stout, heavily-built animal, with long hairs almost or quite hiding 
its spines, four front- and five hind-toes, and a short, stumpy tail. It 
is a native of the greater part of Canada and the United States, 
wherever there is any remnant of the original forest left. Synelheres, 
or Coendu, contains some eight or ten species, known as tree-porcu- 
pines, found throughout tropical South America, with one extending 
into Mexico. They are of a lighter build than the ground-porcupines, 
with short, close, many-coloured spines, often mixed with hairs, 
and prehensile tails. The hind-feet have only four toes, owing to 
the suppression of the first, in place of which they have a fleshy 
pad on the inner side of the foot, between which and the toes boughs 
and other objects can be firmly grasped as with a hand. Chaetomys, 
distinguished by the shape of its skull and the greater complexity 
of its teeth, contains C. subspinosus, a native of the hottest parts 
of Brazil. (W. H. F.; R. L.*) 

PORDENONE, IL (1483-1530), an eminent painter of the Vene- 
tian school, whose correct name was Giovanni Antonio Licinio, 
or Licino. He was commonly named II Pordenone from having 
been born in 1483 at Corticelli, a village near Pordenone (q.v.) 
in Italy. He ultimately dropped the name of Licinio, having 
quarrelled with his brothers, one of whom had wounded him in 
the hand; he then called himself Regillo, or De Regillo. His 
signature runs " Antonius Portunaensis," or " De Portunaonis." 
He was created a cavaliere by Charles V. 

As a painter Licinio w'as a scholar of Pellegrino da S. Daniele, 
but the leading influence which governed his style was that of 
Giorgione; the popular story that he was a fellow-pupil with 
Titian under Giovanni Bellini is incorrect. The district 



102 



PORDENONE— PORISM 



about Pordenone had been somewhat fertile in capable 
painters; but Licinio excelled them all in invention and design, 
and more especially in the powers of a vigorous chiaroscurist 
and flesh painter. Indeed, so far as mere flesh-painting is 
concerned he was barely inferior to Titian in breadth, pulpiness 
and tone; and he was for a while the rival of that great painter 
in public regard. The two were open enemies, and Licinio 
would sometimes affect to wear arms while he was painting. 
He excelled Giorgione in light and shade and in the effect of 
relief, and was distinguished in perspective and in portraits; 
he was equally at home in fresco and in oil-colour. He executed 
many works in Pordenone and elsewhere in Friuli, and in Cremona 
and Venice; at one time he settled in Piacenza, where is one of 
his most celebrated church pictures, " St Catherine disputing with 
the Doctors in Alexandria"; the figure of St Paul in connexion 
with this picture is bis own portrait. He was formally invited 
by Duke Hercules II. of Ferrara to that court; here soon after- 
wards, in 1539, he died, not without suspicion of poison. His 
latest works are comparatively careless and superficial; and 
generally he is better in male figures than in female — the latter 
being somewhat too sturdy — and the composition of his subject- 
pictures is scarcely on a level with their other merits. Pordenone 
appears to have been a vehement self-asserting man, to which 
his style as a painter corresponds, and his morals were not 
unexceptionable. Three of his principal scholars were Bernar- 
dino Licinio, named II Sacchiense, his son-in-law Porhponio 
Amalteo, and Giovanni Maria Calderari. 

The following may be named among Pordenone's works: 
the picture of " S Luigi Giustiniani and other Saints," originally 
in S Maria dell' Orto, Venice; a " Madonna and Saints " (both 
of these in the Venice academy) ; the " Woman taken in Adul- 
tery," in the Berlin museum; trie " Annunciation," at TJdine, 
regarded by Vasari as the artist's masterpiece, now damaged by 
restoration. In Hampton Court is a duplicate work, the 
" Painter and his Family "; and in Burghley House are two fine 
pictures now assigned to Pordenone — the " Finding of Moses " 
and the " Adoration of the Kings." These used to be attributed 
to Titian and to Bassano respectively. 

PORDENONE, a town of the province • of Udine, Venetia, 
Italy, 30 m. W. by S. of Udine on the railway to Treviso. Pop. 
(1901), 8425 (town); 12,409 (commune). It was the birthplace 
of the painter generally known as II Pordenone (q.v.). Paintings 
from his brush adorn the cathedral (which has a fine brick 
campanile), and others are preserved in the gallery of the town 
hall. Cotton industries are active, and silk and pottery are 
manufactured. 

PORE, a small opening or orifice, particularly used of the open- 
ings of the ducts of the sweat-glands in the skin or of the stomata 
in the epidermis of plants or those through which the pollen 
or seed are discharged from anthers or seed capsules. The 
word is an adaptation through the French from Lat. porus, 
Gr. iropos, passage. In the sense of to look closely at, to read 
with persistent or close attention, " pore " is of obscure origin. 
It would seem to be connected with " peer," to look closely 
into, and would point to an 0. Eng. purian or pyrian. There 
is no similar word in Old French. 

PORFIRIUS, PUBLILIUS OPTATIANUS, Latin poet, possibly 
a native of Africa, flourished during the 4th century A;D. He 
has been identified with Publilius Optatianus, who was prae- 
f edits urbi (329 and 333), and is by some authorities included 
amongst the Christian poets. For some reason he had been 
banished, but having addressed a panegyric to the Emperor 
Constantine the Great, he was allowed to return. Twenty- 
eight poems are extant under his name, of which twenty were 
included in the panegyric. They have no value except as 
curiosities and specimens of perverted ingenuity. Some of 
them are squares (the number of letters in each line being equal), 
certain letters being rubricated so as to form a pattern or figure, 
and at the same time special verses or maxims; others represent 
various objects (a syrinx, an organ, an altar); others have 
special peculiarities in each line (number of words or letters) ; 
while the 28th poem (the versus anacyclici) may be read back- 



wards without any effect upon sense or metre. A complimentary 
letter from the emperor and letter of thanks from the author are 
also extant. The best edition of the poem is by L. Muller (1877). 
See also O. Seeck, " Das Leben des Dichters Porphyrius " in 
Rheinisches Museum (1908), lxiii. 267. 

PORISM. The subject of porisms is perplexed by the 
multitude of different views which have been held by geometers 
as to what a porism really was and is. The treatise which has 
given rise to the controversies on this subject is the Porisms of 
Euclid, the author of the Elements. For as much as we know 
of this lost treatise we are indebted to the Collection of Pappus 
of Alexandria, who mentions it along with other geometrical 
treatises, and gives a number of lemmas necessary for under- 
standing it. Pappus states that the porisms of Euclid are 
neither theorems nor problems, but are in some sort intermediate, 
so that they may be presented either as theorems or as problems; 
and they were regarded accordingly by many geometers, who 
looked merely at the form of the enunciation, as being actually 
theorems or problems, though the definitions given by the 
older writers showed that they better understood the distinction 
between the three classes of propositions. The older geometers 
regarded a theorem as directed to proving what is proposed, 
a problem as directed to constructing what is proposed, and 
finally a porism as directed to finding what is proposed («« 
iropi.criJ.6v avTov rod TrpoTHvofievov) . Pappus goes on to say that 
this last definition was changed by certain later geometers, who 
defined a porism on the ground of an accidental characteristic 
as to Xetroc vKodkau totlkov decoprifiaros, that which falls short 
of a locus-theorem by a (or in its) hypothesis. 

Proclus points out that the word was used in two senses. 
One sense is that of " corollary," as a result unsought, as it were, 
but seen to follow from a theorem. On the " porism " in the 
other sense he adds nothing to the definition of " the older 
geometers " except to say (what does not really help) that 
the finding of the center of a circle and the finding of the 
greatest common measure are porisms (Proclus, ed. Friedlein, 
p.-30i). 

Pappus gives a complete enunciation of a porism derived 
from Euclid, and an extension of it to a more general case. 
This porism, expressed in modern language, asserts that — given 
four straight lines of which three turn about the points in which 
they meet the fourth, if two of the points of intersection of these 
lines lie each on a fixed straight line, the remaining point of inter- 
section will also lie on another straight line. The general enuncia- 
tion applies to any number of straight lines, say («+i), of which 
n can turn about as many points fixed on the (»+i)th. These n 
straight lines cut, two and two, in \n {n-i) points, \n {n-i) 
being a triangular number whose side is (n-i). If, then, they 
are made to turn about the n fixed points so that any {n-i) of 
their \n (n-i) points of intersection, chosen subject to a certain 
limitation, lie on {n-i) given fixed straight lines, then each of 
the remaining points of intersection, § {n-i) {n-2) in number, 
describes a straight line. Pappus gives also a complete enuncia- 
tion of one porism of the first book of Euclid's treatise. This 
may be expressed thus : If about two fixed points P, Q we make 
turn two straight lines meeting on a given straight line L, and 
if one of them cut off a segment AM from a fixed straight line AX, 
given in position, we can determine another fixed straight line 
BY, and a point B fixed on it, such that the segment BM' made by 
the second moving line on this second fixed line measured from 
B has a given ratio X to the first segment AM. The rest of the 
enunciations given by Pappus are incomplete, and he merely 
says that he gives thirty-eight lemmas for the three books of 
porisms; and these include 171 theorems. 

The lemmas which Pappus gives in connexion with the 
porisms are interesting historically, because he gives (1) the 
fundamental theorem that the cross or an harmonic ratio of a 
pencil of four straight lines meeting in a point is constant for all 
transversals; (2) the proof of the harmonic properties of a com- 
plete quadrilateral; (3) the theorem that, if the six vertices of a 
hexagon lie three and three on two straight lines, the three points 
of concourse of opposite sides lie on a straight line. 



POROS— PORPHYRY 



103 



During the last three centuries this subject seems to have had 
great fascination for mathematicians, and many geometers have 
attempted to restore the lost porisms. Thus Albert Girard says in 
his Traite de trigonomUrie (1626) that he hopes to publish a restora- 
tion. About the same time P. de Fermat wrote a short work under 
the title Porismatum euclidaeorum renovata doctrina et sub forma 
isagoges recentioribus geometris exhibita (see Oeuvres de Fermat, i., 
Paris, 1891) ; but two at least of the five examples of porisms which 
he gives do not fall within the classes indicated by Pappus. Robert 
Simson was the first to throw real light upon the subject. He first 
succeeded in explaining the only three propositions which Pappus 
indicates with any completeness. This explanation was published 
in the Philosophical Transactions in 1723. Later he investigated 
the subject of porisms generally in a work entitled De porismatibus 
tractatus; quo doctrinam porismatum satis explicatam, et in posterum 
ab oblivione tutam fore spiral auctor, and published after his death 
in a volume, Roberti Simson opera quaedam reliqua (Glasgow, 1776). 
Simson's treatise, De porismatibus , begins with definitions of theorem, 
problem, datum, porism and locus. Respecting the porism Simson 
says that Pappus's definition is too general, and therefore he will 
substitute for it the following: " Porisma est propositio in qua 
proponitur demonstrare rem aliquam vel plures datas esse, cui vel 
quibus, ut et cuilibet ex rebus innumeris non quidem datis, sed 
quae ad ea quae data sunt eandem habent relationem, convenire 
ostendendum est affectionem quandam communem in propositione 
descriptam. Porisma etiam in forma problematis enuntiari potest, 
si nimirum ex quibus data demonstranda sunt, invenienda proponan- 
tur." A locus (says Simson) is a species of porism. Then follows 
a Latin translation of Pappus's note on the porisms, and the proposi- 
tions which form the bulk of the treatise. These are Pappus's 
thirty-eight lemmas relating to the porisms, ten cases of the proposi- 
tion concerning four straight lines, twenty-nine porisms, two pro- 
blems in illustration and some preliminary lemmas. John Play- 
fair's memoir (Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., 1794, vol. hi.), a sort of sequel 
to Simson's treatise, had for its special object the inquiry into the 
probable origin of porisms — that is, into the steps which led the 
ancient geometers to the discovery of them. Playfair remarked that 
the careful investigation of all possible particular cases of a proposi- 
tion would show that (1) under certain conditions a problem becomes 
impossible; (2) under certain other conditions, indeterminate or 
capable of an infinite number of solutions. These cases could be 
enunciated separately, were in a manner intermediate between 
theorems and problems, and were called " porisms." Playfair 
accordingly defined a porism thus: "A proposition affirming the 
possibility of finding such conditions as will render a certain problem 
indeterminate or capable of innumerable solutions." Though this 
definition of a porism appears to be most favoured in England, 
Simson's view has been most generally accepted abroad, and has 
the support of the great authority of Michael Chasles. However, 
in Liouville's Journal de mathematiques pures et appliquees (vol. xx., 
July, 1855), P. Breton published Recherches nouvelles sur les porismes 
d'Euclide, in which he gave a new translation of the text of Pappus, 
and sought to base thereon a view of the nature of a porism more 
closely conforming to the definitions in Pappus. This was followed 
in the same journal and in La Science by a controversy between 
Breton and A. J. H. Vincent, who disputed the interpretation given 
by the former of the text of Pappus, and declared himself in favour 
of the idea of Schooten, put forward in his Mathematicae exercita- 
tiones (1657), in which he gives the name of " porism" to one section. 
According to F. van Schooten, if the various relations between 
straight lines in a figure are written down in the form of equations 
or proportions, then the combination of these equations in all possible 
ways, and of new equations thus derived from them leads to the 
discovery of innumerable new properties of the figure, and here 
we have " porisms." The discussions, however, between Breton 
and Vincent, in which C. Housel also joined, did not carry forward 
the work of restoring Euclid's Porisms, which was left for Chasles. 
His work {Les Trois livres de porismes d'Euclide, Paris, i860) makes 
full use of all the material found in Pappus. But we may doubt its 
being a successful reproduction of Euclid's actual work. Thus, in 
view of the ancillary relation in which Pappus's lemmas generally 
stand to the works to which they refer, it seems incredible that the 
first seven out of thirty-eight lemmas should be really equivalent 
(as Chasles makes them) to Euclid's first seven Porisms. Again, 
Chasles seems to have been wrong in making the ten cases of the 
four-line Porism begin the book, instead of the intercept-Porism 
fully enunciated by Pappus, to which the " lemma to the first 
Porism " relates intelligibly, being a particular case of it. An'inter- 
esting hypothesis as to the Porisms was put forward by H. G. 
Zeuthen (Die Lehre von den Kegelschnitten imAltertum, 1886, ch. viii.). 
Observing, e.g., that the intercept-Porism is still true if the two 
fixed points are points on a conic, and the straight lines drawn 
through them intersect on the conic instead of on a fixed straight 
line, Zeuthen conjectures that the Porisms were a by-product of a 
fully developed projective geometry of conies. It is a fact that 
Lemma 31 (though it makes no mention of a conic) corresponds 
exactly to Apollonius's method of determining the foci of a central 
conic (Conies, iii. 45-47 with 42). 

The three porisms stated by Diophantus in his Arithmetica are 



propositions in the theory of numbers which can all be enunciated 
in the form " we can find numbers satisfying such and such condi- 
tions "; they are sufficiently analogous therefore to the geometrical 
porism as defined in Pappus and Produs. 

A valuable chapter on porisms (from a philological standpoint) 
is included in J. L. Heiberg's Litterargeschichtliche Studien uber 
Euklid (Leipzig, 1882) ; and the following books or tracts may also 
be mentioned: Aug. Richter, Porismen nach Simson bearbeitet 
(Elbing, 1837); M. Cantor, " Ueber die Porismen des Euklid und 
deren Divinatoren," in Schlomilch's Zeitsch. f. Math. u. Phy. (1857), 
and Literaturzeitung (1861), p. 3 seq.; Th. Leidenfrost, Die Porismen 
des Euklid (Programm der Realschule zu Weimar, 1863) ; Fr. Buch- 
binder, Euclids Porismen und Data (Programm der kgl. Landesschule 
Pforta, 1866). (T. L. H.) 

POROS, or Poeo (" the Ford "), an island off the east coast of 
the Morea, separated at its western extremity by only a narrow 
channel from the mainland at Troezen, and consisting of a mass 
of limestone rock and of a mass of trachyte connected by a slight 
sandy isthmus. The town looks down on the beautiful harbour 
between the island and the mainland on the south. 

The ancient Calauria, with which Poros is identified, was given, 
according to the myth, by Apollo to Poseidon in exchange for 
Delos; and it became in historic times famous for a temple of the 
sea-god, which formed the centre of an amphictyony of seven 
maritime states — Hermione, Epidaurus, Aegina, Athens, Prasiae, 
Na.uplia, and Orchomenus. Here Demosthenes took sanctuary 
with " gracious Poseidon," and, when this threatened to fail 
him, sought death. The building was of Doric architecture and 
lay on a ridge of the hill commanding a fine view of Athens and 
the Saronic Gulf, near the middle of the limestone part of the 
island. The site was. excavated in 1894, and traces of a sacred 
agora with porticoes and other buildings, as well as the temple, 
have been found. In the neighbourhood of Poros-Calauria 
are two small islands, the more westerly of which contains the 
ruins of a small temple, and is probably the ancient Sphaeria or 
Hiera mentioned by Pausanias as the seat of a temple of Athena 
Apaturia. The English, French, and Russian plenipotentiaries 
met at Poros in 1828 to discuss the basis of the Greek government. 
See Chandler, Travels; Leake, Morea; Le Bas, Voyage archS- 
ologique; Curtius, Peloponnesos; Pouillon-Boblaye, Recherches; 
Bursian, Geographie von Criechenland; Rangabe " Ein Ausflug 
nach Poros," in Deutsche Revue (1883) ; and S. Wide, in Mitteilungen 
d. deutsch. Inst. Aihen. (1895), vol. xx. 

PORPHYRIO, POMPONIUS, Latin grammarian and com- 
mentator on Horace, possibly a native of Africa, flourished 
during the 2nd century a.d. (according to others, much later). 
His scholia on Horace, which are still extant, mainly consist of 
rhetorical and grammatical explanations. It is not probable 
that we possess the original work, which must, have suffered 
from alterations and interpolations at the hands of the copyists 
of the middle ages, but on the whole the scholia form a valuable 
aid to the student of Horace. 

Ed. W. Meyer (1874); A. Holder (1894); see also C. F. Urba, 
Melelemata porphyrionea (1885) ;R.Schweikert, DePorphyrionis. . . 
scholiis Horatianis (1865) ; F. Pauly, Quaestiones criticae de . . . Por- 
phyrionis commentariis Horatianis (1858). 

PORPHYRY (IIopc£i>pios) (a.d. 233-c. 304), Greek scholar, 
historian, and Neoplatonist, was born at Tyre, or Batanaea in 
Syria. He studied grammar and rhetoric under Cassius Long- 
inus (q.v.). His original name was Malchus (king), which was 
changed by his tutor into Porphyrius (clad in purple), a 
jesting allusion to the colour of the imperial robes (cf. porphyro- 
genitus, born in the purple). In 262 he went to Rom« 
attracted by the reputation of Plotinus, and for six years 
devoted himself to the study of Neoplatonism. Having injured 
his health by overwork, he went to live in Sicily for five years. 
On his return to Rome, he lectured on philosophy and endea- 
voured to render the obscure doctrines of Plotinus (who had died 
in the meantime) intelligible to the ordinary understanding. 
His most distinguished pupil was Iamblichus. When advanced 
in years he married Marcella, a widow with seven children and 
an enthusiastic student of philosophy. Nothing more is known 
of his life, and the date of his death is uncertain. 

Of his numerous works on a great variety of subjects the following 
are extant : Life of Plotinus and an exposition of his teaching in the 



104 



PORPHYRY 



'A<2>opjuai irpos t& vo-i\to. (Sententiae ad intelligimtia ducentes, Aids 
to the study of the Intelligibles). The Life of Pythagoras, which is 
incomplete, probably formed part of a larger history of philosophy 
((t>i\6cro<t>os laropia, in four books) down to Plato. His work on 
Aristotle is represented by the Introduction (tiaaywyo) to and 
Commentary (i£iiyi)tns, in the form of questions and answers) on 
the Categories. The first, translated into Latin by Boetius, was 
extensively used in the middle ages as a compendium of Aristotelian 
logic; of the second only fragments have been preserved. His 
Xpovuca, a chronological work, extended from the taking of Troy down 
to a.d. 270; to it Eusebius is indebted for his list of the Macedonian 
kings. The treatise <t>i\o\oyos laropia is called an &/tp6o<ris 
(lecture) by Eusebius, who in his Praeparatio evangelica (x. 3) 
has preserved a considerable extract from it, treating of plagiarism 
amongst the ancients. Other grammatical and literary works are 
'Orpine. f?jTi7M<iTa (Quaesliones homericae); and De antro nymph- 
arum, in which the description in the Odyssey (xiii. 102-112) is 
explained as an allegory of the universe. The Jltpl &iroxi}s ii»IA>x<*i> 
(De abstinentia) , on abstinence from animal food, is especially 
valuable as having preserved numerous original statements of the 
old philosophers and the substance of Theophrastus's ILepi tivtPtias 
(On Piety). It also contains a long fragment from the Cretans 
of Euripides. The IIpAs MapKtXKav is an exhortation to his 
wife Marcella to practise virtue and self-restraint and to study 
philosophy. The letter to the Egyptian priest Anebo, dealing with 
religious questions, was answered by a member of the school of 
Iamblichus, who called himself Abammon, in the De mysteriis. 
It is frequently referred to by Eusebius, Cyril and Augustine. 
Eusebius preserved fragments of the Ilepl ttjs he \oyiwv (£iXoa<x£las 
(De philosophia ex oraculis haurienda), in which he expressed his 
belief in the responses of the oracles of various gods as confirming 
his theosophical views. Porphyry is well known as a violent 
opponent of Christianity and defender of Paganism; of his Kari 
XpicrTiavwi* (Adversus Christianos) in 15 books, perhaps the most 
important of all his works, only fragments remain. Counter-treatises 
were written by Eusebius of Caesarea, Apollinarius (or Apollinaris) of 
Laodicea, Methodius of Olympus, and Macarius of Magnesia, but all 
these are lost. Porphyry's view of the book of Daniel, that it was 
the work of a writer in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, is given 
by Jerome. There is no proof of the assertion of Socrates, the 
ecclesiastical historian, and Augustine, that Porphyry was once a 
Christian. 

There is no complete edition of the works of Porphyry. Separate 
editions: Vita Plolini in R. Volkmann's edition of the Enneades of 
Plotinus (1883); Sententiae, by B. Mommert (1907); Vita Pythagorae, 
De antro nympharum, De abstinentia, Ad Marcellam, by A. Nauck 
(1885); " Isagoge et in Aristotelis categorias commentarium," by 
A. Busse in Commentaria in Aristotelem graeca (1887), iv. I, with the 
translation of Boetius (ed. with introd., S. Brandt, 1906); fragments 
of the Chronica in C. W. Muller, Frag. hist, graec. (1849), iii. 688; 
Quaestiones homericae, by H. Schrader (1880, 1890); Letter to Anebo 
in W. Pharthey's edition of Iamblichus De mysteriis (1857); De 
philosophia ex oraculis haurienda, by G. Wolff (1856); fragments of 
the Adversus Christianos by A. Georgiades (Leipzig, 1891); English 
trans, of the De abstinentia, De antro nympharum and Sententiae, 
by Thomas Taylor (1823); of the Sententiae by T. Davidson in the 
Journal of Speculative Philosophy, iii. (1869); of the De abstinentia 
by S. Hibberd (1857), and of the Ad Marcellam by A. Zimmern 
(1896). 

On Porphyry and his works generally see Fabricius, Bibliotheca 
graeca (ed. Harles), v. 725; Eunapius, Vita philosophorum; article 
in Sui'das; Lucas Holstenius, De vita et scriptis Porphyrii (Cam- 
bridge, 1655); J. E. Sandys, Hist, of Classical Scholarship (1906), i. 
343: W. Christ, Gesch. der griechischen Litteratur (1898), § 621 ; M. N. 
Bouillet, Porphyre, son role dans Vicole neoplatonicienne (1864); 
A. I. Kleffner, Porphyrius der Neuplatoniker und Christenfeind 
(Paderborn, 1896); on his philosophy, T. Whittaker, The Neo- 
Platonists (Cambridge, 1901), and Neoplatonism. 

•PORPHYRY (Gr. irop<pvptos, Lat. purpureas, purple), in 
petrology, a beautiful red volcanic rock which was much used 
by the Romans for ornamental purposes when cut and polished. 
The famous red porphyry (porfido rosso antico) came from Egypt, 
but its beauty and decorative value were first recognized by the 
Romans in the time of the emperor Claudius. It was obtained 
on the west coast of the Red Sea, where it forms a dike 80 or 
90 ft. thick. For a long time the knowledge of its source was 
lost, but the original locality, marked by many ancient quarries, 
has been re-discovered at Jebel Dhokan, and the stone is again 
an article of commerce. In a dark red ground-mass it contains 
many small white or rose-red plagioclase felspars, black shining 
prisms of hornblende, and small plates of iron oxide. The red 
colour of the felspars and of the ground-mass is unusual in rocks 
of this group, and arises from the partial conversion of the 
plagioclase felspar into thulite and manganese-epidote. These 
minerals also occur in thin veins crossing the rock. Many 



specimens show effects of crushing and in extreme cases this has 
produced brecciation. Another famous porphyry, hardly less 
beautiful, is the verde antique, porfido verde antico, or marmor 
lacedaemonium viride of Pliny, which was obtained between 
Lebetsova and Marathonisi in Peloponnesus. It has the same 
structure as the red porphyry as it contains large white or green 
felspars in a fine ground-mass. The green colour arises from the 
abundant formation of chlorite and epidote in the large felspars 
and throughout the rock. In ancient times it was much used 
as an ornamental stone, these two varieties of porphyry making 
a fine contrast with one another. Green porphyries are not 
so rare as red. A similar rock is obtained at Lambay Island 
near Dublin. They are still used extensively, especially for 
small ornaments. Large pieces are difficult to obtain free from 
flaws, and marble is preferred for mural work, not only because 
of the greater variety of patterns but also because it is much 
softer and more easily cut and polished. 

Many igneous rocks possess the structure which characterizes 
these porphyries (see Petrology, Plate III.): the presence of 
scattered crystals of larger size in a fine-grained ground-mass. 
Most lavas, and many of the rocks which occur as dikes and sills, 
have porphyritic structure. These may be called porphyries 
and this term has consequently been applied to a great variety 
of rocks, e.g. diorite-porphyry, granite-porphyry, greenstone- 
porphyry, augite-porphyry, liebenerite-porphyry, &c. More 
recently the use of the term has been restricted to a series of 
rocks which are of intrusive origin and contain much porphyritic 
felspar (with or without quartz or nepheline). The porphyritic 
intrusive rocks with large crystals of augite, olivine, biotite, and 
hornblende are for the most part grouped under the lampro- 
phyres; while the term porphyry is rarely now applied to any 
of the effusive rocks or lavas. Furthermore, it has become 
usual to subdivide the intrusive porphyries into two classes; 
in one of these the phenocrysts are mainly orthoclase, in the 
other mainly plagioclase felspar. The first series is known as 
the " porphyries," while the second group is called " porphy- 
rites." There are porphyries which correspond chemically and 
mineralogically to granites, syenites, and nepheline-syenites; 
while the porphyrites form a parallel series to the diorites, 
norites and gabbros. In each case the porphyritic type occurs 
generally as dikes and thin sheets which consolidated beneath 
the surface but probably at no great depth (hypabyssal rocks); 
while granite, gabbro and the other holocrystalline non-por- 
phyritic rocks belong to the plutonic or abyssal group which 
cooled very slowly at great depths and under enormous pressure. 

The principal subdivisions of the group are the granite-porphyries, 
the syenite-porphyries and the elaeolite-porphyries. In all of them 
porphyritic orthoclase or alkali felspar is the characteristic mineral. 
The granite-porphyries and quartz-porphyries (q.v.) consist mainly 
of orthoclase, quartz and ferro-magnesian mineral, usually biotite 
but sometimes hornblende, augite or enstatite. 

Granite-porphyries are exceedingly common in all regions where 
acid intrusive rocks occur. Many granite masses are surrounded 
by dikes of this kind, and in some cases the chilled margin of a granite 
consists of typical porphyry. 

The syenite-porphyries, like the syenites, are less common than the 
granite-porphyries and granites. They are characterized by an 
abundance of orthoclase and a scarcity or absence of quartz. The 
phenocrysts are orthoclase (and oligoclase), biotite, hornblende or 
augite ; the ground-mass is principally alkali felspar with sometimes 
a little quartz. In many specimens the felspars of the second 
generation form a mosaic of ill-shaped grains, in others they are 
little rectangular crystals which may have a fluxion arrangement 
(orthophyric type of ground-mass). Some of the rocks formerly 
known as orthoclase-porphyries belong to this group; others are 
ancient trachytic lavas (orthophyres). Closely related to the 
syenite-porphyries is the rhomben-porphyry of south Norway and 
West Africa. In these the large felspars have rhomb-shaped sections 
owing to their peculiar crystalline development. Olivine, augite 
and biotite occur in these rocks, but there is no quartz or soda-lime 
felspar. The porphyritic felspars contain both soda and potash 
and belong to anorthoclase. Rhomben-porphyries occur as dikes 
connected with the syenites (laurvikites of southern Norway), and 
many ice-borne boulders of these rocks have been found among the 
drift deposits of the east of England. 

Elaeolite- and leucite- (syenite) porphyries form apophyses and 
dikes around nepheline- and leucite-syenite intrusions. The former 
contain porphyritic nepheline which is often weathered to soft, 



PORPOISE 



finely crystalline aggregates of white mica and other secondary 
products as in the well-known liebenerite-porphyry of Tirol and 
gieseckite-porphyry of Greenland. The felspars of these rocks 
are albite, orthoclase and anorthoclase and they often con- 
tain soda-augite and amphiboles. Elaeolite-porphyries occur 
along with nepheline-syenites in such districts as the Serra de 
Monchique, south Norway, Kola, Montreal. Allied to them are 
the tinguaites (so called from the Serra de Tingua, Rio de Janeiro, 
Brazil), which are pale green rocks with abundant alkali felspar 
nepheline, needles of green aegirine, and sometimes biotite and 
cancrinite. As a rule, however, these are not porphyritic. Some 
authors group the tinguaites with the aplites rather than the por- 
phyries. Grorudites are quartz-tinguaites free from nepheline, 
and solvsbergites are tinguaitic rocks in which neither quartz nor 
nepheline occur. The two last varieties have been described from 
the Christiania district in Norway, but tinguaites are known with 
nepheline-syenites in many parts of the world, e.g. Norway, Brazil, 
Portugal, Canada, Sweden, Greenland. 

The following analyses of porphyries of different types will show 
the chemical composition of a few selected examples: — 



r °5 





Si0 2 


AI2O3 


Fe 2 3 


FeO 


MgO 


CaO 


K 2 


Na 2 


H 2 


I. 

11. 

III. 

IV. 

V. 

VI. 
VII. 


72-51 
67-18 

71-60 

58-82 

45-18 
54-46 
75-20 


I3-3I 
16-65 
13-60 
21-06 

23-31 
19-96 
12-65 


tr. 

o-55 
2-40 
3-26 


3-87 
2-15 

0-70 


1-50 
i-54 

0-21 
1-38 

1-45 
o-6i 

0-26 


o-6o 

2-35 
2-30 
3-03 

4-62 

2-12 
0-60 


6-6 5 
2-9I 

3-53 
3-7o 

II-I6 
8-68 
4-14 


o-43 
4-03 

5-55 
6-83 

5-94 
2-76 

5-67 


0-60 

o-75 
0-70 

1-26 

1-14 

5-20 
0-12 


6- 
2-34 
i-53 


11 

3-33 
0-28 



I., Elvan or granite porphyry (with pinite after cordierite) — Prah 
sands, Cornwall. II., Granophyre — Armboth, Cumberland. III., 
Granophyre — Carrock Fell, Cumberland. IV., Rhomben-porphyry 
— Tonsterg, Norway. V., Elaeolite porphyry — Beemerville, New 
Jersey. VI., Tinguaite — Kola. VII., Grorudite — Assynt, Scotland. 

Porphyriks. — The porphyrites as above mentioned are 
intrusive or hypabyssal rocks of porphyritic texture, with 
phenocrysts of plagioclase felspar and hornblende, biotite 
or augite (sometimes also quartz) in a fine ground-mass. The 
name has not always been used in this sense, but formerly 
signified rather decomposed andesitic and basaltic lavas of 
Carboniferous age and older. Both the red porphyry and the 
green porphyry of the ancients are more properly classified in 
this group than with the granite-porphyries, as their dominant 
felspar is plagioclase and they contain little or- no primary 
quartz. Porphyrites occur as dikes which accompany masses 
of diorite, and are often called diorite-porphyrites; they differ 
from diorites in few respects except their porphyritic structure. 
The phenocrysts are plagioclase, often much zoned with central 
kernels of bytownite or labradorite and margins of oligoclase 
or even orthoclase. In a special group there are corroded blebs 
or porphyritic quartz: these rocks are called quartz-porphyrites, 
and are distinguished from the granite-porphyries by the scarcity 
or absence of orthoclase. The hornblende of the porphyrites 
is often green but sometimes brown, resembling that of the 
lamprophyres, a group from which the porphyrites are separated 
by their containing phenocrysts of felspar, which do not occur 
in normal lamprophyres. Augite, when present, is nearly 
always pale green; it is not so abundant as hornblende. Dark 
brown biotite is very common in large hexagonal plates. 
Muscovite and olivine are not represented in these rocks. The 
ground-mass is usually a crystalline aggregate of granular 
felspar in which plagioclase dominates, though orthoclase is 
rarely absent. The Alpine dike rocks known as ortlerites and 
suldenites are porphyrites containing much green or brown 
hornblende and augite; these, however, hardly require a dis- 
tinctive designation. Diorite-porphyrites have almost as wide 
a distribution as granite-porphyries, and occur in all parts of 
the world where intrusions of granite and diorite have been 
injected; they are in fact among the commonest hypabyssal 
rocks. 

To gabbros and norites certain types of porphyrite correspond 
which have the same mineral and chemical composition as the 
parent rocks but with a porphyritic instead of granitic structure. 
Gabbro-porphyrites are not numerous; or rather most of these 
rocks are described as porphyritic basalts and dolcrites. The 
beerbachites are finely granular dike rocks resembling gabbros 



in all respects except in their being less coarsely crystalline. 
Norite-porphyrites have porphyritic plagioclase (labradorite 
usually) with hypersthene or bronzite, often altered to bastite. 
They accompany norite masses in Nahe (Prussia) and Tirol. 
They have vitreous forms which are described as andesitic- 
pitchstones or hypersthene-andesites. 



I. 

II. 
III. 



Si0 2 



64-94 
61-58 
56-85 



A1 2 3 



i7-5o 
18-84 
16-70 



Fe 2 O a 



0-69 
4-68 
5-9= 



FeO 



3-94 
7-13 



CaO 



MgO 



2-59 
6-59 
5-97 



2-83 
2-04 
3-25 



K 2 



3-ii 
1-49 
1-91 



Na 2 



3-44 
4-27 
2-78 



H 2 



1-36 
i-6i 

°'54 



I , Quartz-porphyrite — Lippenhof, Schwarzwald. II., Porphyria 
Esterel, France. III., Norite-porohyrite — Klausen, Tirol. 

(J- S. F.) 

PORPOISE (sometimes spelled Porpus and Porpesse), a name 
derived from the O. Fr. porpeis, for porc-peis, i.e. pig-fish, Lat. 
porcus, pig, and piscis, fish; the mod. Fr. marsouin is borrowed 
from the Ger. meerschwein, although the word is commonly 
used by sailors to designate all the smaller cetaceans, especially 
those numerous species which naturalists call " dolphins," 
it is properly restricted to the common porpoise of the British 
seas {Phocaena communis, or P. phocaena). 

The porpoise, when full grown, attains a length of 5 ft. or 
more; the dimensions of an adult female specimen from the 




Fig. 1. — The Common Porpoise (Phocaena communis). 

English Channel being: length from nose to notch between the 
flukes of the tail, 62^ in.; from the nose to the front edge 
of the dorsal fin, 29 in.; height of dorsal fin, 4J in,; 
length of base of dorsal fin, 8 in.; length of pectoral fin, 9^ in.; 
breadth of pectoral fin, si in.; breadth of tail flukes, 
13 in. The head is rounded in front, and differs from that 
of dolphins in not having the snout produced into a distinct 
" beak " separated from the forehead by a groove. The under 
jaw projects about half an inch beyond the upper. The mouth 
is wide, bounded by stiff immobile lips, and curves slightly 
upwards at the hinder end. The eye is small, and the external 
ear represented by a minute aperture, scarcely larger than would 
be made by a pin, about 2 in. behind the eye. The dorsal 
fin, near the middle of the back, is low and triangular. The 
flippers are of moderate size, and slightly sickle-shaped. The 
upper-parts are dark grey or nearly black according to the light 
in which they are viewed and the state of moisture or otherwise 
of the skin; the under-parts pure white. The line of demarca- 
tion between these colours is not distinct, washes or splashes of 
grey encroaching upon the white on the sides, and varies some- 
what in different individuals. Usually it passes from the throat 
(the anterior part of which, with the whole of the under jaw, 
is dark) above the origin of the flipper, along the middle of the 
flank, and descends again to the middle line before reaching the 
tail. Both sides of the flippers and flukes are black. The an- 
terior edge of the dorsal fin is furnished with a row of small rounded 
horny spines or, rather, tubercles, of variable number. One of 



io6 



PORPORA— PORSON 



the most characteristic anatomical distinctions between the 
porpoise and other members of the Delphinidae is the form of the 
teeth (numbering twenty-three to twenty-six on each side of 
each jaw), which have expanded, flattened, spade-like crowns, 
with more or less marked vertical grooves, giving a tendency to 
a bilobed or often trilobed form (fig. 2). 

The porpoise, which is sociable and gregarious, is usually seen 
in small herds, and frequents coasts, bays and estuaries rather 




Fig. 2. — Teeth of Porpoise. 

than the open ocean. It is the commonest cetacean in the 
seas round the British Isles, and not infrequently ascends the 
Thames, having been seen as high as Richmond; it has also been 
observed in the Seine at Neuilly, near Paris. It frequents the 
Scandinavian coasts, entering the Baltic in the summer; and is 
found as far north as Baffin's Bay and as far west as the coasts 
of the United States. Southward its range is more limited 
than that of the dolphin, as, though common on the Atlantic 
coasts of France, it is not known to enter the Mediterranean. 

It feeds on mackerel, pilchards and herrings and, following 
the shoals, is often caught by fishermen in the nets along with 
its prey. In former times it was a common article of food in 
England and France, but is now rarely if ever eaten, being 
valuable only for the oil obtained from its blubber. Its skin is 
sometimes used for leather and boot-thongs, but the so-called 
"porpoise-hides" are generally obtained from the beluga. 
The Black Sea porpoise (P. relicta) is a distinct species. A third 
species, from the American coast of the North Pacific, has been 
described under the name of Phocaena vomerina, and another 
from the mouth of the Rio de la Plata as P. spinipennis. Nearly 
allied is Neophocaena phocaenoides, a small species from the Indian 
Ocean and Japan, with teeth of the same form as those of the por- 
poise, but fewer in number (eighteen to twenty on each side), of 
larger size, and more distinctly notched or lobed on the free edge. 
It is distinguished from the common porpoise externally by 
its black hue and the absence of a dorsal fin. (See Cetacea.) 

(R. L.*) 
PORPORA, NICCOLA [or Niccolo] ANTONIO (1686-1767), 
Italian operatic composer and teacher of singing, was born in 
Naples on the 19th of August 1686. He was educated at the 
Conservatorio di Santa Maria di Loreto. His first opera, 
Basilio, was produced at Naples; his second, Berenice, at Rome. 
Both were successful, and he followed them up by innumerable 
compositions of like character; but his fame rests chiefly upon 
his unequalled power of teaching singing. At the Conservatorio 
di' Sant' Onofrio and the Poveri di Gesu Cristo he trained 
Farinelli, Caffarelli, Mingotti, Salimbeni, and other celebrated 
vocalists. Still his numerous engagements did not tempt him 
to forsake composition. In 1725 he visited Vienna, but the 
Emperor Charles VI. disliked his florid style, especially his con- 
stant use of the tritlo, and refused to patronize him. After this 
rebuff he settled in Venice, teaching regularly in the schools of 
La Pieta and the Incurabili. In 1729 he was invited to London 
as a rival to Handel; but his visit was unfortunate. Little less 
disastrous was his second visit to England in 1734, when even 
the presence of his pupil, the great Farinelli, failed to save the 
dramatic company of Lincoln's Inn Fields theatre, known as the 
" Opera of the Nobility," from ruin. The sequence of dates 
and visits in Porpora's life are variously stated by different 
biographers. The electoral prince of Saxony and king of Poland 
had invited him to Dresden to become the singing master of the 
electoral princess, Maria Antonia, and in 1748 he is supposed 
to have been made Kapellmeister to the prince. Difficult 
relations, however, with Hasse and his wife resulted in his 
departure, of which the date is not knowrt. From Dresden he 



is said to have gone to Vienna, where he gave lessons to Joseph 
Haydn {q.v.), and then to have returned in 1759 to Naples. 
From this time Porpora's career was a series of misfortunes. 
His last opera, Camilla, failed; and he became so poor that the 
expenses of his funeral were paid by subscription. Yet at the 
moment of his death in 1767 Farinelli and Caffarelli were living 
in splendour on fortunes for which they were largely indebted 
to the excellence of the old maestro's teaching. In George 
Sand's Consuelo much use is made of a romantic version of the life 
of young Haydn and his relations with the heroine, Porpora's 
pupil, and with Porpora himself. A good linguist and a man of 
considerable literary culture, Porpora was also celebrated for 
his power of repartee. His operas are, on the whole, tedious and 
conventional; but he produced some good work in the form of 
instrumental music and chamber-cantatas. A series of six 
Latin duets on the Passion (accessible in a modern edition 
published by Breitkopf and Haertel) is remarkable for dignity 
and beauty. 

PORRIDGE (an altered form of " pottage," Fr. potage, 
soup, that which is cooked in a pot), a food made by stirring 
meal, especially oatmeal, in boiling water and cooking it slowly 
until the whole becomes soft. The dish and its name are 
particularly identified with Scotland; in Ireland it is commonly 
known as " stir-about." The former application to a broth 
made of vegetables or of meat and vegetables thickened with 
barley or other meal is obsolete, and the earlier " pottage " 
is the usual word employed. The form " porridge " apparently 
dates from the 16th century. In " porringer," a porridge-bowl, 
the n is inserted as in " passenger," " messenger." 

PORSENA (or Porsenna), LARS, king of Clusium in,Etruria. 
He is said to have undertaken an expedition against Rome 
in order to restore the banished Tarquinius Superbus to the 
throne. He gained possession of the Janiculum, and was 
prevented from entering Rome only by the bravery of Horatius 
Codes (q.v.), Porsena then laid siege to the city, but was so 
struck by the courage of Mucius Scaevola that he made peace 
on condition that the Romans restored the land they had taken 
from Veii and gave him twenty hostages. He subsequently 
returned both the land and the hostages (Livy, ii. 9-15; Dion. 
Halic, v. 21-34; Plutarch, Poplicola, p. 16-19). This story is 
probably an attempt to conceal a great disaster and to soothe 
the vanity of the Romans by accounts of legendary exploits. 
According to other authorities, the Romans were obliged to 
surrender the city, to acknowledge Porsena's supremacy by 
sending him a sceptre, a royal robe, and an ivory chair, to 
abandon their territory north of the Tiber, to give up their 
arms, and in future to use iron for agricultural purposes only. 
It is curious that, in spite of his military success, Porsena made 
no attempt to restore the Tarquinian dynasty. Hence it is 
suggested that the attack on Rome was merely an incident of 
the march of the Etruscans, driven southward by the invasion 
of upper Italy by the Celts, through Latium on their way to 
Campania. This would account for its transitory effects, and 
the speedy recovery of the Romans from the blow. With the 
departure of Porsena all traces of Etruscan sovereignty disappear 
and Rome is soon vigorously engaged in the prosecution of 
various wars (see Tacitus, Hist. iii. 72; Pliny, Nat. Hist, xxxiv. 
39 [14]; Dion. Halic. v. 35, 36, vii. 5). The tomb at Chiusi 
described by Pliny {Nat. Hist, xxxvi. 19) as that of Porsena 
cannot have been his burial-place (see Clusium). 

For a critical examination of the story, see Schwegler, Romische 
Geschichte, bk. xxi. 18; Sir G. Corne wall Lewis, Credibility of Early 
Roman History, ch. xii. 5; W. Ihne, Hist, of Rome, vol. i. ; E. Pais, 
Storia di Roma, i. ch. iv. (1898). Macaulay's Lays of Ancient Rome 
gives a dramatic version of the story. 



PORSON, RICHARD (1759-1808), English classical scholar, 
was born on Christmas Day 1759 at East Ruston, near North 
Walsham, in Norfolk, the eldest son of Huggin Porson, parish 
clerk. His mother was the daughter of a shoemaker named 
Palmer, of the neighbouring village of'Bacton. He was sent 
first to the village school at B acton, kept by John Woodrow, 
and afterwards to that of Happisburgh kept by Mr Summers. 



PORSON 



107 



Here his extraordinary powers of memory and aptitude for 
arithmetic were soon discovered; his skill in penmanship, which 
attended him through life, was due to the care of Summers, 
who became early impressed with his abilities, and long after- 
wards stated that during fifty years of scholastic life he had 
never come across boys so clever as Porson and his two brothers. 
He was well grounded in Latin by Summers, remaining with him 
for three years. His father also took pains with his education, 
making him repeat at night the lessons he had learned in the day. 
He would frequently repeat without making a mistake a lesson 
which he had learned one or two years before and had never seen 
in the interval. For books he had only what his father's cottage 
supplied — a book or two of arithmetic, Greenwood's England, 
Jewell's Apology, and an odd volume of Chamber's Cyclopaedia 
picked up from a wrecked coaster, and eight or ten volumes of 
the Universal Magazine. 

When Porson was eleven years old the Rev. T. Hewitt, 
the curate of East Ruston and two neighbouring villages, 
took charge of his education. Mr Hewitt taught him with 
his own boys, taking him through the ordinary Latin 
authors, Caesar, Terence, Ovid and Virgil; before this he had 
made such progress in mathematics as to be able to solve ques- 
tions out of the Ladies' Diary. In addition to this Hewitt 
brought him under the notice of Mr Norris of Witton Park, who 
sent him to Cambridge and had him examined by Professor 
Lambert, the two tutors of Trinity, Postlethwaite and Collier, 
and the well-known mathematician Atwood, then assistant 
tutor; the result was so favourable a report of his knowledge 
and abilities that Mr Norris determined to provide for his educa- 
tion so as to fit him for the university. This was in 1773. It 
was found impossible to get him into Charterhouse, and he was 
entered on the foundation of Eton in August 1774. 

Of his Eton life Porson had no very pleasant recollections, 
but he was popular among his schoolfellows; and two dramas 
he wrote for performance in the Long Chamber were remembered 
many years later. His marvellous memory was of course 
noticed; but at first he seems to have somewhat disappointed 
the expectations of his friends, as his composition was weak, 
and his ignorance of quantity kept him behind several of his 
inferiors. He went to Eton too late to have any chance of 
succeeding to a scholarship at King's College. In 1777 he 
suffered a great loss from the death of his patron Mr Norris; 
but contributions from Etonians to aid in the funds for his 
maintenance at the university were rapidly supplied, and he 
found a successor to Norris in Sir George Baker, the physician, at 
that time president of the college of physicians. Chiefly through 
his means Porson was entered at Trinity College, Cambridge, as 
a pensioner on the 28th of March 1778, matriculating in April. It 
is said that what first biassed his mind towards critical researches 
was the gift of a copy of Toup's Longinus by Dr Davies, the 
head master of Eton, for a good exercise; but it was Bentley 
and Richard Dawes to whom he looked as his immediate masters. 
His critical career was begun systematically while an under- 
graduate. He became a scholar of Trinity in 1780, won the 
Craven university scholarship in 1781, and took his degree of 
B.A. in 1782, as third senior jptime, obtaining soon afterwards 
the first chancellor's medal for classical studies. The same 
year he was elected Fellow of Trinity, a very unusual thing for a 
junior bachelor of arts, as the junior bachelors were rarely 
allowed to be candidates for fellowships, a regulation which lasted 
from 1667 when Isaac Newton was elected till 1818 when Connop 
Thirlwall became a fellow. Porson graduated M. A. in 1785. 

Having thus early secured his independence, he turned his 
thoughts to publication. The first occasion of his appearing 
in print was in a short notice of Schlitz's Aeschylus in Maty's 
Review, written in 1783. This review contains several other 
essays by his hand; especially may be mentioned the reviews 
of R. F. Brunck's Aristophanes (containing an able summary 
of the poet's chief excellencies and defects), Weston's Hermes- 
ianax, and Huntingford's Apology for the Monostrophics. But 
it was to the tragedians, and especially to Aeschylus, that his 
mind was then chiefly directed. He began a correspondence 



with David Ruhnkea, the veteran scholar of Leiden, requesting 
to be favoured with any fragments of Aeschylus that Ruhnken. 
had come across in his collection of inedited lexicons and gram- 
marians, and sending him, as a proof that he was not under- 
taking a task for which he was unequal, some specimens of his 
critical powers, and especially of his restoration of a very corrupt 
passage in theSupplices (673-677) by the help of a nearly equally 
corrupt passage of Plutarch's Erolicus. As the syndics of the 
Cambridge press were proposing to re-edit Thomas Stanley's 
Aeschylus, the editorship was offered to Porson; but he declined 
to undertake it on the conditions laid down, namely, of reprint- 
ing Stanley's corrupt text and incorporating all the variorum 
notes, however worthless. He was especially anxious that the 
Medicean MS. at Florence should be collated for the new edition, 
and offered to undertake the collation at an expense not greater 
than it would have cost if done by a person on the spot ; but the 
syndics refused the offer, the vice-chancellor (Mr Torkington, 
master of Clare Hall) observing that Porson might collect his 
MSS. at home. 

In 1786, a new edition of Hutchinson's Anabasis of Xenophon 
being called for, Porson was requested by the publisher to supply 
a few notes, which he did in conjunction with the Rev. W. 
Whiter, editor of the Etymologicon universale. These give the 
first specimen of that neat and terse style of Latin notes in which 
he was afterwards without a rival. They also show his intimate 
acquaintance with his two favourite authors, Plato and 
Athenaeus, and a familiarity with Eustathius's commentary 
on Homer. 

In 1787 the Notae breves ad Toupii emendationes in Suidam 
were written, though they did not appear till 1790 in the new 
edition of Toup's book published at Oxford. These first made 
Porson's name known as a scholar of the first rank, and carried 
his fame beyond England. The letters he received from 
Christian G. Heyne and G. Hermann preserved in the library of 
Trinity College, and written before his Euripides was published, 
afford proof of this. In his notes he points out the errors of 
Toup and others; at the same time he speaks of Toup's book as 
" opus illud aureum," and states that his writing the notes at 
all is due to the admiration he had for it. They contain some 
brilliant emendations of various authors; but the necessity of 
having Toup's own notes with them has prevented their ever 
being reprinted in a separate form. 

During this year, in the Gentleman's Magazine, he wrote 
the three letters on Hawkins's Life of Johnson which have 
been reprinted by Mr Kidd in his Tracts and Criticisms of Porson, 
and in a volume of Porson's Correspondence. They are admirable 
specimens of the dry humour so characteristic of the writer, and 
prove his intimate acquaintance with Shakespeare and the other 
English dramatists and poets. In the same periodical, in the 
course of 1788 and 1789, appeared the Letters to Archdeacon 
Travis, on the spurious verse 1 John v. 7 (collected in 1790 into 
a volume), which must be considered to have settled the question. 
Gibbon's verdict on the book, that it was " the most acute and 
accurate piece of criticism since the days of Bentley," may be 
considered as somewhat partial, as it was in defence of him that 
Porson had entered the field against Travis. But in the masterly 
sketch of Gibbon's work and style in the preface Porson does not 
write in a merely flattering tone. It is to be wished that on 
such a subject the tone of levity had been modified. But 
Porson says in his preface that he could treat the subject in no 
other manner, if he treated it at all: " To peruse such a mass of 
falsehood and sophistry and to write remarks upon it, without 
sometimes giving way to laughter and sometimes to indignation, 
was, to me at least, impossible." Travis has no mercy shown 
him, but he certainly deserved none. One is equally struck with 
the thorough grasp Porson displays of his subject, the amount 
of his miscellaneous learning, and the humour that pervades the 
whole. But it was then the unpopular side: the publisher is 
said to have lost money by the book; and one of his early friends, 
Mrs Turner of Norwich, cut down a legacy she had left Porson 
to £30 on being told that he had written what was described to 
her as a book against Christianity. 



io8 



PORSON 



During the years that followed he continued to contribute 
to the leading reviews, writing in the Monthly Review the articles 
on Robertson's Parian Chronicle, Edwards's Plutarch, and 
R. Payne Knight's Essay on the Greek Alphabet. He gave 
assistance to William Beloe in one or two articles in the British 
Critick, and probably wrote also in the Analytical Review and 
the Critical Review. 

In 1792 his fellowship was no longer tenable by a layman; 
and, rather than undertake duties for which he felt himself 
unfit, and which involved subscription to the Articles (though 
he had no difficulty as to signing a statement as to his conformity 
with the liturgy of the Church of England when elected Greek 
professor), he determined not to take holy orders, which 
would have enabled him to remain a fellow, and thus deprived 
himself of his only means of subsistence. He might have been 
retained in the society by being appointed to a lay fellowship, 
one of the two permanent lay fellowships which the statutes 
then permitted falling vacant just in time. It is said that this 
had been promised him, and it was certainly the custom in the 
college always to appoint the senior among the existing laymen, 
who otherwise would vacate his fellowship. But the master 
(Dr Postlethwaite) , who had the nomination, used his privilege 
to nominate a younger man (John Heys), a nephew of his own, 
and thus Porson was turned adrift without any means of support. 
A subscription was, however, got up among his friends to provide 
an annuity to keep him from actual want; Cracherode, Cleaver 
Banks, Burney and Parr took the lead, and enough was collected 
to produce about £100 a year. He accepted it only on the 
condition that he should receive the interest during his lifetime, 
and that the principal, placed in the hands of trustees, should 
be returned to the donors at his death. When this occurred they 
or their survivors refused to receive the money, and it was with 
part of this sum that, in 1816, the Porson prize was founded to 
perpetuate his name at Cambridge. The remainder was devoted 
to the foundation of the Porson scholarship in the same univer- 
sity. This scholarship was first awarded in 1855. 

After the loss of his fellowship he continued chiefly to reside 
in London, having chambers in Essex Court, Temple — occasion- 
ally visiting his friends, such as Dr Goodall at Eton and Dr 
Samuel Parr at Hatton. It was at Dr GoodalPs house that 
the Letters to Travis were written, and at one period of his life he 
spent a great deal of time at Hatton. While there he would 
generally spend his mornings in the library, and for the most 
part in silence; but in the evenings, especially if Parr were 
away, he would collect the young men of the house about him, 
and pour forth from memory torrents of every kind of literature. 
The charms of his society are described as being then irresistible. 
In 1792 the Greek professorship at Cambridge became vacant 
by the resignation of Mr Cooke. To this Porson was elected 
without opposition, and he continued to hold it till his death. 
The duties then consisted in taking, a part in the examinations 
for the university scholarships and classical medals. It was 
said he wished to give lectures; but lecturing was not in fashion 
in those days, and he did far more to advance the knowledge 
and study of the Greek language by his publications than h6 
could have done by any amount of lecturing. It must be re- 
membered that the emoluments of the professorship were only 
£40 a year. The authors on which his time was chiefly spent 
were the tragedians, Aristophanes, Athenaeus, and the lexicons 
of Suidas, Hesychius and Photius. This last he twice tran- 
scribed (the first transcript having been destroyed by a fire at 
Perry's house, which deprived the world of much valuable matter 
that he had written on the margins of his books) from the original 
among the Gale MSS. in the library of Trinity College. Of the 
brilliancy and accuracy of his emendations on Aristophanes, 
the fragments of the other comic poets, and the lexicographers 
he had a pleasing proof on one occasion when he found how often 
in Aristophanes he had been anticipated by Bentley, and on 
another when Schow's collation of the unique MS. of Hesychius 
appeared and proved him right in " an incredible number " of 
instances. 
In 1795 there appeared from Foulis's press at Glasgow an 



edition of Aeschylus in folio, printed with the same types as the 
Glasgow Homer, without a word of preface or anything to give 
a clue to the editor. Many new readings were inserted in the 
text with an asterisk affixed, while an obelus was used to mark 
many others as corrupt. It was at once recognized as Porson's 
work; he had superintended the printing of a small edition in 
two vols. 8vo, but this was kept back by the printer and not 
issued till 1806, still without the editor's name. There are 
corrections of many more passages in this edition than in the 
folio; and, though the text cannot be considered as what would 
have gone forth if with his name and sanction, yet more is done 
for the text of Aeschylus than had been accomplished by any 
preceding editor. It has formed the substratum for all subse- 
quent editions. It was printed from a copy of Pauw's edition 
corrected, which is preserved in the library of Trinity College. 

Soon after this, in 1797, appeared the first instalment of what 
was intended to be a complete edition of Euripides — an edition 
of the Hecuba. 

In the preface he pointed out the correct method of writing 
several words previously incorrectly written, and gave some 
specimens of his powers on the subject of Greek metres. The 
notes are very short, almost entirely critical; but so great a 
range of learning, combined with such felicity of emendation 
whenever a corrupt passage was encountered, is displayed that 
there was never any doubt as to the quarter whence the new 
edition had proceeded. He avoided the office of interpreter in 
his notes, which may well be wondered at on recollecting how 
admirably he did translate when he condescended to that branch 
of an editor's duties. 

His work, however, did not escape attack; Gilbert Wakefield 
had already published a Tragoediarum delectus; and, conceiving 
himself to be slighted, as there was no mention of his labours in 
the new Hecuba, he wrote a " diatribe extemporalis " against it, 
a tract which for bad taste, bad Latin and bad criticism it would 
not be easy to match. Gottfried Hermann of Leipzig, then a 
very young man, who had also written a work on Greek metres, 
which Dr Elmsley has styled " a book of which too much ill 
cannot easily be said," issued an edition of the Hecuba, in which 
Porson's theories were openly attacked. Porson at first took 
no notice of either, but went on quietly with his Euripides, 
publishing the Orestes in 1798, the Phoenissae in 1799 and the 
Medea in 1 801, the last printed at the Cambridge press, and with 
the editor's name on the title-page. But there are many allu- 
sions to his antagonists in the notes on such points as the final 
v, the use of accents, &c; and on v. 675 of the Medea he holds up 
Hermann by name to scorn in caustic and taunting language. 
And it is more than probable that to Hermann's attack we owe 
the most perfect of his works, the supplement to the preface to 
the Hecuba, prefixed to the second edition published at 
Cambridge in 1802. The metrical laws promulgated are laid 
down clearly, illustrated with an ample number of examples, and 
those that militate against them brought together and corrected, 
so that what had been beyond the reach of the ablest scholars of 
preceding times is made clear to the tyro. The laws of the 
iambic metre are fully explained, and the theory of the pause 
stated and proved, which had been only alluded to in the first 
edition. A third edition of the Hecuba appeared in 1808, and 
he left corrected copies of the other plays, of which new editions 
appeared soon after his death; but these four plays were all that 
was accomplished of the projected edition of the poet. Porson 
lived six years after the second edition of the Hecuba was 
published, but his natural indolence and procrastination led 
him to put off the work. He found time, however, to execute 
his collation of the Harleian MS. of the Odyssey, published in 
the Grenville Homer in 1801, and to present to the Society of 
Antiquaries his wonderful conjectural restoration of the Rosetta 
stone. 

In 1806, when the London Institution was founded (then 
in the Old Jewry, since removed to Finsbury Circus), he was 
appointed principal librarian with a salary of £200 a year and 
a suite of rooms; and thus his latter years were made easy as 
far as money was concerned. 



PORT— PORTADOWN 



109 



Among his most intimate friends was Perry, the editor of 
the Morning Chronicle; and this friendship was cemented by 
his marriage with Perry's sister, Mrs Lunan, in November 1796. 
The marriage was a happy one for the short time it lasted, as 
Porson became more attentive to times and seasons, and would 
have been weaned from his habits of drinking; but she sank in 
a decline a few months after her marriage (April 12, 1797), and 
he returned to his chambers in the Temple and his old habits. 
Perry's friendship was of great value to him in many ways; but 
it induced him to spend too much of his time in writing for the 
Morning Chronicle; indeed he was even accused of " giving up 
to Perry what was meant for mankind," and the existence of 
some of the papers he wrote there can be only deplored. 

For some months before his death he had appeared to be 
failing: his memory was not what it had been, and he had some 
symptoms of intermittent fever; but on the 19th of September 
1808 he was seized in the street with a fit of apoplexy, and after 
partially recovering sank in the 25th of that month at the age 
of forty-nine. He was buried in Trinity College, close to the 
statue of Newton, at the opposite end of the chapel to where 
rest the remains of Bentley. 

In learning Porson was superior to Valckenaer, in accuracy to 
Bentley. It must be remembered that in his day the science of 
comparative philology had scarcely any existence; even the com- 
parative value of MSS. was scarcely considered in editing an ancient 
author. With many editors MSS. were treated as of much the same 
value, whether they were really from the hand of a trustworthy 
scribe, or what Bentley calls " scrub manuscripts," or " scoundrel 
copies." Thus, if we are to find fault with Porson's way of editing, 
it is that he does not make sufficient difference between the MSS. 
he uses, or point out the relative value of the early copies whether 
in MS. or print. Thus he collates minutely Lascaris's edition of the 
Medea, mentioning even misprints in the text, rather from its rarity 
and costliness than from its intrinsic value. And his wonderful 
quickness at emendation has sometimes led him into error, which 
greater investigation into MSS. would have avoided; thus, in his 
note on Eur., Phoem. 1373 an error, perhaps a misprint (k« for ixt), 
in the first edition of the scholiast on Sophocles has led him into 
an emendation of v. 339 of the Trachiniae which clearly will not 
stand. But his most brilliant emendations, such as some of those 
on Athenaeus, on the Supplices of Aeschylus, or, to take one single 
instance, that on Eur. Helen. 751 (0(8' "EXeros for oiScf ye; see 
Maltby's Thesaurus, p. 299), are such as convince the reader of their 
absolute certainty ; and this power was possessed by Porson to a 
degree no one else has ever attained. No doubt his mathematical 
training had something to do with this; frequently the process may 
be seen by which the truth has been reached. 

A few words are called for on his general character. No one ever 
more loved truth for its own sake; few have sacrificed more rather 
than violate their consciences, and this at a time when a high 
standard in this respect was not common. In spite of his failings, 
few have had warmer friends; no one more willingly communicated 
his knowledge and gave help to others; scarcely a book appeared 
in his time or for some years after his death on the subjects to 
which he devoted his life without acknowledging assistance from 
him. And, if it be remembered that his life was a continued struggle 
against poverty and slight and ill-health, rather than complain that 
he did little, we should wonder how he accomplished so much. 

His library was divided into two parts, one of which was sold by 
auction; the other, containing the transcript of the Gale Photius, 
his books with MS. notes, and some letters from foreign scholars, 
was bought by Trinity College for 1000 guineas. His notebooks 
were found to contain, in the words of Bishop Blomfield, " a rich 
treasure of criticism in every branch of classical literature — every- 
thing carefully and correctly written and sometimes rewritten — 
quite fit to meet the public eye, without any diminution or addition/' 
They have been carefully rearranged, and illustrate among other things 
his extraordinary penmanship and power of minute and accurate 
writing. Much remains unpublished. J. H. Monk, his successor as 
Greek professor, and C. J. Blomfield (both afterwards bishops) 
edited the Adversaria, consisting of the notes on Athenaeus and the 
Greek poets, and his prelection on Euripides; P. P. Dobree, after- 
wards Greek professor, the notes on Aristophanes and the lexicon 
of Photius. Besides these, from other sources, Professor T. Gaisford 
edited his notes on Pausanias and Suidas, and Mr Kidd collected 
his scattered reviews. And, when Bishop Burgess attacked his 
literary character on the score of his Letters to Travis, Professor 
Turton (afterwards Bishop of Ely) came forward with a vindication. 
The chief sources for Porson's life will be found in the memoirs in 
the Gentleman's Magazine for September and October 1808, and 
other periodicals of the time (mostly reprinted in Barker's Porson- 
iana, London, 1852) ; Dr Young's memoir in former editions of 
the Ency. Brit, (reprinted ibid, and in his works); Weston's 
(utterly worthless) Short Account of the late Mr Richard Porson 



(London, 1808; reissued with a new preface and title-page in 1814); 
Dr Clarke's narrative of his last illness and death (London, 1808; 
reprinted in the Classical Journal) ; Kidd's " Imperfect Outline of the 
Life of R.P.," prefixed to his collection of the Tracts and Criticisms; 
Beloe's Sexagenarian (not trustworthy), vol. i. (London, 181 7); 
Barker's Parriana, vol. ii. (London, 1829); Maltby's " Porsoniana," 
published by Dyce in the volume of Recollections of the Table-Talk 
of Samuel Rogers (London, 1856); a life in the Cambridge Essays 
for 1857 by H. R. Luard ; and a lengthy life by J. S. Watson (London, 
1861). See also R. C. Jebb in Diet. Nat. Biog., and J. E. Sandys, 
History of Classical Scholarship, ii. 424-430 (with copy of portrait 
by Hoppner; 1908). 

The dates of Porson's published works are as follows: Notae 
in Xenophontis anabasin (1786); Appendix to Toup (1790); Letters 
to Travis (1790); Aeschylus (1795, 1806); Euripides (1797-1802); 
collation of the Harleian MS. of the Odyssey (1801); Adversaria 
(Monk and Blomfield, 1812); Tracts and Criticisms (Kidd, 1815); 
Aristophanica (Dobree, 1820); Notae in Pausaniam (Gaisford, 
1820); Photii lexicon (Dobree, 1822); Notae in Suidam (Gaisford, 
1834) ; Correspondence (Luard, edited for the Cambridge Antiquarian 
Society, 1867). Dr. Turton's vindication appeared in 1827. 

(H. R. L.;J. E. S.*) 

PORT. (1) (From the Lat. partus, harbour), a place to which 
ships may resort for the unloading or taking in of cargo, or for 
shelter, a harbour, also a town possessing such a harbour, a 
" seaport," or " seaport town," especially one where custom- 
house officers are stationed. As the name of a dark red Portu- 
guese wine, the word is a shortened form of Oporto, i.e. the port, 
the chief centre of the wine-shipping trade of Portugal (see 
Wine). (2) (Through the Fr. porte, from Lat. porta, gate), 
an entrance or opening, not often used in the sense of gate, 
except in such compounds as " sallyport," cf. " portcullis," 
and in the derivative "porter," a keeper of a door or gate, 
especially of a public building, hotel, college, &c. The most 
general use of the word is for an opening for the admission of 
light and air in a ship's side, and formerly in ships of war for 
an embrasure for cannon, a " port-hole." For the application 
of the word to the left side of a ship, taking the place of the 
earlier " larboard," and its disputed origin, see Starboard and 
Larboard. (3) (Through the Fr. porter, from Lat. portare, 
to carry, bear), properly outward bearing or deportment, 
whence " portly," originally of dignified or majestic bearing, 
now chiefly used in the sense of stout or corpulent. The verb 
" to port " is only used as a military term " to port arms," 
i.e. to hold the rifle across and close to the body, the barrel 
being placed opposite to the left shoulder. Derivatives are 
"port-fire" (Fr. porte-feu), a fuse for firing rockets, &c, 
and formerly for the discharge of artillery, and " porter," i.e. 
one who carries a burden, particularly a servant of a railway 
company, hotel, &c, who carries passengers' luggage to and 
from a station, &c. The term " porter " has been applied, 
since the 18th century, to a particular form of beer, dark brown 
or almost black in colour (see Beer and Brewing). The finer 
kinds of this beer are generally now known as " stout." The 
name is almost certainly due to the fact that it was from the 
first a favourite drink among the London " porters," the street 
carriers of goods, luggage, &c, and in early uses the drink is 
called porter's ale, porter's beer,